The seminar presentation is available here.

Report
Teaching Module German 1st Year
Sport and Society –
The FIFA World Cups 2006 and 2010
1 „Fußball“ in Germany: Basic Facts
• 6.5 mio organized members of the F.A.: 8% of the population
= largest single sports association of the world
• German Football Association: Deutscher Fußballbund – DFB
• Organized in 27,000 clubs
• High Performance Sport: 3 professional leagues (men)
– Erste Bundesliga / Zweite Bundesliga / Dritte Bundesliga
• Mass participation sport
– Leagues down to local level
– 7 organized youth group levels (G-Youth: 4-6 ... A-Youth 16-18)
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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1 „Fußball“ in Germany: History (1)
• Imported from Britain in Germany 1873 (10 years after
the founding of the British F.A.)
• Rejected by movement of „Gymnastics“
– „The English disease“ - Historical and political reasons
– Sport and aristocracy
– Sport and values
• 1875 first Football rules in German
• 1875 first German club (Braunschweig); ’74 Dresden
English F.C.
• 1900 Founding of the „DFB“
• First German champion 1900: VfB Leipzig
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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1 „Fußball“ in Germany: History (2)
• Alternative associations: Workers F.A. – Bourgeoise F.A.
/ Catholic F.A. – separate championships
• National Socialism: Greater Germany league
– Banning of workers association and others
– Streamlining, anti-semitism, prosecution of members of
banned political groups
– Football and masses
– DFB Nazi obedient
• After WW II: separate West and East F.A.
– International recognition: DFB 1950, DFV (East) 1952
• 1954 first World Cup win: „miracle of Bern“
• 1963: founding of the united „Bundesliga“ (West GER)
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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1 „Fußball“ in Germany: History (3)
• 1970s: rise of Bayern Munich as most successful
German football club
• Host of World Cups 1974 and 2006 and European
championship 1988
• 1974: first and only encounter of the national
teams of East and West Germany
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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2 „Fußball“ in Germany: The National Team
• First match 1908: SUI – GER 5-3
• Little success in early years
• First WC appearance 1934 in Italy: Third rank
• 1954: surprise winner of the WC in Switzerland
– Mythologized in German historical memory: „miracle“
– Re-birth of a nation within the international community?
Continuity of German superiority phantasies?
• World Champion 1974 (Munich), 1990 (Rome)
• WC final 1966 (London), 1982 (Madrid), 1986
(Mexico), 2002 (Tokyo)
• European Champion 1996 (London)
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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3 World Cup Germany 1974
• Two mega-events ’72 and ’74: success of West
German sport diplomacy – détente in Cold War era
• ’72 Olympics: kidnapping and killing of Jewish team
members by terrorists  ’74 sterile high-security
games
• „games of friendship and fair-play“ (but no slogan)
• Cold War and encounter of the 2 German teams
• Germany champion, but Netherlands show
modernity
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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3 World Cup Germany 1974 - Legacy
• 40 Mio DM revenues – only 10% to FIFA
• New Olympia-Stadion Munich for 1972 / 74:
iconic architecture
• First WC fully covered in colour TV
• First participation of an African team (Zaire) –
turn to global participation in the WC begins
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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1974 World Cup Host Cities
Dr Ralf Hermann
2006 World Cup Host Cities
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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3 World Cup Germany 2006
• 2000 bid – one vote ahead of South Africa
• Unified Germany in a block-free world
• Slogan: „Die Welt zu Gast bei Freunden“ / „A time
to make friends“
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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3 World Cup Germany 2006
• Nation branding and image campaigns
– e.g. Walk of Ideas
• Cultural fringe programme and public viewing
• Street Soccer World Cup
• German flags – new nationalism?
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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3 World Cup Germany 2006: Legacy
• Modernisation of infrastructure and stadiums
• Macro-economic effects controversial
• Tourism: high ex-ante estimates, not realistic
• Retail effects marginal
• Employment effects, but rather short term
(50,000 vs. 2000)
• Economic counter-effects: „Crowding-out Effect“,
„Carnival Effect“, „Time Switching“, „Auction“ and
problematic spending priorities (Männig)
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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3 World Cup Germany 2006: Legacy
• Significant ‚intangible effects‘
– External image
– Self-perception
– Culturisation of the event
– Group participation
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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3 World Cup Germany 2006: Legacy
Euro 1996
World Cup 2006
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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3 World Cup Germany 2006: Legacy
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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3 World Cup Germany 2006: Legacy
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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3 World Cup Germany 2006: Legacy
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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3 World Cups in Germany: 2006 Legacy
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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3 Previous World Cups: Legacy
"Je trouve artificiel de faire venir des joueurs de l'étranger et de les baptiser
Equipe de France. […] On pourrait les appeler autre chose. Je n’ai jamais cru que
[ces] onze messieurs représentaient la France ! " Jean-Marie Le Pen en 1996
« Black – Blanc – Bleu » - « L’Équipe multicolore ». Celebrations on the Champs Éliysées
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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3 Previous World Cups: Legacy
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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3 World Cups in Germany: 2006 Legacy
Wolfgang Männig:
•
Short-run economic benefits are not the main aspect/ argument of
(large) sport events (exception: feelgood)
•
Potentially positive long-run effects: novelty effect and nation´s
international perception
•
Experience from landmark buildings: centrally located, saving
infrastructure, at the Waterfront , architectually innovative and
„unpractical“
•
Stadia for Germany 2006 fail, but for SA 2010 meet these principles
•
Good chances for South Africa: less crowding-out; no couch potatoeffect; no carneval effect; more potential for improvement in
international perception
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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4 „Fußball“ and social change
„Regel: Wer mitbekommt, was sich im Fußball wann und wie verschiebt, ist über
andere Gesellschaftsbereiche osmotisch informiert.“ –
Klaus Theweleit, Tor zur Welt. Fußball als Realitätsmodell
•
•
•
•
•
e.g. Football and social participation (classes, genders)
e.g. Football and social organisation (roles, leadership, team)
e.g. Football and economics (professionalisation)
e.g. Football and education (sport academies)
e.g. Football and integration
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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4 „Fußball“ and social change
Champions 1954
Champions 1974
Champions 1990
Toni Turek
Jupp Posipal
Werner Kohlmeyer
Horst Eckel
Werner Liebrich
Karl Mai
Helmut Rahn
Max Morlock
Ottmar Walter
Fritz Walter
Hans Schäfer
Sepp Maier
Berti Vogts
Franz Beckenbauer
Karl-Heinz Schwarzenbeck
Paul Breitner
Rainer Bonhof
Uli Hoeneß
Klaus Overath
Jürgen Grabowski
Gerd Müller
Bernd Hölzenbein
Bodo Illgner
Klaus Augenthaler
Guido Buchwald
Jürgen Kohler
Andy Brehme
Thomas Berthold
Thomas Häßler
Pierre Littbarski
Lothar Matthäus
Rudi Völler
Jürgen Klinsmann
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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4 „Fußball“ and Social Change - Migration
Patrick Owomoyela – German-Nigerian
parents, born in Hamburg
DariusWosz Polish parents,
born in Slask
Sami Khedira – German-Tunisian
parents, born in Stuttgart
David Odonkor – GER-Ghanaian parents, b. in Bünde
Mustafa Dogan –
Turkish parents:
first Turkish descendant to play
for Germany 1999
Miroslav Klose –
b. in Opole, Polish
German minority
Gerald Asamoah
– Ghanaian
parents,
immigration
1990, citizenship
2001
Dr Ralf Hermann
Lukas
Mesut Özil – b.
Podolski – Gelsenkirchen,
b. in
3rd generation
Gliwice,
of Turkish
GER-POL
immigrants
dual citizen
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
Serdar Tasci - b.
Esslingen, 3rd
generation of Turkish
immigrants
Cacau – b. in
Brazil, from
2001 in
Germany, 2009
citizenship
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4 „Fußball“ and Social Change „Frauenfußball“ in Germany
• Attempts in 1920 and 1955 failed: prohibited by DFB
• 1970: unbanning – first local leagues
• 1974: First German Champion
• 1982: First national match, GER-SUI 5-1
• 1989: European Champion – first live TV broadcast;
Euro titles 1991, 95, 97, 2001, 05, 09
• 1990: Women‘s Bundesliga
• World Champion 2003, 2007; Host 2011
• Still amateur status and small budgets
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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5 „Soccer“ in South Africa
• Indigenous roots of athletic practices + colonial
influence
• 1862 first match: British soldiers vs. civilians in CT
• Popular among British decendants – Rugby +
Football
• Rise of black football:
– Missionary school (from 1870s)
– Working class clubs – industrialization and urbanization
– Rugby and „Soccer“ disintegrate: 1919 first Afrikaner
rugby club, Stellenbosch; football becomes black domain
• First centres: Durban – 7 clubs in 1910  47 in
1935; later: Rand – migrant workers
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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5 „Soccer“ in South Africa
• Natal Football Association 1882, Football
Association of SA 1892
• South African Indian Football Association 1903
(Black and Coloured Associations 1933 and 36)
• Diqualification from CAF tournaments 1957
• FIFA suspension 1961 and expulsion 1976 (Soweto)
• 1991 SAFA
• 1992 first international match: SA-Cam 1-0
• 1996 AFCON champion
• WC participants 1998 and 2002
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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Main references
• Alegi, Peter: Laduma. Soccer, Politics and Society in South Africa,
Durban 2004
• Eisenberg, Christiane (ed.): Fußball, soccer, calcio, Munich 1997
• Heinrich, Arthur: Der Deutsche Fußballbund. Eine politische
Geschichte, Cologne 2000
• Korr, Chuck / Close, Marvin: More Than Just A Game. Soccer vs
Apartheid, London 2008
• Pillay, Udesh / Tomlinson, Richard / Bass, Orli: Development and
Dreams. The Urban Legacy of the 2010 Football World Cup, Cape
Town 2009
• Theweleit, Klaus: Tor zur Welt. Fußball als Realitätsmodell,
Cologne 2004
Dr Ralf Hermann
German Studies First Year 2010: World Cup Lecture
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