CDR Cell

Corporate Debt Restructuring
March 31, 2014
The Genesis
 Need for evolving a mechanism for addressing
stress on bank assets due to external reasons
in the economy and also some internal
 Need for a formal, transparent & structured
approach in a multi-lender environment
Need to preserve stakeholder value
Provide timely and transparent mechanism to
restructure corporate debts of viable entities.
Minimize losses to Banks and other interested
parties on account of avoidable company failures.
Pre-empt companies being put to unnecessary
Prevent failure on the part of Banks to restructure
for want of agreement among themselves.
The Evolution
CDR mechanism put in place by RBI in August 2001
Eligibility: Corporates with exposure of Rs.20 crore and
Standard & Substandard accounts eligible.
 Willful defaulters and cases of misfeasance not
 Secured creditors with minimum 20% share in either
WC or TL can refer a case to CDR.
75% of secured creditors by value agreeing to
restructuring will be binding on the rest.
February 2003 – High Level Group – Mr Kamesan
Doubtful accounts can also be restructured.
Two Categories of borrowers: Category I (Standard &
Substandard A/cs) and Category II (Doubtful A/cs).
Viability bench marks suggested.
Decision of CDR EG is final.
Exit option built in.
Provision of additional finance.
November 2005 – Special Group – Mrs Shyamala Gopinath
Reduction of eligibility to outstanding exposure of Rs.10 crore.
Support of 60% of creditors by number in addition to 75% by
Discretion to Core Group for dealing with wilful defaulters in
cases not involving frauds or diversion of funds with malafide
Regulatory concession in asset classification based on certain
OTS as a part of CDR mechanism.
Limiting RBI’s role to guidelines.
RBI Circular of Aug 27, 2008 superseding all earlier guidelines
Non–statutory mechanism based on ICA & DCA with “Stand
still” clause and penal provisions built in.
Viability should be determined by banks – parameters
included ROCE, DSCR, Gap in IRR & Cost of funds, Sacrifice.
Special Regulatory Treatment – Pre-conditions for restoration
of asset classification and up-gradation on satisfactory
Conversion of principal into debt instruments / equity
Decision on the basis of super majority, binding on others.
Sharing of additional finance - priority in recovery.
‘Holding on operations’ and OTS / NS as part of restructuring.
Mahapatra Committee – May 2013
Asset Classification - Impaired asset classification for all
cases of restructuring effective from April 1, 2015 and for 2nd
restructuring cases immediately.
Existing relaxations in asset classification for DCCO to
continue in case of project loans.
Enhanced Provisioning requirement for standard
restructured assets from 2% to 5% in a phased manner.
Tightening of viability criterion- 5 years for non infra and 8
years for infra (reduced from 8 years and 10 years)
Mahapatra Committee – May 2013 (contd.)
Promoter contribution to be 20% of lenders sacrifice or 2%
of restructured debt which ever is higher, as against 15% of
lender sacrifice.
Personal guarantee of promoters made mandatory .
Recompense made mandatory in non-CDR cases too.
Limited flexibility given for recovery of recompense
Cap of 10% on debt to equity swap. Permitted only for listed
Framework for revitalizing distressed assets – January 2014
Creation of three sub-categories of Special Mention
Accounts – SMA 0 (incipient stress) , SMA 1 ( overdue 31 to
60 days) & SMA 2 ( overdue 61 – 90 days).
Reporting SMA accounts with aggregate exposure of Rs.5
crore and above to CRILC.
Mandatory JLF for resolution in case of SMA 2 accounts with
aggregate exposure of Rs 100 crore and above.
Framework for revitalizing distressed assets –
January 2014 (contd.)
Independent Evaluation Committee in case of CDR
restructuring beyond Rs 500 crore.
New category – Non Co-operative Borrowers.
Accelerated provisioning trigger for non compliance / nonadherence by lenders.
 General Body of all members represented by their Chairperson.
 Self empowered body to lay down policies and guidelines.
 Can review individual decisions of the CDR Empowered Group
 The Forum to meet once in six months
CDR Core Group carved out of the Forum comprising Chairperson
CDR Core Group takes policy related decisions on behalf of the
CDR Empowered Group (EG)
EG to consist of ED level representative of IDBI, ICICI and SBI as
standing members, in addition to all other members
Representative should have general authorization by the
Boards of the participating FIs / Banks to take decisions
regarding restructuring
 EG to decide on restructuring of individual cases within a time
frame of 90 days or maximum 180 days with the approval of
Core Group
The decision of EG shall be final
CDR Cell
Comprising officials on deputation from Core Group member Banks.
Other Supporting staff outsourced.
To assist the Forum and the Group in all their functions.
All references for restructuring are made to CDR Cell.
Initial scrutiny of proposals received to decide whether the proposal is
prima facie viable
Scrutiny of Final package to ensure adherence to RBI/CDR guidelines.
Issuance of LOA and any other directions given by CDR EG.
Monitoring overall progress in respect of sanctioned cases.
Admission Criterion
Loan assets with an aggregate debt outstanding of Rs 10 crore and
above and involving at least two lenders.
The case may be referred by any lender with exposure of minimum
20% by value. A corporate can also refer its case with letter of support
from a lender or lenders with exposure of 20% by value.
Cases of fraud and misfeasance are ineligible.
Cases of willful default may be considered if permitted by Core Group
depending on case specifics.
BIFR cases are eligible subject to approval of Core Group and with
certain additional conditions.

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