Strategy for each demand centre

Report
Strategy For Each Water Demand
Centre
The Crocodile River Catchment
Nelspruit
Areas Included:
– Mataffin
– Agricultural
College
– Matumi Golf
Course
Water Balance For Nelspruit Without
Interventions
Nelspruit Domestic Water Use
Currently: 468 litres per capita per day
Far above the norm!
More reasonable use: 250 litres/c/d + 30% losses
= 325 litres/c/d
This is approximately 30% less than current
domestic use!
Water Balance For Nelspruit with
250 litres/c/d for domestic use
Current
Reasonable Norm
Intervention Options For Nelspruit
Envisaged
Intervention
Expected Expected Time to
Starting Full Yield/
Benefit
million m3/a
Date Saving (Y)
WC/WDM (15%)
1.9
2014
5
Removal of IAPs
2
2014
16
Groundwater development
0.1
2014
1
Dam Option (e.g. Boschjeskop)
19.5
2018
5
Water Balance For Nelspruit With
Interventions – No Dam
IAPs Removal
Resource
Water Balance For Nelspruit With
Interventions & Boschjeskop Dam
Boschjeskop Dam
IAPs Removal
Resource
Water Balance For Nelspruit With
Interventions & Boschjeskop Dam
Boschjeskop Dam
IAPs Removal
Resource
Conclusions For Nelspruit
• Low growth water demand scenario can be fully satisfied
over the entire planning horizon without a dam
• 15% WC/WDM saving for Nelspruit is very conservative.
Current use is 468 litres/capita/day. Nelspruit should be
able to save 30%
• With 30% WC/WDM saving, the high growth water
demand scenario can be satisfied almost over the entire
planning horizon
• Boschjeskop Dam or alternative dam will be more than
adequate but should be postponed as far in future as
possible
Urgent Actions Required
• Development of the WC/WDM plan and implementation
strategy
• The current IAP removal programme should be checked
and if necessary, the focus areas should be changed
and the programme accelerated.
• Borehole siting for southern area of Nelspruit
Towards Final Strategy – Further
Information Required
• Extent of IAP infestation upstream of Kwena Dam.
• Extent of unlawful irrigation water use in Crocodile River
Catchment. (Validation and Verification process of
ICMA)
• Area of fallow irrigation lands with water entitlements
with no or limited risks of farm workers losing jobs which
can possibly be earmarked for water trading.
White River
Areas Included:
– White River
Country Estate
– Rocky Drift
– Phumulani
Water Balance For White River
Without Interventions
White River Domestic Water Use
Currently: 574 litres per capita per day
Far above the norm!
More reasonable use: 250 litres/c/d + 30% losses
= 325 litres/c/d
This is approximately 43% less than current
domestic use!
Water Balance For White River With
250 l/c/d For Domestic Use
Interventions
Current
Reasonable Norm
Intervention Options For White River
Envisaged
Intervention
WC/WDM (25%)
Expected Expected Time to
Starting Full Yield/
Benefit
million m3/a
Date Saving (Y)
1.0
2014
5
Water Balance For White River With
25% WC/WDM Savings
Conclusions For White River
• Water requirements can be met with the available water
resources throughout the entire planning period
• WC/WDM should be implemented despite the availability
of sufficient water to this area as the water is required
elsewhere
• No further interventions required for White River
Urgent Actions Required
• The tariff structure of White River needs to be revised.
There should be a sliding scale tariff – the more water a
user uses the higher the tariff becomes. Currently it is
just the opposite in White River.
Towards Final Strategy – Further
Information Required
• Different literature sources give different population
figures and water demands. A physical house count has
been done for this study. Consensus must be sought on
what the population for this area should be.
Karino - Plaston Corridor
Areas Included:
– Areas in Nsikazi South
( e.g. Tekwane North,
Mamelodi and
Emoyeni)
– Plaston
– Karino Town
Water Balance For Karino - Plaston
Without Interventions
Karino-Plaston Domestic Water Use
Currently: 814 litres per capita per day
Far above the norm!
More reasonable use: 250 litres/c/d + 30% losses
= 325 litres/c/d
This is approximately 60% less than current
domestic use!
Water Balance For Karino - Plaston
Without Interventions
Current trend
Reasonable norm
Intervention Options For Karino Plaston
Envisaged
Intervention
Operating rules White River
system ( Primkop Dam)
Removal of IAPs
Surplus White River
Expected Expected Time to
Starting Full Yield/
Benefit
million m3/a
Date Saving (Y)
1
2014
1
0.4
2018
12
2
2010
1
Water Balance For Karino – Plaston
With Interventions
IAPs Removal
System Operating
Rules Primkop
Surplus White River
Resource
Conclusions For Karino - Plaston
• The growth in water demand is very steep
• The current water use in Karino-Plaston Corridor is far
above the norm
• A water balance can be achieved with only the surplus
from White River
Urgent Actions Required
• Correct and stabilise water supply abstraction and
distribution system.
• Develop a WC/WDM plan and implementation strategy
for the area. The effect of implementation will only be
observed once the water supply system is stable.
• Initiate a WC/WDM awareness launch asap.
• Develop system operating rules for Primkop Dam.
Towards Final Strategy – Further
Information Required
• Confirm White River town water demand and ascertain
that the White River surplus will be available.
Nsikazi South
Areas Included:
‒
‒
‒
‒
‒
‒
‒
‒
‒
‒
‒
‒
Gutshwa
Kabokweni
Dwaleni
Clau-Clau
Zwelisha
Msogwaba
Spelanyane
Luphisi
Entokozweni
Kanyamazane
Tekwane South
Mpakeni
Water Balance For Nsikazi South
Without Interventions
Karino-Plaston Domestic Water Use
Currently: 263 litres per capita per day
Too high!
More reasonable use: 120 litres/c/d + 30% losses
= 156 litres/c/d
This is approximately 41% less than current
domestic use!
Water Balance For Nsikazi South
With 120 litres/c/d For Domestic Use
Interventions
Current trend
Accepted Norm
Intervention Options For Nsikazi
South
Envisaged
Intervention
Removal of IAPS
Time to
Expected
Expected
Full Yield/
Starting
Benefit
Saving
million m3/a
Date
(Y)
2
2014
16
Surplus From K-Plaston
(White River Allocation)
Varies
2010
20
Surpluses from Nelspruit
Varies
2010
20
Water Balance For Nsikazi South
With Interventions
Surplus from Nelspruit
Including surplus from
Boschjeskop Dam
IAP Removals
Surplus from K-P
Groundwater
Resource
Conclusions For Nsikazi South
• WC/WDM should be implemented but the effect will only be
observed once the water supply and distribution system has
been stabilised.
• MLM is currently over-abstracting from the Crocodile River for
Nsikazi South. This could have a detrimental effect on the
aquatic environment or downstream users.
• MLM will have to reduce their abstraction to the allowed
licence value of 18.3 million mᶟ/a or source additional water
through temporary trading.
• This may result in water restrictions for the demand centre for
the next 7-8 years.
• Once Boschjeskop Dam ( or any other dam option) comes
into operation, Nsikazi South will have adequate water.
Urgent Actions Required
• Correct and stabilise water supply abstraction and
distribution system
• Develop a WC/WDM plan and implementation strategy
for the area and initiate a WC/WDM awareness launch
asap.
• The current IAP removal programme should be checked
and if necessary, the focus areas should be changed
and the programme accelerated.
• Groundwater can be developed to contribute to
overcome the short term water shortages
Towards Final Strategy – Further
Information Required
• Area of fallow irrigation lands with water entitlements
with no or limited risks of farm workers losing jobs which
can possibly be earmarked for water trading.
• The preferred dam option needs to be selected and
implementation considered by means of a feasibility
study
Matsulu
Water Balance For Matsulu –
Without Any Interventions
Matsulu Domestic Water Use
Currently: 353 litres per capita per day
Too high!
More reasonable use: 120 litres/c/d + 30% losses
= 156 litres/c/d
This is approximately 56% less than current
domestic use!
Water Balance For Matsulu With 120
litres/c/d For Domestic Use
Current trend
Accepted Norm
Resource
Intervention Options For Matsulu
Envisaged
Intervention
Expected Expected Time to
Starting Full Yield/
Benefit
million m3/a
Date Saving (Y)
WC/WDM (25%)
1.46
2014
5
Groundwater development
0.2
2014
1
Purchase water entitlements
from irrigators (Temporary)
1.5
2014
1
Surplus from Nsikazi South
Varies
2019
1
Water Balance For Matsulu – With
WC/WDM, GW & Irrigation entitlements
Surplus from
Nsikazi South
Water Trading (Temporary)
Groundwater
Resource
Conclusions For Matsulu
• MLM is currently over abstracting from the Crocodile River.
• WC/WDM and groundwater development will make a
difference but will not achieve the required water balance.
• MLM will have to look at water trading on a temporary
basis
• If the dam option is opted for, Matsulu will also share in
this benefit but then the water balance is reached much
later.
• Water restrictions might have to be implemented during
the first number of years if MLM fails with water trading
Urgent Actions Required
• WC/WDM need to be implemented. A WC/WDM plan
needs to be developed and implemented as a matter of
urgency. 25% saving should be the target as Matsulu
residents currently receive too much water.
• Borehole siting should be done with latest technology
(e.g. radon gas emanation)
Towards Final Strategy – Further
Information Required
• Area of fallow irrigation lands with water entitlements
with no or limited risks of farm workers losing jobs which
can possibly be earmarked for water trading.
• Rainwater harvesting potential.
The Sabie River Catchment
Hazyview
Water Balance For Hazyview Without
Interventions
Hazyview Domestic Water Use
Currently: 485 litres per capita per day
Far above the norm!
More reasonable use: 250 litres/c/d + 30% losses
= 325 litres/c/d
This is approximately 33% less than current
domestic use!
Water Balance For Hazyview With
250 l/c/d For Domestic Use
Current trend
Reasonable norm
Intervention Options For Hazyview
Envisaged
Intervention
Expected Expected Time to
Starting Full Yield/
Benefit
million m3/a
Date Saving (Y)
WC/WDM (15%)
0.9
2014
5
Groundwater development
0.1
2014
1
Water trading
0.3
2014
3
Hazyview With WC/WDM,
Groundwater & Water Trading
Conclusions For Hazyview
• Water restrictions might become necessary over the first
number of years
• Higher WC/WDM savings than 15% might result that the
water trading option becomes unnecessary.
• If Sabie River Reserve is optimised, additional yield may
become available.
Urgent Actions Required
• Development of the WC/WDM plan and implementation
strategy
• Borehole siting in or near Hazyview with latest
technologies
Towards Final Strategy – Further
Information Required
• Rainwater harvesting to be investigated further as option
• Area of fallow irrigation lands with water entitlements
with no or limited risks of farm workers losing jobs which
can possibly be earmarked for water trading.
Nsikazi North
Areas Included:
‒
‒
‒
‒
‒
‒
‒
‒
‒
Nyongane
Nkabeni
Mahushu
Phola
Ngcobaneni
Makoko
Legogote
Malekutu
Khumbula
Water Balance For Nsikazi North
Without Interventions
Nsikazi North Domestic Water Use
Currently, with unlicensed package plants:
184 litres/c/d
Reasonable use: 120 litres/c/d + 30% losses
= 156 litres/c/d
This is slightly less than current domestic use.
However, supply system is unstable and water
supply is frequently interrupted.
Intervention Options For Nsikazi
North
Envisaged
Intervention
Time to
Expected Expected Full Yield/
Starting
Benefit
Saving
million m3/a
Date
(Y)
Groundwater
development
0.2
2014
1
Water trading
4
2014
3
Water Balance For Nsikazi North
With Interventions
Water Trading
Groundwater
Resource
Conclusions For Nsikazi North
• Temporary package plants need to be authorised and
abstraction needs to be continued over the first number of
years.
• Alternatively water restrictions might have to be imposed.
• WC/WDM needs to be implemented but the effect can only
be observed when the supply system has been stabilised
• The optimisation of the Sabie River Reserve could be an
alternative to the water trading option. This is dependent
on the resource classification process of DWA.
Urgent Actions Required
• Correct and stabilise water supply abstraction and
distribution system
• Initiate a WC/WDM awareness launch
• Boreholes to be sited along shear zone
• Validation & Verification to be completed by ICMA
• Policy on water trading to be developed
Towards Final Strategy – Further
Information Required
• Area of fallow irrigation lands with water entitlements
with no or limited risks of farm workers losing jobs which
can possibly be earmarked for water trading.
Facilitated Discussion

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