Fowler - DANTE

Report
A Study of Children and Adolescents
By Karen Jones
• EDUCATION
• Duke University
• Drew Theological Seminary
• 1971 Ph.D. Harvard University,
Religion & Society with focus in
ethics and sociology of religion
• Center of Moral Development at
Harvard School of Education (post
graduate studies)
• TEACHING CAREER
• 1969 – 1975 Harvard Divinity School
• 1975 – 1976 Boston College
• 1977 – 1993 Emory’s Candler School
of Theology
 FUNDAMENTAL
“none of us lives very well without it.”
 UNIVERSAL
“recognizably the same phenomenon in
Christians, Marxists, Hindus & Dinka.”
 INFINITELY VARIED
“each persons faith is unique;”
“inexhaustibly mysterious.”
(Fowler, xiii)
“MAN
god
TRUST IN A
THE
VALUES
CENTER OF
MEANING MAKER”
EARNEST BECKER,
ANTHROPOLOGIST
VALUE
PAUL TILLICH,
THEOLOGIAN
& POWER
RICHARD NIEBUHR,
THEOLOGIAN
Distinct from FAITH, but possible expressions of FAITH:
RELIGION & BELIEF
W. C. SMITH, COMPARATIVE RELIGIONIST, LINGUIST
W. C. Smith states:
RELIGIOUS TRADITION
DOCTRINES
SHARED CENTER OF
VALUE AND POWER
SELF
Love – mutual trust - loyalty
OTHERS
FAITH is triadic or covenantal in shape.
“In its imaginal mode, faith
‘forms into one’ a
comprehensive image of
an ultimate environment,
an environment of
environments, in relation to
which we make sense of
the force field of our lives.”
Fowler, p 28
 Structural
Development Theories & Faith
PIAGET AND KOHLBERG – the push to
examine the structuring activity of faith
 Psychosocial
Development
ERIKSON – focus on the functional aspect of
faith
 Contributions




of Piaget – Kohlberg school
Epistemological focus
Focus on structure of knowing forming
content of knowledge (although not as
distinct in faith development); invariant
sequence
Interactional process (innovative
subject/changing environment)
Normative direction & implications
 Limitations
of Piaget – Kohlberg school

Separated cognition or knowing from
emotion (rational maturity makes matters of
emotion as subjective bias, immaterial)

Very restricted role of imagination in
knowing, unconscious structuring processes
It is with this imaging that Fowler’s research
and observations identified what he calls
“reasonably predictable developmental
turning points in the WAYS faith imagines
and in the WAYS faith’s images interplay
with the communal modes of expression.”
--
Infancy & Undifferentiated
Stage 1
Intuitive – Projective
Stage 2
Mythical – Literal
Stage 3
Synthetic - Conventional
Stage 4
Individuative - Reflective
Stage 5
Conjunctive
Stage 6
Universalizing
1
Does faith development in elementary school &
high school students reflect the formal
descriptions of Fowler’s faith stages associated
with childhood (Stage 2) and adolescence
(Stage 3), respectively?
2
When a faith education community that utilizes
an explicit, structured program of reflection – a
hallmark of Stage 4 Individuative-Reflective
Faith – are high school students likely to exceed
Fowler’s Stage 3?
1
I predict 5th grade students will reflect Fowler’s
2nd Stage of Faith Development and the High
School Seniors (18 yrs. old) will reflect at least
the 3rd Stage.
2
I predict a small percentage of High School
Seniors will be 4th Stage or transitioning to 4th
Stage in the faith education community that
utilizes an explicit, structured program of
reflection.
St. Monica School
Jesuit College Prep
4140 Walnut Hill Rd., Dallas, TX
12345 Inwood Dr., Dallas TX
25 – 5th Grade students
10 – 11 years old
23 – 12th Grade students
18 years old
10-QUESTION SURVEY
1
2
PART I
PART II
PART III
PART IV
Construction
Commitment
Authority
Images
4 questions1
3 questions2
1 question
2 questions
Leak, Loucks and Bowlin, 1999, p.124
Schwartz, 2006, p. 317
PART I - CONSTRUCTION
It is very important for me to…
accept the religious beliefs and values of my church
critically examine my religious beliefs and values.
5th
12th
24%
48%
76%
52%
PART I - CONSTRUCTION
I don’t find value in being exposed to other religions.
It doesn’t bother me to be exposed to other religions.
5th
12th
10%
24%
76%
90%
PART I - CONSTRUCTION
I believe totally the teachings of my church.
I find myself disagreeing with my church over some aspects of faith.
5th
12th
12%
29%
71%
88%
PART I - CONSTRUCTION
I believe that my church…
teaches a complete understanding of what God wants for us &
how we should worship him.
has much to offer, but that other religions can also provide some
religious understanding.
5th
12th
28%
38%
62%
72%
PART II - COMMITMENT
Always true
Often true
Sometimes true
Rarely true
Never true
0
2
4
6
12th
8
5th
10
12
14
PART II - COMMITMENT
Always true
Often true
Sometimes true
Rarely true
Never true
0
2
4
6
12th
8
5th
10
12
14
PART II - COMMITMENT
Always true
Often true
Sometimes true
Rarely true
Never true
0
1
2
3
4
12th
5
5th
6
7
8
9
10
PART III - AUTHORITY
Ask a Priest
Ask a Teacher
Ask my Parent
Ask a Friend
I would think about it, reflect, pray.
0
2
4
12th
6
5th
8
10
12
14
16
PART IV - IMAGES
Everlasting state of joy.
Eternal life.
I don't know, but God will be there.
A garden of Eden.
Other
0
1
2
3
12th
4
5th
5
6
7
8
9
10
PART IV - IMAGES
Stage 2
Form & content from authority, literal, narrative, anthromorphic
I think that God is like a blacksmith who is constantly
working on creating yet another mammal, bird,
reptile, fish, or amphibian. (5th)
I think God is a very nice man who cares for his
people. I think He also loves everything he makes.
(encluding Dinosaurs)  (5th)
PART IV - IMAGES
Stage 3
Unexamined (tacit) images, religious model, mystery & awe,
knowing & loving, as a companion.
God is loving and fair. He is the Father, Son,
and Holy Spirit. He is eternal and good. (5th)
All knowing deity, who loves and respects all.
(12th)
Alpha & Omega, The Man
(2 students, 12th)
PART IV - IMAGES
Stage 4
Process model – God affects the world and the world affects God.
Demythologized to create sense of meaning. Social.
God is all powerful, acts in our lives when we need it,
whether or not we pray to him for help. (12th)
He created the universe in the beginning & has been
looking over it as it transformed through time. #7
(12th))
35%
15%
15%
35%
Grade
Stage 2
Stage 2/3
Stage 3
Stage 4
5th
72%
16%
12%
0
12th
29%
14%
45%
10%
Do 5th graders reflect Stage 2?
The majority, yes – but not exclusively.
Do HS Seniors reflect Stage 3?
Yes, but not exclusively, with a wide
distribution.
 Survey
– too broad, no follow-up questions.
 Survey
questions needed to be more
narrow and simpler for 5th grade students.
 18
year olds were all male.
 Advantage
/ Disadvantage – Catholic
school students only
Works Cited
Fowler, J. W. (1981). Stages of Faith: The psychology of human development and
the quest for meaning. San Francisco, CA: Harper & Row.
Haunz, R. A. (1978). Development of some models of God and suggested
relationships to James Fowler's stages of faith development. Religious
Education, 73(6), 640-655.
Kahoe, R. D., & Meadow, M. (1984). Psychology of Religion: Religion in Individual
Lives. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
Leak, G., Loucks, A., & Bowlin, P. (1999). Development and Initial Validation of an
Objective Measure of Faith Development. International Journal For The
Psychology Of Religion, 9(2), 105-124.
Schwartz, K. D. (2006). Transformations in parent and friends faith support predicting
adolescents’ religious faith. The International Journal for the Psychology of
Religion, 16, 311–326.
Picture credit – Magnet & force field.
http://static.geekbeat.tv/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/Magnetic-Field-Lines-Around-a-Bar-Magnet1.jpg

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