Hilda Cahyani - University of South Australia

Report
Did I switch languages?
I don’t know why,
I just did:
Towards the pedagogical
use of classroom
codeswitching
Hilda Cahyani
School of education
The objective
 To
explore the role of code switching in
the classrooms
Outline
 Bilingualism
and the advantages
 Code switching (CS)
 Types of CS
 The Flaws of CS
 The Functions of CS
 Conclusion
Are
you a bilingual?
How many languages can you
speak?
The relation between bilingual and
individual (adapted from Grosjean 1982,
p.129)
What are the advantages of being a bilingual?
1. It’s
part of our lives
2. Enhances ability to learn
3. Improves multitasking skills
4. better employment opportunities
5. good for your health
6. ways to learn
Do
you code switch and
code mix ?
What is codeswitching (CS)?
Definition of CS
The use of more than one code or
language in the course of a speech
event (Gumperz 1982)
 Two language alternations happening in
“a single discourse, sentence or
constituent” (Poplack 1980 , p.583)
 It is the changing of one language to
another in one particular situation to fit
the purpose of communication

CLASSROOM CODESWITCHING
refers to the alternating use of more than
one languages by any of classroom
participants (Lin 2008)
Types of CS (Poplack 1980)
Inter-sentential CS
Tag CS
Intra-sentential CS
 Inter-sentential
switching occurs at a clause or
a sentence level, where each clause or
sentence is one language or another.
L1
L2
For example:
“Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in
Spanish y termino en espanol”
[Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in
Spanish and finish in Spanish].
‘Tag-switching’: the insertion of a tag phrase
from one language into an utterance from
another language (e.g. you know, I mean,
right)
L1
L2
 e.g
1. a Portugese-English bilingual
(Jalil 2009, p.4)
“I look like Lilica, you know, nunca paro!”
[I never stop!]
2. a Malaysian-English bilingual
“Yeah, kita nak pusing-pusing” [We will hang
out], right, I am free tonight.
Intra-sentential switching takes place within the
clause or sentence, regarded as the most
complex one
CS
e.g.
1. in a Portuguese-English bilingual’s speech
(Jalil 2009, p.4)
“Yeah, I don’t know omeu lugar nesse
mundo…so, something that is weird, like a,
like a, I guess it’s…” [I don’t know my place
in this world..]
2. In an Indonesian-English bilingual:
Well, it’s hard to put it into words.. I just want to
tell you.. Aku sayang kamu banget..
I
don’t wanna loose you. [I really love you]
What about this?
e.g. Dinner-table talk between Hamed (Indonesian,
speaks Indonesian, Khairon(Indian-Australian, speaks
Hindi) and Shadly (South African, speaks English)
(Almansour 2010)
Hamed
Khairon
look happy?
Hamed
Khairon
leaving?
Hamed
Khairon
Hamed
Shadly
: How are you today Khairon?
: Alhamdu lillah I’m fine. What happened you
: Yaah Alhamdu lillah, I finally found booking
: Great. Ma sha Allah. So when are you
: In Sha Allah by the end of next month.
: Bismillah.
: Bismillah. What about you Shadly?
: Amm. Alhamdu lillah this is my last semester.
Is CS useful in the classroom?
The opponents of CS
a.
b.
Monolingual approach
has been promoted in
foreign language
teaching (Krashen 1985;
Macaro 2001; Philllipson
1992)
Two languages should
be compartmentalised
(Cook 2001; Butzkamm
2003)
The proponents of CS
CS can enhance foreign
language learning and
serve communicative and
social functions in foreign
language classrooms
(Littlewood and Yu 2009;
Swain, Kirkpatrick and
Cummin 2010)
The flaws of CS
A sign of linguistic deficiency
(Palmer 2009)
A sign of
laziness
(Bathia &
Ritchie
2004)
Limited
exposures
(Cook
2001)
Informal
register
(Timm 1993)
Functions of Teachers’ CS
(Mattson & Burenhult 1999, p.61)
To increase students’ understanding
of L2 (topic switch)
To build solidarity and intimate
relations with the students ( affective
functions)
To transfer the knowledge for clarity
(repetitive functions)
Functions of students’ CS
Functions of students’CS
(Eldridge 1996, p. 305-307)
Equivalence
Floor holding
Reiteration
Conflict control
Conclusion
CS for teachers is dealing with strategies but it is
about ‘language problem’ for the students.
 However CS should be judiciously used for
building a bridge from known to unknown and
can be considered as an important element in
language teaching when used efficiently.
CS can be a danger if the use of L1 is too much
done and threatens the primacy of TL.
References
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Communication 3, 1: 39-49.
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(eds), Handbook of Bilingualism (pp. 336-352). Blackwell Publishing.
Butzkamm, W. 2003. We only learn language once. The role of the mother tongue in FL classrooms: death of a dogma.
Language Learning Journal, Winter 2003, No. 28: 29-39.
Cook, V. 2001. Using first language in the classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review 57(3): 402-423.
Eldridge, J. 1996. Code-switching in a Turkish secondary school. ELT Journal, 50,4: 303-311.
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59-72.
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