Hilda Cahyani - University of South Australia

Did I switch languages?
I don’t know why,
I just did:
Towards the pedagogical
use of classroom
Hilda Cahyani
School of education
The objective
 To
explore the role of code switching in
the classrooms
 Bilingualism
and the advantages
 Code switching (CS)
 Types of CS
 The Flaws of CS
 The Functions of CS
 Conclusion
you a bilingual?
How many languages can you
The relation between bilingual and
individual (adapted from Grosjean 1982,
What are the advantages of being a bilingual?
1. It’s
part of our lives
2. Enhances ability to learn
3. Improves multitasking skills
4. better employment opportunities
5. good for your health
6. ways to learn
you code switch and
code mix ?
What is codeswitching (CS)?
Definition of CS
The use of more than one code or
language in the course of a speech
event (Gumperz 1982)
 Two language alternations happening in
“a single discourse, sentence or
constituent” (Poplack 1980 , p.583)
 It is the changing of one language to
another in one particular situation to fit
the purpose of communication
refers to the alternating use of more than
one languages by any of classroom
participants (Lin 2008)
Types of CS (Poplack 1980)
Inter-sentential CS
Tag CS
Intra-sentential CS
 Inter-sentential
switching occurs at a clause or
a sentence level, where each clause or
sentence is one language or another.
For example:
“Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in
Spanish y termino en espanol”
[Sometimes I’ll start a sentence in
Spanish and finish in Spanish].
‘Tag-switching’: the insertion of a tag phrase
from one language into an utterance from
another language (e.g. you know, I mean,
 e.g
1. a Portugese-English bilingual
(Jalil 2009, p.4)
“I look like Lilica, you know, nunca paro!”
[I never stop!]
2. a Malaysian-English bilingual
“Yeah, kita nak pusing-pusing” [We will hang
out], right, I am free tonight.
Intra-sentential switching takes place within the
clause or sentence, regarded as the most
complex one
1. in a Portuguese-English bilingual’s speech
(Jalil 2009, p.4)
“Yeah, I don’t know omeu lugar nesse
mundo…so, something that is weird, like a,
like a, I guess it’s…” [I don’t know my place
in this world..]
2. In an Indonesian-English bilingual:
Well, it’s hard to put it into words.. I just want to
tell you.. Aku sayang kamu banget..
don’t wanna loose you. [I really love you]
What about this?
e.g. Dinner-table talk between Hamed (Indonesian,
speaks Indonesian, Khairon(Indian-Australian, speaks
Hindi) and Shadly (South African, speaks English)
(Almansour 2010)
look happy?
: How are you today Khairon?
: Alhamdu lillah I’m fine. What happened you
: Yaah Alhamdu lillah, I finally found booking
: Great. Ma sha Allah. So when are you
: In Sha Allah by the end of next month.
: Bismillah.
: Bismillah. What about you Shadly?
: Amm. Alhamdu lillah this is my last semester.
Is CS useful in the classroom?
The opponents of CS
Monolingual approach
has been promoted in
foreign language
teaching (Krashen 1985;
Macaro 2001; Philllipson
Two languages should
be compartmentalised
(Cook 2001; Butzkamm
The proponents of CS
CS can enhance foreign
language learning and
serve communicative and
social functions in foreign
language classrooms
(Littlewood and Yu 2009;
Swain, Kirkpatrick and
Cummin 2010)
The flaws of CS
A sign of linguistic deficiency
(Palmer 2009)
A sign of
(Bathia &
(Timm 1993)
Functions of Teachers’ CS
(Mattson & Burenhult 1999, p.61)
To increase students’ understanding
of L2 (topic switch)
To build solidarity and intimate
relations with the students ( affective
To transfer the knowledge for clarity
(repetitive functions)
Functions of students’ CS
Functions of students’CS
(Eldridge 1996, p. 305-307)
Floor holding
Conflict control
CS for teachers is dealing with strategies but it is
about ‘language problem’ for the students.
 However CS should be judiciously used for
building a bridge from known to unknown and
can be considered as an important element in
language teaching when used efficiently.
CS can be a danger if the use of L1 is too much
done and threatens the primacy of TL.
Almansour, B.S. 2010. On’Non-Arabic speakng’ muslims. Griffith Working Papers in Pragmatics and Intercultural
Communication 3, 1: 39-49.
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(eds), Handbook of Bilingualism (pp. 336-352). Blackwell Publishing.
Butzkamm, W. 2003. We only learn language once. The role of the mother tongue in FL classrooms: death of a dogma.
Language Learning Journal, Winter 2003, No. 28: 29-39.
Cook, V. 2001. Using first language in the classroom. Canadian Modern Language Review 57(3): 402-423.
Eldridge, J. 1996. Code-switching in a Turkish secondary school. ELT Journal, 50,4: 303-311.
Grosjean, F. 1982. Life with two languages. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
Gumperz, J. 1982. Discourse strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Krashen, S.D. 1985. The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. London and New York: Longman.
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(eds), Encyclopedia of Language and Education, 2nd Edition, Vol. 10: Research Methods in Language and Education,
Mattsson, A & Burenhult-Mattson, N. 1999. Code-switching in second language teaching of French. Working Papers 47:
Macaro, E. 2001. Analysing student teachers’ codeswitching in foreign language classrooms: Theories and decision
making. The Modern Language Journal 85(4): 531-548.
Palmer, D.K. 2009. Code-switching and symbolic power in a second-grade two-way classroom: a teacher’s motivation
system gone awry. Bilingual Research Journal 32(1): 42-59.
Phillipson, R. 1992. Linguistic imperialism, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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handbook for the English teachers in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Research Center to Language Acquisition and Education
in Multilingual Societies, Hong Kong Institute of Education.
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to native speakers of Spanish, ed. Henry T. Trueba and Fabian A. Samaniego. Washington, DC and London: The Falmer

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