Chapter 17 Section 2 The Spanish-American War Arbitration • The settlement of a dispute by a person or panel chosen to listen to both sides and come to a decision – The U.S. forced Britain to agree to arbitration over disputed territory in the Western Hemisphere, rather than use their military Yellow Journalism • Sensational news coverage emphasizing crime and scandal – Newspapers were publishing exaggerated reports about the events of the Cuban rebellion in order to get more readers • Told stories of Valeriano “the Butcher” Weyler and barbed wire concentration camps Jingoism • An intense burst of national pride and the desire for an aggressive foreign policy • The U.S. was ready to flex its military muscle How did Yellow journalism and jingoism influence Americans’ views of the Cuban rebellion? • Strengthened American sympathy for the Cuban rebels • Nationalism and a demand for U.S. intervention began to build Steps to War • De Lome LetterInsulted President McKinley-angered the American people • Explosion of the USS Maine in Havana Harbor – We assumed the Spanish did it • Decades later we discover it was an internal boiler explosion…oops What did Secretary of State John Hay mean when he called America’s war with Spain a “splendid little war”? • The war was short and victorious • American deaths in battle were few • America gained access to a great deal of new territory What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris? • Spain recognized Cuban independence • Spain gave the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam to the U.S. for $20million Platt Amendment • The Cuban government could not enter any foreign agreements, must allow the U.S. to establish a naval base on the island, and must give the U.S. the right to intervene whenever necessary How did U.S. policies, such as the Platt Amendment, secure control over it’s newly acquired territories? • Platt Amendment made Cuba into an American “satellite” • The Treaty of Paris made the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto American possessions What methods did the United States use to gain land and influence in the Pacific region? • The U.S. used warfare (Spanish-American War and Filipino War) • Annexation • Treaties • Military and political pressure Sphere of Influence • Areas of economic and political control in China – Russia, Germany, Britain, France, and Japan were all seeking one Open Door Policy • The U.S. was afraid of being left out • The Open Door Policy would give all nations equal opportunity in China (free trade) – Many Chinese resented any foreign influence of any kind As you read, complete this chart listing the effects of U.S. foreign policy on other nations after the Spanish-American War. Philippines • Annexed by the U.S. after Spanish-American War. U.S. soldiers remain there. Fighting between U.S. and Philippines occurs. U.S. occupation continues until 1946. Cuba • President McKinley installed a military government to protect American business interests. • Cuba drafted a constitution in 1900 that did not allow for U.S. involvement. • The U.S. government only agreed to remove its troops if Cuba included the Platt Amendment. • The Platt Amendment remained in place until 1934. It allowed for U.S. naval bases on the island and intervention whenever necessary. Puerto Rico • Did not become independent like Cuba • U.S. kept a military govmt there until 1900 • Foraker Act-U.S. military left, but established a govmt under American control • Would give more control over time to the Puerto Rican people • Eventually gave Puerto Ricans American citizenship Hawaii • Hawaii became increasingly important to United States business interests. • Hawaii also leased Pearl Harbor to the United States as a fueling and repair station for naval vessels. • In 1898, Congress approved the annexation of Hawaii. China • China’s huge population and its vast markets became very important to American trade. • President McKinley’s Secretary of State, John Hay, wrote notes to the major European powers trying to persuade them to keep an “open door” to China. • He wanted to ensure through his Open Door Policy that the United States would have equal access to China’s millions of consumers.