OAA Review Questions

Report
Ohio Achievement
Assessment Review in
Science
Topics Identified on the
Practice Test as,
“I Need To Review!”
Measurement
• Mass is measured by a triple beam balance.
• Volume is measured using a graduated
cylinder or the formula L x W x H (for a solid
rectangular object).
• Density is calculated by Mass / Volume.
• Weight is a measurement of gravity’s effect
on mass; can change based on the amount of
gravity.
Changes to Matter
• Chemical changes alter the things in the reaction
so “new stuff” is created; can’t be reversed easily
(ex: burning, rusting).
• Physical changes change the appearance, but not
the substances; can easily be reversed (ex: state
of matter, shape).
• During any reaction, mass isn’t created or
destroyed. The amount of mass always stays the
same. That’s called the law of conservation of
matter.
Motion
• Motion is defined as changing position over
time.
• Change in motion occurs because forces
acting on the object are unbalanced. When
forces are balanced, there is no change to an
object’s motion (remember the tug-of-war
examples?).
• Speed is one way to measure motion, and is
distance / time (think miles / hour).
Balanced & Unbalanced Forces
Balanced = Motion Doesn’t Change
Unbalanced = Motion Changes
Fossil Fuels
• Fossil fuels form from the fossilized remains of
dead organisms (most likely lived in a swamp or
marsh when alive).
• We burn fossil fuels to generate energy. This
energy is consumed as electricity, gas that cooks
food & heats our house, etc.
• Fossil fuels are not renewable – there is a certain
amount of them on Earth and once they are
gone, they are gone.
• Examples are… gasoline, oil, natural gas, coal.
Renewable Resources
• There is a push to develop renewable sources of
energy.
• Renewable resources are usually less damaging
to the environment.
• Examples: solar (sun), hydro-electric (energy
from moving water), geothermal, nuclear, wind
• These forms of energy have other issues that
limit their wide-spread use, the biggest being
cost to harness the energy and means to store
energy for later use.
Energy Consumption
Think…
• Would you increase or decrease your energy
usage if you turned up your air conditioning?
• What if you turned your heat up?
Energy Consumption
Think…
• Would you increase or decrease your energy usage if
you turned up your air conditioning?
(If you turned up your air conditioning, you would
save energy so it wouldn’t have to work so hard to
bring down the temperature)
• What if you turned your heat up?
(If you turned your heat up, you would increase your
energy usage as it would work harder to maintain a
higher temperature)
Earth’s Motion
• The Earth rotates (spins – causes day/night) and
revolves (makes an orbit – causes years).
• Seasons on Earth are caused by the tilt of the
Earth as it moves around the sun; indirect light
hits during winter (cool) & direct light hits during
summer (hot).
• The northern & southern hemispheres have
seasons exactly opposite of one another.
Earth’s Motion
Weather
• Weather moves from west to east in the United
States.
• Low pressure = cloudy, chance of precipitation;
High pressure = clear skies
Think… there is high pressure on Mother Nature
for nice days!
• Cold fronts (blue, look like icicles) bring cooler
air; Warm fronts (red, look like suns rising) bring
warmer air; Stationary fronts (alternating suns &
icicles) mean the air isn’t moving too much (not a
lot of change)
Weather Map Symbols
Here are the “basic” symbols to
understand. I have blocked
some with these boxes, as they
contain info that is more than
you really need to know.

Clouds
Cells
• Organelles are parts of the cell:
– Nucleus = brain
– Mitochondria = “mighty” creates energy
– ER (Endoplasmic reticulum) = transports messages (like the
ambulance transports to the ER)
– Vacuoles = store water & food
– Ribosomes = “ribs” store protein
– Chloroplasts = only in plants… do photosynthesis
– Cell membrane = lets in & out things from the cell
– Cell wall = provides structure to plant cells
– Cytoplasm = holds everything in place
Cells
• Plant cells are different from
animal cells because they are
usually more organized, have a
cell wall, and may contain
chloroplasts.
• Animal cells are more freeformed shape, less organized,
and contain smaller vacuoles.
Moon Cycle
• The same side of the moon is always being “lit”
by the sun.
• When the moon is in between the sun & Earth,
we can’t see the lit side (new moon).
• When the Earth is between the sun & the moon,
we can see the entire lit side (full moon).
• The above statements are true, unless there is an
eclipse.
• The moon changes its appearance in the sky
because of its change in position relative to the
Earth & the sun.
Moon Cycle
Organisms Interact with
One Another
• Symbiosis or Symbiotic Relationships:
– Parasitic relationship = one organism
benefits & another is harmed.
– Mutualism relationship = both organisms
benefit from the relationship.
– Commensalism = one organism benefits
and the other isn’t affected.
The Rock Cycle
• Igneous rocks form when magma/lava cools
(near volcanoes, think “ignite”)
• Sedimentary rocks for when little “bits” of “stuff”
(called sediments) solidify to become rock
(usually near/under water)
• Metamorphic rocks form when a rock is exposed
to heat & pressure & changes (think “morphs”)
into a new, different rock
• Based on the conditions, rocks are constantly
changing form… that’s the rock cycle!
The Rock Cycle
Weathering & Erosion
• Weathering & erosion
is a process that
breaks down rocks of
Earth’s surface
(weathering),
transferring sediments
to other places
(erosion)
• Deposition is the
building up of
sediments
Plate Boundaries
• Convergent (plates collide) creates subduction
zones (trenches), tall mountains, volcanoes,
earthquakes – crust is destroyed
• Divergent (plates pull apart) creates sea-floor
spreading, ridges, rifts, small mountains, small
volcanoes, earthquakes – crust is created
• Transform (plates slide past) creates
earthquakes
Plate Boundaries
Energy
• Potential energy is
stored (has the
“potential” but isn’t
showing it)
• Kinetic energy is the
energy of motion
• These two are exactly
opposite – when one is
high, the other is low
Types of Energy
• Examples: electrical, mechanical, thermal,
radiant, nuclear, acoustic
• When energy changes from one form to
another, the total amount of energy stays the
same – called the Law of Conservation of
Energy
Tides
• The moon controls
the tides because it is
closer to Earth
(compared to the Sun,
which has more
gravitational pull)
• Tides are highest
when the sun & moon
work together to pull
on Earth’s water
(spring tide)
Experimentation
• When developing an experiment, the controls
are the parts that stay the same between all of
your trials.
• The independent variable is what you
deliberately change to see what will happen.
• The dependent variables are the effects of the
independent variable that you observe as a
result of the change you made.
Slide 1 of 2
Experimentation
• Example: You decide to see what kind fertilizer makes
a plant grow the tallest.
• Controls = amount of sunlight, water, fertilizer given,
temperature of plants; “What do I keep the same?”
• Independent variable = different kinds of fertilizer;
“What did I change?”
• Dependent variable = height of the plants, possibly
the health of the plans that is different because of the
different kinds of fertilizers used; “What do I
observe?”
Slide 2 of 2
Waves
• Waves transfer energy, not matter.
• Examples of waves: earthquake/seismic,
water, light, sound
• Some waves need a medium, or something
to travel through (like sound, seismic) and
some don’t (like light)
• Waves cause energy to spread in all
directions from the source.
Eclipses
• Eclipses occur when the light from one celestial body is
blocked by another:
Lunar eclipse = the moon’s
light is blocked
Solar eclipse = the sun’s light
is blocked

similar documents