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Report
Reduces metabolic
problems, improves fertility
and increases milk yield
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Displaced abomasum £750 (Kingshay 2011)
Ketosis £81 (Cornell University)
Retained placenta £274 (Esslemont 1997)
Metritis £220 (Georgia University)
Poor fertility efficiency linked to incidences of
metabolic problems
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High genetic merit cows depleting reserves
Insufficient energy supply
Rapid weight loss
Fat mobilisation
Suppression of the immune system
Nutrient and Milk Yield Relationships in the
Lactation and Gestation Cycle
Periods
1
2
Body Stores
Used for
Milk Production
3
4
Body Stores
Regained for
Next Lactation
Dry Matter Intake
5
Dry Period
Rumen
Rehab
Freshening
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Month
7
8
9
10
11
12
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Body condition – useful aid but poor system
for pre calvers and fresh as damage done by
the time noticed
High butterfat % in early lactation – a guide to
an indication of problems
NEFA’s – fastest and scientifically accurate
through blood testing
NEFA’s are Non-Esterified Fatty Acids – a
measure of rapid weight loss
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Trial to link NEFA levels with severity of
metabolic problems (Cornell University, 2009)
2758 cows blood sampled 15 days pre partum
and 15 days postpartum
Risk ratios calculated on NEFA levels – how
likely an occurrence of metabolic disease
Problem
DA
CK
MET
Any 3
NEFA above Risk ratio
0.72
0.57
0.36
0.57
9.7
5.0
17
4.4
DA = displaced abomasum; CK = clinical ketosis
MET = metritis; Any 3 = DA, CK or MET
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Increase dry matter intake both pre partum and
postpartum
correct dry matter
barrier space
housing
feed quality
water
management
Feed
Body score loss
<0.5
0.5 – 1.0 >1.0
Days to ovulation
28
38
44
Conception rate to 1st
service (%)
65
53
17
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R Kupczynski, Wroclaw, Poland, 2011
Body condition score
Group
1 week 1 week 3 weeks
pre
post
post
Control
3.75
3.40
3.04
Glycerine 3.78
3.51
3.26
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R Kupczynski, Wroclaw, Poland, 2011
Blood parameters
Group
NEFA’s Pre
calving
NEFA’s post
calving
Control
0.40
1.32
Glycerine 0.30
1.02
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R Kupczynski, Wroclaw, Poland, 2011
Milk yield (litres/cow/day)
Group
Up to 56 days
56-70 days
Control
37.94
46.0
Glycerine
39.17
52.0
Difference +1.23
+6.0
Hippen 2004
Post Calving
Control
Glycerine
NEFA’s
0.624
0.496
Hippen 2011
Post Calving
Control
Glycerine
NEFA’s
0.855
0.458
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Y H Chung, Penn State University, 2007
Urine ketones lower with glycerine (6.8 vs 17.9)
NEFA’s lower
Milk yield same for 21 days, but at 42
days was 6 litres higher (52 litres vs. 46
litres)
“Cows receiving glycerine were in
a better metabolic state than cows
receiving no glycerine”
NEFA BHB Glucose BCS Pre BSC Post
Calving Calving
BCS
Change
Control
1.20
1.60
3.00
3.4
2.5
-0.9
Glycerene
0.80
1.05
3.55
3.3
3.0
-0.3
Difference
-0.40
-0.55
+0.55
-0.1
+0.5
+0.6
Average days Pre Calving: Control 10, Glycerene 6
Average days Post Calving: Control 20, Glycerene 18
Glycerene fed cows were under more stress from being
closer to calving and post calving than the control.
Since using Glycerene, this herd has reduced metabolic
problems by 80%
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Energy deficiency results in rapid weight loss
Best measurement by NEFA’s
Metabolic diseases linked to poor fertility
Metabolic diseases very costly
Reducing NEFA’s reduces metabolic problems
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Dynamite (nitro glycerine)
Skin moisturisers
Antiseptic (mouth wash, cough medicine,
toothpaste)
Moisturising agent for cereal bars, icing
Kills harmful bacteria
Preserves foods
Sweetener
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Glycerine on a dry base – more even mixing;
easier to handle. Trials show the dry product
more effective.
Unique treatment process – reduces up to 35%
losses in the mouth and throat.
Palatable – tastes sweet
Reduces moulds and heating – used in mixes
for keeping TMR cool
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High NEFA cows gave 650kgs less milk
High NEFA cows 14-18% less likely to conceive
650kgs milk = £162.00 (25p/litre)
14% = 50 days on calving index = £250/cow
TOTAL cost of £412/cow with high NEFA’s
Glycerene fed 21days pre & 150 days post
calving costs £42/cow
Benefit
of £370/cow
Benefit of
£370/Cow

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