Introduction to MATLAB 2 Graphics & Functions

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Introduction to MATLAB 2
Graphics
Ian Brooks
Institute for Climate & Atmospheric Science
School of Earth & Environment
[email protected]
GRAPHICS
• Basic Plotting
– Linetypes, markers, colours, etc
• Subplots – creating multiple axes on a single
figure
• Annotating figures – titles, labels, legends
• Editing figure properties
• Other plotting functions
Basic Plotting Commands
• figure
• plot(x)
: creates a new figure window
: plots line graph of x vs index
number of array
• plot(x,y) : plots line graph of x vs y
• plot(x,y,'r--')
: plots x vs y with linetype specified
in string : 'r' = red, 'g'=green, etc for a
limited set of basic colours.
Plot(x,y,…properties)
• Plot(x,y,cml) – plot with a basic colour-markerline combination (cml)
– ‘ro-’, ‘g.-’, ‘cv--‘
– Basic colours : r, g, b, k, y, c, m
– Basic markers : ‘o’, ‘v’, ‘^’, ’<‘, ’>’, ‘.’, ‘p’, ‘+’, ‘*’, ‘x’, ‘s’, ‘h’,
‘none’
– Linetypes : ‘-’, ’--‘, ‘-.’, ‘:’, ‘none’
• More detailed plot options can be specified through
the use of property:value pairs
– Plot(x,y,’o-’,’property’,value)
‘property’ is always a string naming the propery, value may
be a number, array, or string, depending on the property
type:
‘color’ : [R G B] - color (american spelling!) is specified with
a [red green blue] value array, each in range 0-1.
[1 0 0] – pure red
[1 0. 0.5 0] – orange
–
–
–
–
–
‘linewidth’ : specified as a single number. Default = 0.5
‘linestyle’ : any of line type strings - ‘-’,’:’,etc
‘marker’ : any of marker strings – ‘v’, ’o’, etc
‘markersize’ : number, default = 6
‘markeredgecolor’ : color string ‘r’, ‘g’, or [R G B] value for
the line defining edge of marker
– ‘markerfacecolor’ : color string or [R G B] for inside of
marker (can be different from edge)
Can add any number of property:value pairs to a plot
command:
>> Plot(x,y,’prop1’,value1,’prop2’,value2,..)
Property Editor — Axis
Edited objects
Tree of objects
Help
for object
GUI property browser & editor
Access from the figure’s view menu
Subplots
• subplot(m,n,p) : create a subplot in an array of axes
>> subplot(2,3,1);
P=1
P=2
P=3
>> subplot(2,3,4);
m
P=4
n
Adding Text to Figures
• Basic axis labels and title can be added via
convenient functions:
>> xlabel('x-axis label text')
>> ylabel('y-axis label text')
>> title('title text')
• Legends for line or symbol types are added via
the legend function:
>> legend('line 1 caption','line 2 caption',…)
• Legend labels are given in the order lines were
plotted
‘Handle’ Graphics
• MATLAB uses a hierarchical graphics model
– Graphics objects organised according to their
dependencies: e.g. lines must be plotted on axes,
axes must be positioned on figures
– Every object has a unique identifier, or handle
• Handles are returned by the creating function
– ax = subplot(3,2,n)
– H = plot(x,y)
• Handles can be used to identify an object in order to
inspect (get) or modify (set) its properties at any time
Object Hierarchy
The computer desktop
root
Figure window
figure
axes
line
UI-control
light
image
UI-menu
patch
UI-contextmenu
surface
rectangle
text
Objects at any level are considered to be ‘children’ of their ‘parent’ object.
• Properties of an object with handle H, can be
inspected/modified by:
>> value = get(H,'propertyname')
>> set(H,'propertyname',value)
• All property values echoed to screen by:
>> get(H)
• 3 useful functions:
– gcf : get current figure – returns handle of current figure
– gca : get current axes – returns handle of current axes
– gco : get current object – returns handle of current object
Can use these directly, instead of the handle
• Current object is last created (usually), or last object clicked
on with mouse.
>> pp = get(gca,'position')
pp =
0.1300
0.1100
0.7750
0.8150
>> set(gca,'position',pp+[0 0.1 0 -0.1])
The code above first gets the position of the current axes – location of bottom left
corner (x0, y0), width (dx) and height (dy) (in normalised units) – then resets the
position so that the axes sit 0.1 units higher on the page and decreases their height
by 0.1 units.
Other plotting functions
• Matlab has many plotting functions – we will
use a simple data set representing a surface to
try these out.
• Enter the command peaks
z = 3*(1-x).^2.*exp(-(x.^2) - (y+1).^2) ...
- 10*(x/5 - x.^3 - y.^5).*exp(-x.^2-y.^2) ...
- 1/3*exp(-(x+1).^2 - y.^2)
Peaks sets up a regular x and y grid, and defines the function z
given above.
>> peaks;
Peaks is an example function, useful for demonstrating 3D data,
contouring, etc. Figure above is its default output.
P=peaks; - return data matrix for replotting…
>> P = peaks;
>> contour(P)
x and y axes are
simply the row
and column
numbers
- save output of peaks in P
- contour P using default contour values
>> contour(P,[-9:0.5:9]) – contour with specified contour values.
>> [C,h]=contour(P);
>> clabel(C,h);
- capture Contour value and handle
- clabel function adds labels
>> [x,y,P] = peaks;
>> contour(x,y,P,[-9:9])
x and y axes
are true
values
>> contourf(P,[-9:0.5:9]); - filled contour function
>> colorbar
- add colour scale
Pseudocolour plots
An alternative to contouring – provides a continuous
colour-mapped 2D data field
• pcolor(Z) : plot pseudocolour plot of Z
• pcolor(X,Y,Z)
: plot of Z on grid X,Y
• shading faceted | flat | interp
: set shading option
– faceted : show edge lines (default)
– flat : don't show edge lines
– interp : colour is linearly interpolated to give smooth
variation
>> pcolor(P)
Data points are at vertices of grid, colour
of facet indicates mean value of
surrounding vertices. Colours are selected
by interpolating data range into a
colormap
>> shading flat
>> shading interp
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
pcolor(P);shading flat
hold on
contour(P,[1:9],'k')
contour(P,[-9:-1],'k--')
contour(P,[0 0],'k','linewidth',2)
colorbar
colormaps
• Surfaces are coloured by scaling the data range to the
current colormap. A colormap applies to a whole
figure.
• Several predefined colormaps exist ('jet' (the default),
'warm','cool','copper','bone','hsv'). Select one with
>> colormap mapname
>> colormap('mapname')
• The current colormap can be retrieved with
>> map=colormap
>> colormap cool
>> caxis([0 8])
>> colorbar
- caxis function sets the [min max] limits of
the colour scale. Need to refresh colourbar
• Colormaps are simply 3-column matrices of arbitrary
length (default = 64 rows). Each row contains the [RED
GREEN BLUE] components of the colour required,
specified on a 01 scale.
e.g.
>> mymap = [ 0
0
0.1
0
0.1 0.2
0.1 0.2 0.3
.
.
.
.
.
. ]
>> colormap(mymap)
Specialized Plotting Routines
Specialized Plotting Routines (Continued)
Load jun07_all_5km_means.mat
Variables:
• mlat, mlon
- latitude & longitude of measurements
• mT
- mean air temperature
• msst
- mean sea surface temperature
• mu, mv
- mean wind components to east (x) and
north (y)
• mws
- mean wind speed
• Plot the different variables to get a feel for
range of values and relationships between
them.
• Plot positions of the points - geographical
locations
>> load jun07_all_5km_means.mat
>> who
Your variables are:
mT
mlat
mlon
msst
>> plot(mlon,mlat,'o‘)
mu
mv
>> plot(mlon,mlat,'o')
>> hold on
>> quiver(mlon,mlat,mu,mv)
Randomly distributed data can’t be used with contour,
pcolor, surf, etc…data needs to be on a regular grid.
Use meshgrid to generate arrays of x and y on a regular
grid.
X-values required
Y-values required
[XX,YY] = meshgrid([-125.2:0.05:-124],[39.9:0.05:40.8]);
X and Y grids
Use griddata to interpolate mu and mv onto the XX,YY
grid … use system help to check usage
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
[XX,YY] = meshgrid([-125.2:0.05:-124],[39.9:0.05:40.8]);
gmws = griddata(mlon,mlat,mws,XX,YY);
pcolor(XX,YY,gmws); shading flat;
hbar = colorbar;
hold on
h1 = plot(mlon,mlat,'ko');
>>
>>
>>
>>
gu=griddata(mlon,mlat,mu,XX,YY);
gv=griddata(mlon,mlat,mv,XX,YY);
quiver(XX,YY,gu,gv,'k-');
set(h1,'markeredgecolor','r','markersize',5)
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
set(gca,'linewidth',2,'fontweight','bold')
xlabel('Longitude'); ylabel('latitude')
set(hbar,'linewidth',2,'fontweight','bold')
set(get(hbar,'xlabel'),'string','(m s^{-1})','fontweight','bold')
xlabel('Longitude'); ylabel('latitude')
title('CW96 : June 07 : 30m wind field')
>> load mendocinopatch.mat
>> patch(mendocinopatch(:,1),mendocinopatch(:,2),[0.9 0.9 0.9])
Printing
• From file menu:
– ‘print’ to send to a printer
– Export to export to a file (gif, png, jpg, eps,…)
• Better to use command line
> print filename.EXT -dEXT
File-type extension ‘png’, ‘ps’,
‘.eps’ appropriate to file type
you want
Instruction to print
engine to select file
type (same format as a
linux print destination)
> print myfigure.png -dpng
> print myfigure.png –dpng –r300
-rNNN option specifies
print resolution to
NNN dpi
• Common print file types
– .ps
– .eps
– .png
– .jpg
- postscript (full page)
- encapsulated postscript
(embeddable, infinitely scalable
vector graphic – best for publication)
- portable network graphic – best
bitmap image option
- JPEG image NEVER USE THIS!
.png
.jpg
JPEG format is designed for photographic
images with continuously varying tone.
Hard edges suffer compression artefacts –
distortions – ugly, and can make text
impossible to read
.fig files
> hgsave(gcf,’filename.fig’)
Saves the current figure to a .fig file – this is a
complete description of the figure as a set of
matlab handle-graphics objects. Can reload the
figure to make edits later
> hgload(‘filename.fig’)

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