RFID Tags - Hong Kong Baptist University

Report
ISEM 3410
Telecommunications and Networking
in Business
RFID and its applications
1
Group 1
Ng Wing Yiu, Yoyo (10000577)
Chan Wai Po, Ball (10000623)
HuiYi Yuk, Ken (11001542)
Ip Kwan Yuen, Issac (09003495)
Table of Content
1. Background of RFID
2. Concepts
3. Advantages and disadvantages of RFID
4. Application of RFID
5. Further Development
2
Background of RFID
1. Background of RFID (1/4)
 Basic concept behind RFID is same as “Mirror-Sunlight-
Reflection theory ”
 Invented in 1948 by Harry Stockman
 Initial application was during World War II-The United
Kingdom used RFID devices to distinguish returning English
airplanes from inbound German ones
 Commercial Operation begun from 1960’s
1. Background of RFID (2/4)
 RFID = Radio-Frequency Identification
 Briefly the RF stand for “radio-frequency” and ID
means “identifier” that allows an item to be identified,
accessed, stored, reprogrammed and communicated by
using radio waves
 The acronym refers to small electronic devices that consist of a
small chip and an antenna. The chip typically is capable of
carrying 2,000 bytes of data or less.
5
1. Background of RFID (3/4)
 Manufacturing and Processing
 Supply chain management
 Security
 Controlling access to building
 Payment systems
 Location Tracking
 Retail
6
1. Background of RFID (4/4)
RFID advantages over bar-codes
 No line of sight required for reading
 Multiple items can be read with a





7
single scan
Each tag can carry a lot of data
(read/write)
Individual items identified and not
just the category
Passive tags have a virtually
unlimited lifetime
Active tags can be read from great
distances
Can be combined with barcode
technology
Concept of RFID
Basic Components of RFID
RFID Tags
(or Transponders)
(or Interrogator)
2. Concept of RFID (1/7)
RFID Architecture
 Firstly
items-tag
scanned by reader;
are
 Secondly
in
backend
transmitted data coming
through antenna (RF-wave)
are being recognized by
RFID-based system PC.
 It acts as a middleware
communication
gateway
among items, reader and
system database;
 Finally it filters out and
store
data
in
RFIDdatabases for checking the
data fault and relevant
operation.
10
Backend
Tags
Reader
Database
Application
Gateway
Scanned
Database
User
Interface
Fig.1. A General Overview of RFID
Architecture
2. Concept of RFID (2/7)
Key component - tag
1. Chips: Hold information
about physical object.
2. Antenna: Transmit radio
signal
3. Package: Encases the
Chips and Antenna, so that
can be attached to the
physical object.
11
2. Concept of RFID (3/7)
Are All Tags The Same?
Three Basic Types:
 Active
 Battery powered memory, radio & circuitry
 Long Read Range (300 feet)
 Active Backscatter (Semi-active)
 Reader activates tag,
but battery powers memory
and circuitry
 Medium Read Range (10 - 50 feet)
 Passive Backscatter
 Reader powered
 Shorter Read Range (4 inches - 18 feet)
2. Concept of RFID (4/7)
RFID Tag Operational Frequencies
Band
Frequency
LF
30 – 300 kHz
HF
3 – 30MHz
UHF
300MHz – 3GHz
Microwave
2 – 30GHz
Typical RFID
frequencies
125 – 134kHz
13.56MHz
865 – 956MHz
2.45GHz
Read range
<0.5 m
Up to 1.5m
~0.5 – 5 m
Up to 10m
Data Rate
Slower
Moderate
Faster
Faster
Characteristics
Short-range,
Low data transfer
rate, penetrates
water but not
metal
Higher ranges,
reasonable data
rates, penetrates
water but not
metal
Long ranges, high
data transfer rate,
concurrent read of
<100 items, cannot
penetrate water or
metals
Long range, high
data transfer rate,
cannot penetrate
water or metal
Animal ID,
car immobilizer
Smart labels,
Travel cars
Tracking logistics
Moving vehicle
toll
Typical use
2. Concept of RFID (5/7)
RFID tag memory
• Read-only tags
– Tag ID is assigned at the factory during manufacturing
• Can never be changed
• No additional data can be assigned to the tag
• Write once, read many (WORM) tags
– Data written once, e.g., during packing or manufacturing
• Tag is locked once data is written
• Similar to a compact disc or DVD
• Read/Write
– Tag data can be changed over time
• Part or all of the data section can be locked
14
2. Concept of RFID (6/7)
Key component - Reader
• Reader functions:
– Remotely power tags
– Establish a bidirectional data link
– Inventory tags, filter results
– Communicate with networked
server(s)
– Can read 100-300 tags per second
• Readers (interrogators) can be at a
fixed point such as
– Entrance/exit
– Point of sale
• Readers can also be mobile/hand-held
15
Reader Products
Network Readers
RFID Enabled Label
OEM Reader Boards
Printers
Serial Readers
OEM Reader Boards
Portable Readers
Peripheral Controllers
Wireless Integrated
PC Card Readers
Handheld Reader
2. Concept of RFID (7/7)
Key component – Host computer
• data acquired by the
readers is then passed to a
host computer
• run specialist RFID
software or middleware to
filter the data
• route it to the correct
application, to be
processed into useful
information
Advantages
3. Advantages of RFID (1/8)
1. RFID tags can hold higher data capacity and better
capability
 RFID tags can hold more data than bar codes.
19
data capacity
capability
RFID tags
up to 2 KB
an be read or written
Barcode
just 10-12 digits
no read or write
3. Advantages of RFID (2/8)
2.The technology of RFID is efficient
 Does not require a direct line of sight
 Read at much greater distances up to 300 feet
 Read multiple product at the same time
 Read through packaging
 Provide unique identification
3. Advantages of RFID (3/8)
3. RFID tags can be used different environments
 RFID technology has been widely in the medical industry
 Animal identification
 Human identification
21
3. Advantages of RFID (4/8)
4. RFID tags provide higher security
 Cannot be easily replicated
 Stronger sensor networking
system or monitoring system
22
Disadvantages
3. Disadvantages of RFID (5/8)
1. High cost
 Hard to implement in low cost products
 The benefits of RFID > additional cost
24
3. Disadvantages of RFID (6/8)
2. Materials Problems
 Problems with some materials
(Metals and liquids )
 reflect the radio waves unreadable
25
3. Disadvantages of RFID (7/8)
3. Interference problem has been occurred
 The presence of mobile phone towers has been found to
interfere with RFID radio waves
26
3. Disadvantages of RFID (8/8)
4.The risk of using RFID technology
 Do not need to have direct contact
 Consumers are apprehensive about their privacy
 Others can be tracked the personal information by the RFID reader
27
Applications
4.1 Application of RFID (1/9)
Case 1– Autotoll
 Hong Kong's leading ITS services provider in the transport
and logistics industries
 10 years of experience in the application and implementation
of RFID technologies
29
https://www.autotoll.com.hk
4.1 Application of RFID (2/9)
Target Market Segment
Market
Segment
Transport
Industry
Logistics Industry Industries in
Supply Chain
Network
Target
Customers
Government
Consumer
(e.g. Motorist,
Private car driver)
Logistics Company
Upper stream:
Manufacturer
Middle stream:
3PL, Distributor
Lower stream:
Retailer
30
4.1 Application of RFID (3/9)
Transport Industry
 Make use of ITS (Intelligent Transport System)
 Adapt RFID to control the traffic
 Allow more vehicles flow in
 Save time for consumers
31
4.1 Application of RFID (4/9)
Electronic Toll Collection
 Reduce the time being queued
 Prevent traffic congestion
32
4.1 Application of RFID (5/9)
Logistics Industry
 Make use of LMS (Logistics Management System)
 Adapt RFID, GPS and GPRS technology
 Increase efficiency and productivity
 Lower the operating costs
33
4.1 Application of RFID (6/9)
Industry in Supply Chain Network
 Make use of SCM (Supply Chain Management)
 Reduce the use of paperwork
 Increase information accuracy
 Promote customer satisfaction
34
4.1 Application of RFID (7/9)
RFID Equipment
 Multi-protocol for agility and flexibility
 Real-time reading and writing for all EPC-compliant tags
 Reduce time and maintenance costs
35
4.1 Application of RFID (8/9)
RFID Equipment
 Wide Read Field
 Long range and large area RFID tag reading.
 High Speed RF Signal Conversion
 Fast and optional communication of EPC-compliant passive tag data
36
4.1 Application of RFID (9/9)
RFID Equipment
 Electronic Product Code (EPC)™ - Compliance
 Unique identification
 Non line-of-sight data capture
 Easily attached to containers, pullets and boxes
37
4.2 Application of RFID (1/7)
Case 2– Access Control in Luxury Residential Area
 Leading RFID hardware manufacturer, distributor and
consultancy firm
38
http://www.hk-rfid.com/home/active_case.php
4.2 Application of RFID (2/7)
RFID Control System
 Implement in residential area, all the control in that area are
automated by computer system
 Secure and Safe
 No need to remember passwords or bring keys
39
4.2 Application of RFID (3/7)
RFID Control System
 Resident card equipped with RFID tags
 RFID readers and antennas are installed at entrances or any facilities
in the residential area
 One active RFID tag access all controlled areas
40
4.2 Application of RFID (4/7)
Lobby
 Readers and antennas are installed at the entrance.
 Entry and exit history is recorded
 Doors will open automatically
41
4.2 Application of RFID (5/7)
Mailbox
 Mailbox will open automatically
 No longer need to carry keys to unlock
42
4.2 Application of RFID (6/7)
Lift
 Antennas and readers are installed in the lift lobby
 Only lift buttons of floor where residents live in can be pressed by
residents
 Improve security
43
4.2 Application of RFID (7/7)
Benefit using RFID in House
 Enhanced security through limiting access to authorized residents only
 Improved customer satisfaction
 Accurate in-out records of residents
44
Further Development
5 Further Development (1/7)
The Trend of RFID
 Global Standards of RFID
- Reduce supply chain complexity
- Promote RFID adoption
For Interested parties
Learn the procedures and steps
Increase their competitive
5 Further Development (2/7)
The Trend of RFID
 Steps of Implement RFID
1) Planning and Evaluating the current situation
2) Understanding company position
3) Pilot test
4) Ensuring RFID providers responses
5) Communicating with supply chain partners
5 Further Development (3/7)
In-depth uses of RFID
 1) Transportation payment
 2) Animal and Human identification
5 Further Development (4/7)
In-depth uses of RFID
 3) Sports
 4) School and Universities
5 Further Development (5/7)
In-depth uses of RFID
 5) Entertainment
E.g. Disneyland
- “MagicBand”
5 Further Development (6/7)
Challenges
 1) Lack of Global Standard for adoption
 2) Security and Privacy Problem
5 Further Development (7/7)
Challenges
 3) Data Management
 4) Hardware and Software Selection
 5) Cost
References
Part 1 & Part 2
1.
http://bibhutipattanaik.blogspot.hk/search?q=Mirror-Sunlight-Reflection+theory
2.
http://www.discoverrfid.org/how-it-works/history/development-of-rfid.html
3.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Octopus_card
4.
http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/technology-article.asp?artnum=60
5.
http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/technology-article.asp?artnum=2
6.
http://www.datamars.com/default.aspx?menuitemid=258&menusubid=14&Aspx
AutoDetectCookieSupport=1
7.
http://www.rfidaa.org/upload/documents/PDF/RFID%20explained.pdf
Part 3
1.
http://www.activewaveinc.com/technology_rfid_advantage.php
2.
http://www.inlogic.com/rfid/rfid_vs_barcode.aspx
3.
http://www.albaspectrum.com/news/000003610.html
4.
http://www.ehow.com/list_6783799_problems-rfid.html
References
Part 4
1. http://americanrfidsolutions.com/members/download/10th%20M
AY%20RFID_SUMMIT_PDF/autotoll/Autotoll_RFID_v1.pdf
2. http://www.autotoll.com.hk/radiofrequencyidentification.php?lang
=e
3. http://www.hk-rfid.com/home/active_case.php
Part 5
1. http://search.proquest.com/docview/222716691/13D4D845FA04
67BE4C2/48?accountid=11440
2. http://search.proquest.com/docview/445772056/13D4D845FA04
67BE4C2/14?accountid=11440
3. http://pixievacations.com/2013/01/mymagic-disney-world-2013/

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