3220Chapter13.ppt

Report
Chapter 15

Open-ended questions: no response options.
◦ Pros: access concepts the researcher has not
considered, gain insight into respondents’ vocabulary
regarding the topic, gain insight into relative
importance (based on ordering)
◦ Cons: difficult to record, to code, to enter data
resulting in greater expense and time

Closed-ended questions: responses provided.
◦ Pros: cheaper, faster, easier data collection and entry
◦ Cons: miss “rich” data, only measures what researcher
has conceived.

Dichotomous: choose one of two (yes/no)

Multiple choice alternatives:
◦ determinant choice: select only one
◦ frequency determination: assesses general
frequency, select one
◦ checklist: select all that apply

Scale responses
◦ Likert, Semantic differential, sum scales, distance,
etc.

Single issue per question

Brief

Common interpretation

Comprehensible vocabulary

Simple

Exhaustive categories

Mutually exclusive categories

No unclear assumptions
◦ Why do you download music? (You may check off more than
one box.)
____
____
____
____
____
____
____
CDs are too expensive.
CDs only contain a few good songs.
It is more practical (no need to leave home).
Rather spend money elsewhere.
Do not believe in supporting the music industry.
Convenience.
Other.
◦ This assumes that they download.

Not beyond experience/ability
◦ Who was the best U of L president in the last 3
decades?

No specific examples (unless needed)

Don’t ask info they can’t remember

No ambiguity
◦ What is your favourite brand of chocolate bar? (e.g. Coffee Crisp,
Snickers, etc.) __________________
◦ Stating a few limits ability to remember others (part-list cueing
effect)
◦ How much did you spend on groceries in the last month?
____________
◦ How many advertisements about music sharing can you recall?
A)0
B)1-2
C)3-4
D) more than 4
◦ Does this mean different ads, or different showings of an ad?

No double-barreled questions
◦ I believe that all that is legal is ethical and all that
is illegal is unethical.
Strongly disagree 1
2
3
4
5
6 Strongly agree
What if they believe all that is illegal is unethical, but all that is legal
isn’t necessarily ethical?

No leading questions
◦ Do you support the school board’s innovative
new math curriculum?
Not at all 1 2
3
4
5
6 Strongly support
“innovative, new” suggests what the “correct”
answer is

No loaded questions
◦ Do you support helping child victims of AIDS?
Not at all 1
2
3
4
5
6 Strongly support
The “morally correct” answer is obvious

Not overly complex
◦ Do you feel that the contractual clause 59B
section II should be revised to indicate the new
funding options available to employees in the
temporary worker category when workers are
eligible for maternity/paternity leave, conditional
upon their years of service and job classification?
◦ Yes__ No__

Use attractive unit (e.g. 1 nice survey booklet)

Offer incentives (don’t have to be large)

Use postcard to warn

Use postcard to remind

“Cover letter”

Instructions

Screening

Warm-up (if necessary)



◦ Who, purpose, explanation, incentive, screening
(as needed)
◦ How to proceed (e.g. don’t skip ahead/back)
◦ Get the right people
◦ Easy questions
◦ Interesting questions
Transition statement (if necessary)
Key content/difficult questions
Demographics

Gain attention, pique interest
◦ Start easy and interesting

Avoid priming concepts, directing responses
◦ General to specific; Open to closed

Randomize or counterbalance
◦ Response order; Question order

Place similar questions together
◦ mind frame

Clearly distinguish question and responses
◦ CAPS versus lower case, etc.
LAYOUT A (bad):
Do you agree, disagree or have no opinion that this company has:

A good vacation policy - disagree/not sure/agree.

Good management feedback - disagree/not sure/agree.

Good medical insurance - disagree/not sure/agree.
LAYOUT B (better):
Does this company have:
Disagree Not Sure Agree


A good vacation policy
1
2
3

Good feedback
1
2
3

Good medical insurance
1
2
3

Pretest the questionnaire
◦ Test on “experts”
◦ Test on target market

Pretesting approaches
◦ Complete the survey
◦ Interpret the questions: what do they “mean”
◦ Define key words
◦ Comment on confusing items, missing items
◦ Address response options as well as questions

Halo effect

Positivity/negativity bias

Extremeness aversion/extremeness seeking

Framing

Priming

similar documents