Understanding Human Behavior Chapter 2

Understanding Human
Chapter 2
Pre- Reading Activity
 Fill out chart
 Share with a partner
 Share with group
 Identify which needs we have in common
Abraham Maslow classified
human behavior into two major
1. Primary Needs – physiological and
2.Secondary Needs – psychological or
Primary Needs
1. Hunger
2. Thirst
3. Sex
4. Air
5. Rest
6. Escape Pain
7. Eliminate Waste
Primary Needs are:
• Physiological and unlearned
• Needs must be fulfilled before secondary
needs can be considered
• Unfulfilled – can breed negative and antiprofessional attitudes
Secondary Needs:
1. Gregariousness
2. Aggression
3. Affiliation
4. Inquisitiveness
5. Achievement
6. Power
7. Status
8. Autonomy
Secondary Needs are:
Psychological and learned
Foundation of human motivation
Degree of intensity varies
Priority varies
The root of causing others to want
our leadership
• Apply to our staff, collegues, and us
• Has a driving force
• Is an effort by an individual to
meet needs
• It is the needs that motivate
individuals to do/behave/think as
they do
• Primary and Secondary needs are
clues to human behavior
The Secondary Needs
Secondary needs are the foundation of human motivation, they lie at the
root of causing others to want our leadership.
The secondary needs allow each person being led to answer the primary
question: What’s in it for me?
Through these needs people reach their goals and rise their self concept.
People with high intensity of secondary needs are highly motivated, they
make the best colleagues and classroom teachers.
Those with low intensity are likely to be underachievers and have low selfconcept. They are the primary source of problems for schools and
Linking the Need to the Person
When leading people, you must look at them individually to see
which of the secondary needs is most important to them.
To be a dynamic and positive leader, one must not only appeal to
those needs of the high performers but also set a course of action
which will stimulate those needs in others as well.
Unless we lead to meet these needs, we’ll find ourselves having to
give those we lead bribes, incentives, or rewards- and threats,
commands, or ultimatums- to get them to work.
When we fill needs, we will find leading and being led a very
rewarding experience.
The Need for Gregariousness
• Need to associate with a group,
work with others and avoid
working alone.
• Like being with people
• Enjoy organizing things
• Like to share and keep people
The Need for Gregariousness
• Feel they are on outside looking in
it kills their motivation
• We must recognize and visit with
them frequently, form
partnerships, share responsibilities
and make them feel included will
increase their motivation
As Administrators We Should:
• Use these individuals to plan and
organize events
• Assign them on committees
• Celebrate efforts and successes of
staff and students alike
• We must look for and nourish this
The Need for Aggression:
• Assert and express self
• Be counted
• Take initiative
• Assertive, achievement-oriented, willing
to take issue, engage in direct action,
tendency to start quarrels, rather not do
things by book, fight authority if they
feel suppressed, anti-groups/activities
As an Administrator We
• Allow to express opinions
• Give them authority/sense of
ownership, responsibility
• Teach difference between
aggression and assertiveness
The Need for Affiliation:
• Friendly unions, connections and
• Work with others
• Need to belong
• Need to possess a person/place
• Volunteer
• Wide range of
• Exclude those who don’t like them
As an Administrator We Should:
• Structure in meetings, assignments,
and specific responsibilities we give
• If not met: don’t cooperate,
participate, unhappy,
uncooperative, unsatisfied
The Need for Inquisitiveness:
• Need to know, seek information, to
question, doubt, wonder, inquire,
investigate, be curious
• Pry, play devil’s advocate to others
• Vital to be a good educator/student
As an Administrator We Should:
• Let them know what we’re thinking and
why – If we don’t we demotivate them
• Provide opportunities to involve them,
keep informed, involve in planning and
decision making
• Must communicate continuously
• If we don’t we demotivate them
The Need for Achievement:
• Need to succeed, be important,
recognized for efforts/successes
• Need to do, gain, attain and achieve
a goal (plan and organize)
• Like to show others their plans,
works achievements
As an Administrator We Should:
• Recognize for their achievements, offer
praise, and give rewards
• Challenge them, involve them and
recognize their effort, commitments, and
• Be aware that success without
recognition weakens motivation
The Need for Power:
• Need to choose, do, act, or produce
• Have control over our lives (and
lives of others)
• Gain authority, given
responsibilities, receive cooperation
of others
• Need to have rights and privileges
and to use individual prerogatives
• Range: dominate – sway/influence
As an Administrator We Should:
• Understand that if they feel their rights
or powers are denied they will speak up
or fight decisions
• If we fight this need – they will fight us
forever - - - If we share power they will
want our leadership
• Give them a role in plans, ideas and work
with guidelines
As an Administrator We Should:
• Be careful in taking power away or
eliminating power
• Remember that the need for power can
be positive or negative – make sure it is
positive and productive
The Need for Status:
• To be special, significant, have
privileges, rank and standing with
the group
• Try to deny status to others, put
people down, label, form cliques
As an Administrator We Should:
• Status gives us a sense of well-being,
position, and feeling of high worth
• Needs not met: acting out by making
others feel inferior, getting upset when
decisions are made without consulting
The Need for Autonomy:
• To be independent/free, set own
guidelines, be own boss
• Need to control that which concerns
• Self-centered, make own rules,
• Would prefer two set of rules
As an Administrator We Should
Understand that:
• Needs are clues to human behavior
• Can’t lead people unless we know them
individually (needs and which needs
drive them)
• Needs must never be ignored/overlooked
as serve as key to motivation for
• People are different in experiences,
ability, motivation, priorities, wants and
In Conclusion
The primary needs provide an administrator with the valuable
leadership insights and constructive functional powers in getting
work done.
A lack of leadership awareness of the primary and secondary needs is
likely to lead to a great leadership misconception: All those we lead
are alike. People are not equal in their experiences, abilities or
It is your ability to cause others to want your leadership that has
allowed you the opportunity to lead in your school or district.
Self Reflection
Which of the 8 needs do you gear more towards?
What changes, if any, do you need to make to
meet the needs of those you lead?

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