Understanding Human Behavior Chapter 2 CLAUDIA GUERRERO TINA MAY Z. ANGULO Pre- Reading Activity Fill out chart Share with a partner Share with group Identify which needs we have in common Abraham Maslow classified human behavior into two major categories: 1. Primary Needs – physiological and unlearned 2.Secondary Needs – psychological or Learned Primary Needs 1. Hunger 2. Thirst 3. Sex 4. Air 5. Rest 6. Escape Pain 7. Eliminate Waste Primary Needs are: • Physiological and unlearned • Needs must be fulfilled before secondary needs can be considered • Unfulfilled – can breed negative and antiprofessional attitudes Secondary Needs: 1. Gregariousness 2. Aggression 3. Affiliation 4. Inquisitiveness 5. Achievement 6. Power 7. Status 8. Autonomy Secondary Needs are: Psychological and learned Foundation of human motivation Degree of intensity varies Priority varies The root of causing others to want our leadership • Apply to our staff, collegues, and us • • • • • Behavior: • Has a driving force • Is an effort by an individual to meet needs • It is the needs that motivate individuals to do/behave/think as they do • Primary and Secondary needs are clues to human behavior The Secondary Needs Secondary needs are the foundation of human motivation, they lie at the root of causing others to want our leadership. The secondary needs allow each person being led to answer the primary question: What’s in it for me? Through these needs people reach their goals and rise their self concept. People with high intensity of secondary needs are highly motivated, they make the best colleagues and classroom teachers. Those with low intensity are likely to be underachievers and have low selfconcept. They are the primary source of problems for schools and administrators. Linking the Need to the Person When leading people, you must look at them individually to see which of the secondary needs is most important to them. To be a dynamic and positive leader, one must not only appeal to those needs of the high performers but also set a course of action which will stimulate those needs in others as well. Unless we lead to meet these needs, we’ll find ourselves having to give those we lead bribes, incentives, or rewards- and threats, commands, or ultimatums- to get them to work. When we fill needs, we will find leading and being led a very rewarding experience. The Need for Gregariousness • Need to associate with a group, work with others and avoid working alone. • Like being with people • Enjoy organizing things • Like to share and keep people informed The Need for Gregariousness • Feel they are on outside looking in it kills their motivation • We must recognize and visit with them frequently, form partnerships, share responsibilities and make them feel included will increase their motivation As Administrators We Should: • Use these individuals to plan and organize events • Assign them on committees • Celebrate efforts and successes of staff and students alike • We must look for and nourish this need The Need for Aggression: • Assert and express self • Be counted • Take initiative Characteristics: • Assertive, achievement-oriented, willing to take issue, engage in direct action, tendency to start quarrels, rather not do things by book, fight authority if they feel suppressed, anti-groups/activities As an Administrator We Should: • Allow to express opinions • Give them authority/sense of ownership, responsibility • Teach difference between aggression and assertiveness The Need for Affiliation: • Friendly unions, connections and relationships • Work with others • Need to belong • Need to possess a person/place • Volunteer • Wide range of friends/acquaintances • Exclude those who don’t like them As an Administrator We Should: • Structure in meetings, assignments, and specific responsibilities we give them • If not met: don’t cooperate, participate, unhappy, uncooperative, unsatisfied The Need for Inquisitiveness: • Need to know, seek information, to question, doubt, wonder, inquire, investigate, be curious • Pry, play devil’s advocate to others ideas/suggestions • Vital to be a good educator/student As an Administrator We Should: • Let them know what we’re thinking and why – If we don’t we demotivate them • Provide opportunities to involve them, keep informed, involve in planning and decision making • Must communicate continuously • If we don’t we demotivate them The Need for Achievement: • Need to succeed, be important, recognized for efforts/successes • Need to do, gain, attain and achieve a goal (plan and organize) • Like to show others their plans, works achievements As an Administrator We Should: • Recognize for their achievements, offer praise, and give rewards • Challenge them, involve them and recognize their effort, commitments, and excitement • Be aware that success without recognition weakens motivation The Need for Power: • Need to choose, do, act, or produce • Have control over our lives (and lives of others) • Gain authority, given responsibilities, receive cooperation of others • Need to have rights and privileges and to use individual prerogatives • Range: dominate – sway/influence As an Administrator We Should: • Understand that if they feel their rights or powers are denied they will speak up or fight decisions • If we fight this need – they will fight us forever - - - If we share power they will want our leadership • Give them a role in plans, ideas and work with guidelines As an Administrator We Should: • Be careful in taking power away or eliminating power • Remember that the need for power can be positive or negative – make sure it is positive and productive The Need for Status: • To be special, significant, have privileges, rank and standing with the group • Try to deny status to others, put people down, label, form cliques As an Administrator We Should: • Status gives us a sense of well-being, position, and feeling of high worth • Needs not met: acting out by making others feel inferior, getting upset when decisions are made without consulting them The Need for Autonomy: • To be independent/free, set own guidelines, be own boss • Need to control that which concerns them • Self-centered, make own rules, • Would prefer two set of rules (them/others) As an Administrator We Should Understand that: • Needs are clues to human behavior • Can’t lead people unless we know them individually (needs and which needs drive them) • Needs must never be ignored/overlooked as serve as key to motivation for group/individuals • People are different in experiences, ability, motivation, priorities, wants and needs In Conclusion The primary needs provide an administrator with the valuable leadership insights and constructive functional powers in getting work done. A lack of leadership awareness of the primary and secondary needs is likely to lead to a great leadership misconception: All those we lead are alike. People are not equal in their experiences, abilities or motivation. It is your ability to cause others to want your leadership that has allowed you the opportunity to lead in your school or district. Self Reflection Which of the 8 needs do you gear more towards? What changes, if any, do you need to make to meet the needs of those you lead?