3D-Printing

Report
3D Printing
Fascination,
Fast moving technology
Additive Manufacturing process
Takes Complex Engineering Design
geometries from the “can’t be done” and “too
expensive” to a world of anything is possible
and very quickly.
Enables both Rapid Prototyping and
Manufacturing
Can be used to Make Parts or Molds for Parts
Multiple process and hybrids of these process
in equipment ranging from $1K to S1M .
AGENDA
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About 3D Printing.
STL, SLS, PloyJet, FDM-FFF, DLMS
Home Printers - 2014 Best 3D Printers
Solidoodle – Down and Dirty Demo
Types of 3D Printing STL
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Stereolithography (SLA) is often considered
the pioneer of the additive manufacturing
processes, with the first production systems
introduced in 1988 and patented by 3D systems
founder Charles (Chuck) W. Hull. The SLA
process utilizes a vat of liquid photopolymer
resin cured by ultraviolet laser to solidify the
pattern layer by layer to create or “print” a solid
3D model.
An Ultra Violet (UV) laser beam is directed by a
computer guided mirror onto the surface of the
UV photopolymer resin. The model is built one
layer at a time from supplied 3D CAD data.
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Materials: ABS, PE (Somos 8110), PC, PP-Like
(Accura 25 / VisiJet SL Flex)
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Benefits: Higher precision, Smooth surface
finish, Wide variety of material and post
processing options
Types of 3D Printing SLS
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Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) is an additive
manufacturing technology developed under sponsorship by
the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)
and acquired in 2001 by 3D Systems.
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) uses high power CO2 lasers
(carbon dioxide laser) to fuse plastic, metal or ceramic
powder particles together, layer-by-layer, to form a solid
model. The system consists of a laser, part chamber, and
control system.
The part chamber consists of a build platform, powder
cartridge, and leveling roller. A thin layer of build material is
spread across the platform where the laser traces a twodimensional cross section of the part, sintering the material
together. The platform then descends a single layer
thickness and the leveling roller pushes material from the
powder cartridge across the build platform, a the next cross
section is sintered to the previous. This process is repeated
one slice at a time until the part build height is completed.
• Materials: Aluminum-Filled, Carbon Fiber Filled Nylon, Glass-Filled Nylon, ImpactResistant Rubber-Like
• Benefits: Durable, functional parts with high complex geometries, Ideal for parts with high
heat requirements or chemical resistance, Capable of producing parts with mechanical joints,
snap fits or living hinges, Wide variety of materials and post processing options
Types of 3D Printers - PolyJet
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The PolyJet rapid prototyping process uses high
resolution ink-jet technology combined with UV
curable materials to quickly and economically
produce highly detailed and accurate physical
prototypes in multiple colors and materials.
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Objet was founded in 1998 and the PolyJet IP
developed by Rami Bonen, Gershon Miller and
Hanan Gotaiit. 2012 Objet announced that it
agreed to merge with privately held Stratasys.
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Objet Geometries has partnered with SOLIDWORKS to interface their design software with Objet’s
Connex500 system. The co-developed software add-in allows significantly more control over end to end
modeling preferences.
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Materials: Wide range of Materials and Colors with the Polycarbonate family.
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Benefits: Over molding. Can print range of colors and material at one time
Types of 3D Printers - FDM
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Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is an additive
manufacturing technology commonly used for modeling,
prototyping, and production applications.
FDM works on an "additive" principle by laying down
material in layers; a plastic filament or metal wire is
unwound from a coil and supplies material to produce a
part.
The technology was developed by S. Scott Crump in the
late 1980s and was commercialized in 1990.
The term fused deposition modeling and its abbreviation to
FDM are trademarked by Stratasys Inc. The exactly
equivalent term, fused filament fabrication (FFF), was
then used to give a phrase that would be legally
unconstrained in its use.
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Materials: ABS, PLA, Polycarbonate, Polyamides, Polystyrene, Lignin, among many others.
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Benefits: With suitable material selection can be used for Fit, Form and Function.
Types of 3D Printers –
DLMS
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Direct Laser Metal Sintering
The DMLS machine uses a high-powered 200 watt Ybfiber optic laser. Inside the build chamber area, there is
a material dispensing platform and a build platform
along with a recoater blade used to move new powder
over the build platform. The technology fuses metal
powder into a solid part by melting it locally using the
focused laser beam. Parts are built up additively layer by
layer, typically using layers 20 micrometres thick
Personal Printers – Typical Specs.
What to watch for
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Mostly FFF (Fused Filament Fabrication processing).
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Single or Twin Extruders. Single extruder uses same material for support.
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Print Sizes vary and are somewhat limited.
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Enclosure. Helps temperature stability
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Heater print bed- Essential for ABS
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Extruder type- Nice to have an extruder that can handle both PLA or ABS.
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Slicing Software: Proprietary or Open Source. Open source does not get much support from the author.
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Support and Service for the printer hardware and firmware.
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Materials and Costs. Mostly ABS or PLA Thermoplastic Filaments.
Difference between ABS and PLA
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ABS - Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene. It's strength, flexibility, machinability, and higher temperature
resistance make it often a preferred plastic for engineers, and professional applications. The hot plastic smell
deter some as does the plastics petroleum based origin. The additional requirement of a heated print bed means
there are some printers simply incapable of printing ABS with any reliability.
PLA - Polylactic Acid .The wide range of available colors and translucencies and glossy feel often attract
those who print for display or small household uses. Many appreciate the plant based origins and prefer the
semi-sweet smell over ABS. When properly cooled, PLA seems to have higher maximum printing speeds, lower
layer heights, and sharper printed corners. Combining this with low warping on parts make it a popular plastic
for home printers, hobbyists, and schools.
2014 BEST 3D Printers
Product Comparisons
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Ultimaker 2
Cubify CubeX
Cubify Cube
Airwolf AW3D HD
Ditto +
AW3D XL
MBot Cube II
Replicator 2X
Litto
MBot Cube
$2,600.00
$2,499.00
$1,123.15
$2,995.00
$1,249.00
$2,399.00
$1,507.60
$2,199.00
$999.00
$1,199.00
Solidoodle SD 3DP
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Price $800
Material- ABS
Heated Bed 8” x 8” (x 8”)
No Enclosure on this model, so made my own.
Added a Borosilicate glass plate to the bed to eliminate the
warpage on the existing Al bed plate.
Needed to calibrate nozzle and adjust everything before printing.
Primary source on information from the SolidForm.com (3D
Printer Community).
Steep learning curve in finding the best way to make ABS stick to
the build plate and eliminate warping.
Still working on optimizing slicer software.
Solidoodle are responsive to service calls but not helpful on slicer
settings
In Conclusion
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3D Printing is developing very rapidly.
Performance improving and cost coming down.
If your planning on investing in a Business
Printer- Do your homework
If you’re thinking a Home PrinterDo your homework.
Despite all of the challenges it been a bundle of
fun.

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