Module F DisSter_Dental 2014

Report
Module F
PRINCIPLES OF DISINFECTION AND
STERILIZATION IN THE DENTAL SETTING
OBJECTIVES
• State the principles of disinfection and sterilization
• List the current methods for disinfection and
sterilization per CDC guideline recommendations
SPAULDING CLASSIFICATION
Spaulding Classification of Surfaces:
1. critical – Objects which enter normally sterile tissue
or the vascular system and require sterilization
2. semi-critical – Objects that contact mucous
membranes or non-intact skin and require high-level
disinfection, which kills all but high-levels of bacterial
spores
3. non-critical – Objects that contact intact skin but not
mucous membranes, and require low-level
disinfection
ORDER OF RESISTANCE OF MICROORGANISMS
TO DISINFECTANTS/STERILANTS
Hardest to Kill
Easiest to Kill
Prions (Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD),
mad cow disease)
Spores (C. difficile)
Mycobacteria (Tb)
Non-enveloped viruses (norovirus)
Fungi (Candida)
Vegetative bacteria (MRSA, VRE)
Enveloped viruses (HIV, HBV)
PROCESSING CRITICAL INSTRUMENTS
• Penetrate or enter normally sterile tissue or
spaces, including the vascular system
• Surgical instruments, cardiac catheters, IV devices,
urinary catheters
• Must be sterilized between uses or used as single-
use disposable devices
• Goal: Sterility = devoid of all microbial life
PROCESSING SEMI-CRITICAL OBJECTS
• Contact mucous membranes and non-intact skin
• Endoscopes, Respiratory and Anesthesia equipment,
endocavitary probes, tonometers, diaphragm fitting
rings, vaginal speculums
• Must be sterilized or immersed in high-level
disinfectant
• Goal: High-level disinfection = free of all
microorganisms except low numbers of bacterial
spores
HIGH-LEVEL DISINFECTANTS
Germicide
Concentration
Glutaraldhyde (Cidex®)
≥ 2.0%
Ortho-phthaladehyde (Cidex OPA®)
0.55%
Hydrogen Peroxide* (SporoxTM)
7.5%
Hydrogen Peroxide and peracetic acid* (PeractTM)
1.0% / 0.08%
Hydrogen Peroxide and peracetic acid* (EndosporTM +)
7.5% / 0.23%
Hypochlorite (free chlorine)* (Sterilox)
650-675 ppm
Accelerated hydrogen peroxide (ResertTM XL)
2.0%
Peracetic Acid (Steris 20TM)
0.2%
Glutaraldehyde and Isopropanol (Aldahol III®)
3.4% / 26%
Glutaraldehyde and phenol/phenate (Sporicidin®)
1.21% / 1.93%
Exposure time ≥8 -45 min (US) and temperature 20-25°C;
*May cause cosmetic and functional damage
NON-CRITICAL INSTRUMENTS AND DEVICES
• Contact intact skin
• BP cuffs, electrocardiogram (EKG) leads, stethoscopes
• Disinfect using a low level disinfectant
• Goal: Kill vegetative bacteria, fungi, viruses
LIQUID DISINFECTANTS
Disinfectant Agent
Ethyl or isopropyl alcohol
Use Concentration
70% - 90%
Chlorine (bleach)
Phenolic
Iodophor
100ppm
UD
UD
Quaternary ammonium
compound (QUAT)
Improved hydrogen peroxide
UD
Exposure time ≥ 1 minute
0.5%, 1.4%
UD = Manufacturer’s recommended use dilution
STERILIZATION PROCESS
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE EFFICACY OF
DISINFECTION AND STERILIZATION PROCESSES
• Cleaning of the object
• Organic and inorganic load present
• Type and level of microbial contamination
• Concentration and exposure time to the
disinfectant/sterilant
• Nature of the object
• Temperature, pH, and water hardness
WHERE ARE YOU PROCESSING YOUR
INSTRUMENTS?
Enter
Clean
instruments,
handpieces
BI incubator
and record
keeping
Rinse
Sterilization
Dry
Arrange
Instruments
Add chemical
monitors, BIs,
supplies
Packaging
Wrap cassettes,
package items,
seal, label
Sterilization and storage
Closed
storage of
sterile
packages
Holding
area
Decontamination
Exit
CLEANING INSTRUMENTS
• Soak in enzymatic or non-enzymatic detergent
• Wear the appropriate PPE
• Keep instruments submerged in solution and use a long-
handled brush when manually cleaning instruments
AUTOMATED CLEANING
• Ultrasonic cleaner
• Instrument washer
• Washer-disinfector
• Regulated by FDA
• Household dishwasher
NOT recommended
PREPARATION AND PACKAGING
• Critical and semi-critical items that will be
stored should be wrapped before heat
sterilization
• Hinged instruments opened and unlocked
• Place a chemical indicator inside the pack
• Wear heavy-duty, puncture-resistant utility
gloves
PACKAGING
•
•
•
•
Peel packs
Rigid containers
Self seal roll stock
Sterile wraps woven and
non-woven
• Compatible with
sterilization method
• Must be FDA approved
LOADING
•
Place items/packages correctly and loosely
into the sterilizer so as not to impede
penetration of the sterilant
•
Peel packs and non-perforated containers
(e.g., basins) should be placed on their edge
STERILIZATION
The complete elimination or
destruction of all forms of microbial life
by either physical or chemical
processes.
METHODS OF STERILIZATION
High Temperature Methods:
• Steam sterilization
• Dry Heat
• Steam formaldehyde (chemiclave)
Low Temperature Methods:
• Hydrogen peroxide gas plasma
• Vaporized hydrogen peroxide
• Ethylene oxide
STEAM STERILIZATION
Advantages
• Non-toxic
• Cycle easy to control and monitor
• Inexpensive
• Rapidly microbicidal
• Rapid cycle time
• Least affected by organic/inorganic soils
• Penetrates medical packing, device lumens
STEAM STERILIZATION
Disadvantages
• Deleterious for heat labile instruments
• Inappropriate for heat-sensitive instruments
• Inappropriate for moisture-sensitive instruments
• Dulling
• Rusting
• Potential for burns
STEAM STERILIZATION
Steam under pressure (autoclaving)
• Gravity displacement
• Pre-vacuum
PROCESS TIMES FOR PACKAGED ITEMS
Time
Exposure
(minutes) Temperature
Time°C (°F)
TemperatureDry
Range,
(minutes)
(minutes)
Does
not includeRange
Steam autoclavedrying time
Steam
autoclave
Gravity
30
121oC
oC (250-254°F)
o
Gravity
30
121-123
Prevacuum
4
132 C
15
132-135oC (270-275°F)
Prevacuum
4
132-135oC (270-275°F)
Method
Method
DRY HEAT STERILIZATION
• Transfers heat energy from air inside the oven to
•
•
•
•
the instruments
Requires higher temperatures 160-190°C (320o375oF)
Good for items that are likely to dull or rust in the
autoclave,
Good for powders, cellulose and ink
Packaging must be able to withstand high
temperatures
DRY HEAT STERILIZER TYPES
Static Air
• Heating coils in
bottom of chamber
• Natural convection as
hot air rises in
chamber
• Takes 1-2 hours for
sterilization at 160°C
Forced Air
• Rapid heat transfer
• Circulates heated air
at high velocity
throughout chamber
• Reduces time to 6-12
minutes at 190°C
UNSATURATED CHEMICAL VAPOR
STERILIZATION
• Hot chemical vapors (under pressure) kill
•
•
•
•
•
•
microorganisms
Active ingredient: formaldehyde+
Vapors extremely irritating to eyes and lungs
Purge system and good ventilation essential
“Harvey” sterilizer or “Chemiclave”
No corrosion is instruments are dry
Must use packaging designed for chemical vapor
sterilizers
LIQUID CHEMICAL
STERILANT/DISINFECTANTS
• Only for heat-sensitive critical and semi-
critical devices
• Powerful, toxic chemicals raise safety
concerns
http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/ODE/germlab.html
http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/DeviceRegulationandGuidan
ce/ReprocessingofSingle-UseDevices/ucm133514.htm
STORAGE OF STERILE ITEMS
• Ensure the sterile storage area is a well-ventilated area
that provides protection against dust, moisture, and
temperature and humidity extremes.
•
•
•
•
8 inches from the floor8
5 inches from ceiling
18 inches from ceiling if sprinkler head present
2 inches from outside walls– 10 inches from floor
• Sterile items should be stored so that packaging is not
compromised.
• Label sterilized items with a load number that indicates
the sterilizer used, the cycle or load number, and the date
of sterilization.
STORAGE OF STERILE ITEMS
• Event-related shelf life recognizes that the product
remains sterile until an event causes it to become
contaminated (e.g. moisture).
• Packages should be evaluated before use for loss of
integrity. Repack and reprocess if compromised.
RECOMMENDATIONS
METHODS OF STERILIZATION
• Cleaning removes salts and proteins and MUST precede
•
•
•
•
•
sterilization.
Steam is preferred for critical and semi-critical items not
damaged by heat
Follow the operating parameters recommended by the
manufacturer
Use an “FDA cleared” container, wrapping or packaging system
that is compatible with the type of sterilization process used
Use low temperature sterilization technologies for reprocessing
critical and semi-critical items damaged by heat
Immediately use critical items that have been sterilized by liquid
sterilants (e.g. peracetic acid) immersion process (no long term
storage).
Monitoring the
effectiveness of your
sterilization equipment
is essential
STERILIZATION MONITORING
• Physical - cycle time, temperature, pressure
• Chemical - heat or chemical sensitive inks that
change color when germicidal-related parameters
reached
• Biological - Bacillus spores that directly measure
sterilization
MONITORING OF STERILIZERS
Internal Chemical Indicator
• Validates the sterilant penetrated the pack or
tray
• Detect local problem
BIOLOGICAL MONITORS
• Steam - Geobacillus stearothermophilus
• Dry heat - B. atrophaeus (formerly B.
subtilis)
• Ethylene oxide (ETO) - B. atrophaeus
RECOMMENDATIONS
MONITORING OF STERILIZERS
• Monitor each load with physical and chemical
(internal and external) indicators.
• Use biological indicators to monitor effectiveness
of sterilizers at least weekly with spores intended
for the type of sterilizer.
• Use biological indicators for every load containing
implantable items
RECOMMENDATIONS
MONITORING OF STERILIZERS
Following a single positive biological indicator from steam
sterilization:
• Remove the sterilizer from service and review sterilizer
instructions
• Retest the sterilizer
• If spore test negative, put the sterilizer back in service
• If the spore test is positive: do not use until it has been
inspected; and recall (to the extent possible) all items
processed since the last negative spore test; challenge in three
consecutive empty sterilization cycles.
• Single positive biological indicator (BI) from other than steam
sterilization: treat as non-sterile all items back to last load
tested with negative indicator
Record-Keeping
FAILURE TO FOLLOW DISINFECTION AND
STERILIZATION PRINCIPLES
WHAT DO YOU DO?
Scenario:
Dental Office A discovered that for the past 3 days
all surgical instruments were exposed to steam
sterilization at 132oC for 0 minutes rather than the
intended 4 minutes. A technician turned the timer
to 0 minutes in error.
American Journal of Infection Control 41 (2013) S67-S71
STEPS IN THE EVENT OF
DISINFECTION AND STERILIZATION FAILURE
1. Confirm failure of disinfection or sterilization
reprocessing
2. Immediately embargo any possibly improperly
disinfected/sterilized items
3. Do not use the questionable
disinfection/sterilization unit (sterilizer, automated
endoscope reprocessor) until proper functioning
has been assured.
4. Inform key stake holders (risk management,
management, lawyers)
5. Conduct a complete and thorough evaluation of
the cause of the disinfection/sterilization failure
6. Prepare a line listing of potentially exposed
patients
7. Assess whether the disinfection/sterilization
failure increases a patient’s risk for infection
8. Inform an expanded list of stakeholders of the
reprocessing issue
9.
Develop a hypothesis for the failure and
initiate corrective actions
10. Develop a method to assess potential
adverse patient events
11. Consider notification of appropriate state
and federal authorities (health department,
FDA)
12. Consider patient notification
13. If patients are notified, consider whether
such patients require medical evaluation for
possible post exposure therapy with
appropriate anti-infectives, as well as followup and detection of infections (HIV, Hepatitis
B and C) if warranted.
14. Develop a detailed plan to prevent similar
failures in the future
15. Write after-action report.
RECOMMENDATIONS
QUALITY CONTROL
• Provide comprehensive and intensive training for all
staff assigned to reprocess medical/surgical
instruments
• To achieve and maintain competency:
• Staff receive hands-on training
• Work with supervision until competency is documented
• Competency testing should be conducted at
commencement of employment and regularly
• Review written reprocessing instructions to ensure
compliance
RECOMMENDATIONS
FOR QUALITY CONTROL
• Conduct infection control rounds periodically
• Establish a maintenance contract and record of
service.
• Ensure protocols equivalent to guidelines from
professional organizations
• Consult Association for the Advancement of
Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) and/or
manufacturer for preparation and packing of
items
RESOURCES

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