Sexual Asexual Vocabulary Reproduction Reproduction Meiosis Mitosis 10 pt 10 pt 10 pt 10 pt 10 pt 20 pt 20 pt 20 pt 20 pt 20 pt 30 pt 30 pt 30 pt 30 pt 30 pt 40 pt 40 pt 40 pt 40 pt 40 pt 50 pt 50 pt 50 pt 50 pt 50 pt Meiosis ___________ are formed by the process known as meiosis? Gametes Meiosis How do the daughter cells that result from meiosis compare to each other? They are genetically different. Meiosis What happens to the chromosome number as a result of meiosis? It is reduced by half. (50%) Most animals reproduce sexually. The egg and sperm cells involved in sexual reproduction are formed by what process? Meiosis Meiosis Why is meiosis important? The process produces cells with half the normal number of chromosomes Mitosis What are the 4 phases of mitosis in order? Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Mitosis What is the role of the spindle in mitosis and what would happen if the spindle fibers in the cell were damaged? Spindle Fibers help separate the chromosomes, and damaging the spindle fibers in the cell would prevent the chromosomes from moving away from the equator during metaphase of mitosis. Mitosis If organism A has 92 chromosomes in its body cells, how many chromosomes will each daughter cell have after mitosis? 92 Mitosis Using the diagram, label the phases of mitosis. A. Prophase B. Telophase C. Metaphase E. Anaphase Mitosis What structure found in animal cells but not plant cells aids in the process of mitosis? Centrioles Sexual Reproduction Describe the number of parents involved for sexual reproduction and how the offspring compare to each other and their parents. Sexual = 2 parents Sexual = different offspring Sexual Reproduction What are the advantages and disadvantages of sexual reproduction? Major Advantage: Genetic Variation Disadvantages: Requires much time and energy, Have to find a mate, Have to create sex cells. Sexual Reproduction What is the offspring referred to when two different species mate to produce a unique offspring? Hybrid (Usually these offspring are sterile. Ex. A Mule) Sexual Reproduction Explain the difference between a haploid cell and a diploid cell. Haploid: A cell with half the number of chromosomes as a diploid cell. (n) Diploid: Having two copies of each chromosome. (2n) Sexual Reproduction How many cell divisions are present in Meiosis, and how many daughtercells does this process result in? 2: Meiosis I and II The end result is 4 daughter cells Asexual Reproduction Describe the number of parents involved for asexual reproduction and how the offspring compare to each other and their parent(s). Asexual= 1 parent Asexual = identical offspring Asexual Reproduction What are the advantages and disadvantages of asexual reproduction? Advantages: Fast, no mate required, not much energy involved Major Disadvantage: Being identical, especially if parent cannot adapt or if parent has genetic disorder. Asexual Reproduction What is fission and what is an example of an organism that reproduces in this manner? Fission is when the parent cell simply divides into two equal parts. An example is bacteria. Asexual Reproduction What is fragmentation and what is an example of an organism that uses this process for reproduction? When the parent breaks into different fragments, which eventually form new individuals. An example is a worm. Asexual Reproduction Name the six methods of asexual reproduction. Budding Fission Fragmentation Regeneration Spores Vegetative Propagation Vocabulary What are Gametes and how are they formed? Gametes: Sex cells that are formed by meiosis; both sperm and eggs Vocabulary Define the Cell Cycle and list the three stages involved. Cell Cycle: A series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide. 3 Stages: Interphase, Mitosis, and Cytokinesis Vocabulary Define Binary Fission Binary Fission: A form of asexual reproduction that prokaryotes use in which a cell divides into two cells with identical genetic information. What is fertilization and what type of reproduction involves this process? Fertilization: The process in which a sperm and egg join together to form a zygote. Sexual Reproduction Vocabulary What is the definition of Crossing Over? The process that can cause genetic variation in which homologous chromosomes exchange DNA.