AQA PHED 1 Opportunities for Participation_Historical

Report
St Johns PE Revision Course
AQA AS PED 1
Session 1c
Opportunities for participation
Historical Factors
Historical, social and cultural factors
• Public School and emergence of rational
recreation - games
• Public Schools & the concept of fair play
• Development of physical activity in state
schools from military drill to movement
• Developments in state provision and increase
in participation
Public Schools & Sport
Went from despised mob games to revered
team sports
Within 50 years
What?
How?
Why?
Mob Football - Characteristics
• Violent, Drunken
• Male
• No specialisation
• Local - rules, character
• Force, strength not skill
• Lacked structure – pitch, spectators, players
Mob Football - Decline
• Middle class values - civilising
• Church
• Authority crack down
• Urbanisation
• Public School effect
• Lack of control over time - work
Development of Rational Games in Public Schools
Playing
mob football
& field sports
Development
of loyalty
to House
Status &
authority given to
Sixth Form
Development
house matches
Acceptance of
common rules between
visiting schools and teams
Skills, Tactic Development
Coaching –Professionals,
Blues
Jan07Q2
Ans
Development of
internal
rules/laws
‘Game Rules’
moral/ethical rules
based on Christianity
Development
inter-school
matches
Development of
time/facilities
Public Schools 1800 - 1850
Intolerance - Tolerance
Places for the ruling class, harsh environment,
often uncontrolled
Power of the boys - emphasis on physical prowess
Futile attempts to ban mob football
Arnold – Headmaster – Evangelical Christian
Christian ‘gentlemen’ – Muscular Christianity
Cricket, rowing were established but different
versions of mob football
Public Schools 1850- 1880
Tolerance – Enthusiasm
Use boys enthusiasm for sport to gain social control
Give VI form status in return for support – control
through rules/respect
VI Form – sporting ‘heroes’ – developed rules/
etiquette – athleticism - amateurism
Team games for character training, group loyalty
Inter House – Inter School - competitiveness
Develop prowess – time, facilities, coaching!
Public Schools 1800 – 1890 General Themes
Occupation of free time - social control –
sixth form
Development of social cohesion - group
loyalty
Method of character development –
religious connections
Cult status within schools – intellectualism
suffering
Victorian values – service
Public Schools 1800 – 1890 General Themes
Physical
Endeavour
Moral
integrity
Athleticism
Revival of Greek ideals
Jan03Q2
Ans
Reflection of
religious
revival/interest
during period
Public Schools 1800 – 1890 Into Society
WHY?
Old Boys
University
Business
Church
Works
Teams
Church
Teams
Colonial
Service
“Bit of
Britain”
Army
All ranks
teams
Factors Affecting Development of Rational Recreation/Sport in
Society
Class
Economic
Rational
Recreation
Social
Jun04Q2
Organisational
Rational Rec – Social Factors
Gentleman
Middle Class
Amateur
Urbanisation
W. Class Moral
Reform
Class
Public
Schools?
Muscular Christianity
YMCA
Sunday
School
Church
Social
Boys Clubs
Rational Rec – Economic factors
Trade Unions
Leisure Time
A Right?
Public
Schools?
Industrial
Reform
Economic
Work
Discipline
Media
Travel
Rational Rec – Organisational Factors
Organisational
Codification
Rules
Code of Conduct
June05Q1
Stringent Admin
Competitive
Structure
Regularisation
Match Days
NGB
Public
Schools?
Seasons
Development of Rational Recreation/Sport in Society
Gentleman
Middle
Class
Amateur
W. Class Moral
Reform
Class
Leisure Time
Trade Unions
Industrial
Reform
Urbanisation
Work
Discipline
Economic
Social
Muscular
Christianity
Media
RR
Travel
Church
YMCA
Sunday
School
Organisational
Boys
Clubs
Stringent Admin
Codification
Regularisation
PE Change 1900 – 1980’s Main Themes
Jan05Q3
Time Content
Facilities
Teaching
Methods
Cultural
values
1900 Militaristic
- 10
School
School
room
room
Whole
Whole class,
class,
Command
Command
Control
Control
Discipline
Discipline
1910 Therapeutic
Little skill
1930
School
School
Hall/Yard
Hall/Yard
Whole
Whole class
class
Teacher
Teacher
Some
Some group
group wk
wk
Health,
Health,
discipline,
discipline,
some
some social
social
1930
1950
Gym
More
Gym
More pupil
pupil
Sport
Sport Field
Field control
control
Inc
focus on
on
Inc focus
personal
personal
develop
develop
Sp
Child
Sp Hall
Hall
Child centred
centred
Communit
Communit Discovery.
Discovery.
yy
Learn
Learn through
through
physical
physical
Individual
Social good
Skill
Phys
develop
Early mov’nt
1950 Educational
Recreation
-70
Movement
Curriculum – Government Control
2000
NC – Content
govt. directed.
Method
OFSTED
Teacher
control
1970’s
1900’s
Content & method
govt directed &
control
Govt advice on
jun. content &
method. Secondary
– PE Colls
1950’s
Content –
some govt
control,
method teacher
1930’s
1900 – 1910 Drill v Gym
What
How?
1902 - Model Course:
Militaristic, drill, imposed.
Highly directed - tables of
exercises, command style
1909 PT – Swedish
gymnasticsfor health &
development. Games - an
extra.
Little/no requirement for
equipment
Objections to both concepts
– argument & debate
Free standing – classroom,
school yard
NCO/Teacher in
command
1900 – 1910 Drill v Gym
Why?
Boer War - fitness of recruits
Dislike of militarism for children
Concern for physical condition of the poor
Influence of Swedish System and training of
women teachers.
Dullness of syllabus
Contrast with provision for rich
Facilities
Jan02Q3
Ans
Characteristics and Objectives of Drill
Characteristics
State laid down tables of exercises
Marching (pretend weapons) and free standing
Regimented use of commands
Former NCO’s
Command style teaching regimented ranks
Objectives
Instil discipline and obedience
Improve fitness for military activity
Preparation for subservient life
1910 – 1930 Gym to PT
What
1919 Syllabus - Formal
exercises, play, games,
dance & rhythm.
More formal for older
children.
Facilties for PT -Not
compulsory
Jan05Q3
Ans
How
Less control from
teachers
More initiatives from
teachers
Discipline still
paramount
Holiday/school camps
1910 – 1930 Gym to PT
Why?
Shock -1st W W+ fitness of recruits
Improved position of women - replacing men,
training
Organised labour movements - anti-militaristic
feeling
Foreign influence - Montessori, Children - not
little adults
Increased pressure for games
1930 – 1960 PT to PE
What?
1933 Syllabus - Two
parts (11-/11+)
More group work. Less
whole class
Recreative sport
How?
1930s - Some free activity,
imagination - motion stories
Less teacher control
Time recommendations Elementary - each day
Secondary - 3 x lesson
1952 - (Primary) Moving &
Growing, Planning the
Programme
Movement approach
1950s No set lesson plans
Schemes of work from teachers
PE – 1930s – 1960s PT - PE
Why
2nd WW Reconstruction - better future for children
1944 Education Act - Compulsory provision
Training of PE with other teachers - status
Child centred learning
Emphasis on skill learning
Welfare state decline in medical, therapeutic aim
Recreation-morale
1960’s - 1980’s PE to …….?
What
Junior Schools – decline in
formal games
How
Developing affluence –
rebuilding, new facilities
Selling of playing fields
Secondary schools PE to Phys. Recreation
Movement based work
Debate - width v depth.
competition v co-operation
Cooperative games
Health concerns - HRF again!
expansion of games,
development of circuit tr.
Control moved to teachers,
schools, advisors
Examinations
Still traditional approaches
1960- 1980’s PE to ….?
Why?
Divide between skill & expression
PE to Physical Recreation
Outdoor education
Lack of a central directive - No consensus on
syllabus
Mood of personal freedom in 70’s
Few specialist in primary schools
National Curriculum – Why?
Developed between 1986-92
Games - athleticism - linked to the background of
govt ministers?
Control of the curriculum
Worries over provision/cost
No requirement on time
Increasing specialisation & tech development
Fears about international elite performances –
Ans
June03Q4
‘Raising the Game’

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