Oxygen Therapy Rhonda Contant, BScH, RRT Let’s Start with the Basics! How much O2 is in room air? How much O2 comes out of a flowmeter? 3 Oxygen Therapy O2 delivery systems: design and performance Three basic designs exist 1. Low-flow systems 2. Reservoir systems 3. High-flow systems We need to answer 2 key questions… 1. How much O2 can the system deliver? 2. What is the FiO2 or FiO2 range of the device? Does the FiO2 vary or remain fixed with changing pt demands? Fixed or Variable FiO2? Depends on how much of the pt’s inspired gas the device delivers Fixed or Variable FiO2? Fixed FiO2 The device is designed to deliver ALL the pt’s inspired gas FiO2 is constant or fixed Fixed or Variable FiO2? Variable FiO2 The device provides only SOME of the inspired gas The pt must draw the rest from the surrounding environment (room air) What happens if we mix O2 with room air? Dilutes the delivered O2 lowers FiO2 The result = variable FiO2 from breath to breath depending on pt demands Low Flow Systems: Uses They low flows (< 8 Lpm) are variable systems therefore the pts demands will affect the FiO2 9 Low Flow Systems: Nasal cannula Delivers an FIO2 of 0.24 to 0.40 Used with flow rates of ¼ to 8 L/min FIO2 depends on how much room air the patient inhales in addition to the O2. Device is usually well tolerated. Humidifier should be used with flows > 4 Lpm 10 Nasal Prongs / Cannula Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. How to Estimate the FiO2 for Nasal Cannula: FiO2 = 21% + (4 x #Lpm) Example: What is the approximate FiO2 when the flow meter is set at 2 Lpm? FiO2 = 21% + ( 4 x Lpm) FiO2 = 21% + ( 4x 2) FiO2 = 29% Reservoir Systems Incorporate a mechanism to gather and store O2 between pt breaths Pts draw from this reservoir when their inspiratory flows exceed the oxygen flow delivered by the device Instead of diluting with room air, they dilute with O2 results in a higher FiO2 13 Reservoir Systems Reservoir cannula Designed to conserve oxygen Nasal reservoir Pendant reservoir Can reduce oxygen use as much as 50% to 75% Humidification usually not needed Moustache Reservoir Cannula Pendant Reservoir Cannula 16 Reservoir Systems Reservoir masks Most commonly used reservoir systems Three types Simple mask Partial rebreathing mask Nonrebreathing mask I n c . 17 Simple Mask Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 18 Partial and Non - Rebreathers Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. 19 High Flow Systems Supply a given (or fixed) O2 concentration at a flow equaling or exceeding the patient’s peak inspiratory flow Use air-entrainment or blending system to mix air and oxygen at very specific ratios to determine a specific oxygen concentration Can ensure a fixed FIO2 20 Air Entrainment or Venti Mask Mosby items and derived items © 2009 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. High Flow Jet Nebs 22 Equipment for Aerosol Therapy Airway appliances Aerosol mask Face tent T-tube Tracheostomy mask All used with large-bore tubing 23 Equipment for Bland Aerosol Therapy Equipment for Bland Aerosol Therapy How do we know what to use? Nasal Cannula Uses: Stable pts requiring low FiO2 Home care pts requiring long term O2 Advantages Adults, peds and infants Easy to apply Disposable, inexpensive Well tolerated Can eat with them in place How do we know what to use? Nasal Cannula Disadvantages Easily dislodged High flows uncomfortable Can cause dryness and bleeding Variable FiO2s How do we know what to use? Reservoir (NRBR) Uses Emergencies Unstable pts (MI) Acute hypoxemia Smoke inhalation / CO poisoning CHF How do we know what to use? Reservoir (NRBR) Advantages High FiO2 Adults and peds Quick and easy to apply Disposable and inexpensive Disadvantages Uncomfortable Can’t eat with mask on Risk of aspiration if pt vomits Potential suffocation hazard How do we know what to use? Venti mask Uses: Advantages: Unstable pts requiring precise low FiO2 Pts with variable RR and Tidal Volume Easy to apply Disposable and inexpensive Stable, precise FiO2 Disadvantages: Uncomfortable Can’t eat with mask on Noisy Risk of aspiration if pt vomits How do we know what to use? Large Volume (Jet) Nebulizers Uses: Advantages: Pts with artificial airways Pts with supraglottic swelling To help mobilize secretions Provides humidification Provides fixed FiO2 Disadvantages: FiO2 varies with back pressure (ie condensation in tubing) Increased risk for infection FYIs O2 is a prescribed drug For every connection there is a possibility for a leak Vasoline and O2 don’t mix use a water based lubricant to treat nasal and lip dryness When in doubt, call RT, we are there to help!! Questions?