Presentation title slide - 42 pt Times New Roman, White

Report
Risk Reduction for Citizens and Fire
Department Members in Urban
Communities
®
URBAN FIRE FORUM
NFPA Urban Fire Forum
October 20 – 23, 2011
Quincy, MA
NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION
Glenn A. Gaines, Deputy Fire Administrator
The Urban Fire Problem
In The United States
2
What is an Urban Area?
 CHALLENGE:
Based on the Rural-Urban Commuting
Areas (RUCA) Classification System
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Economic Research Service's
http://depts.washington.edu/uwruca/ruca-data.php
3
Urban Areas and Non-Urban Areas
 Urban – contiguous built-up areas of 50,000 persons or
more
 Suburban – areas, often in metropolitan counties, with
high commuting flows to urban areas (not necessarily
dependent on population)
 Rural – towns with populations between 10,000 and
49,999
4
Data Sources
The data primarily used in the presentation are
based on:
 2007-2009 National Fire Incident Reporting
System (NFIRS) data
 2007 U.S. Census population data
 RUCA data by zip codes
5
U.S. Population by
Urban/Nonurban Areas
Rural
19%
Suburban
10%
Urban
71%
Sources: 2007 U.S. Census Bureau Population Estimates and Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes.
6
Fires Reported to NFIRS
by Urban/Nonurban Areas
Rural
26%
Urban
63%
Suburban
11%
Sources: 2007-2009 NFIRS and Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes.
7
Fire Deaths Reported to NFIRS
by Urban/Nonurban Areas
Rural
35%
Urban
54%
Suburban
11%
Sources: 2007-2009 NFIRS and Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes.
8
Fire Injuries Reported to NFIRS
by Urban/Nonurban Areas
Rural
17%
Suburban
7%
Urban
76%
Sources: 2007-2009 NFIRS and Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes.
9
Fire Dollar Losses Reported to NFIRS
by Urban/Nonurban Areas
Rural
26%
Urban
61%
Suburban
13%
Sources: 2007-2009 NFIRS and Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes.
Note: The 2007 and 2008 dollar loss values were adjusted to their equivalent 2009 dollar loss value.
10
Fires Reported to NFIRS by Urban/Nonurban Areas
within U.S. Census Regions
86.4
56.8
Urban
66.6
55.1
Northeast
Midwest
West
5.1
South
11.9
Suburban
9.7
14.4
8.5
31.2
Rural
23.7
30.5
0.0
20.0
40.0
60.0
80.0
100.0
Percent of Fires
Sources: 2007-2009 NFIRS and Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes.
11
Fires Reported to NFIRS by Month
within Urban/Nonurban Areas
Urban
Suburban
Rural
14.0
11.7 11.9
12.0
9.8 9.8
10.0
9.2
9.0
8.1
8.0
8.9 9.1
9.2
9.8
9.3
9.1
9.4
8.5
8.9
8.2
8.1
8.1
8.2
7.5
8.3
7.9
7.5
6.7
6.6
Percent of Fires
7.6
7.4
7.6
6.8
6.7
7.4
7.3
7.1
6.7 6.7
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
Month
Sources: 2007-2009 NFIRS and Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes.
12
Fires Reported to NFIRS by Time of Alarm
within Urban/Nonurban Areas
Urban
Suburban
Rural
9.0
8.0
7.0
6.0
Percent of Fires
5.0
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.0
Time of Alarm
Sources: 2007-2009 NFIRS and Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes.
13
Fires Reported to NFIRS by General Property Type
within Urban/Nonurban Areas
31.9
Residential
21.4
23.3
8.6
6.3
7.6
Nonresidential
Urban
14.8
13.3
12.7
Vehicle
Suburban
Rural
39.1
Outside
52.2
49.3
5.6
6.8
7.2
Other
0.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
Percent of Fires
Sources: 2007-2009 NFIRS and Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes.
14
Residential
Building Fires Reported to NFIRS
by Urban/Nonurban Areas
Rural
21%
Suburban
8%
Urban
71%
Sources: 2007-2009 NFIRS and Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes.
15
Residential
Building Fire Deaths Reported to NFIRS
by Urban/Nonurban Areas
Rural
34%
Urban
56%
Suburban
10%
Sources: 2007-2009 NFIRS and Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes.
16
Residential
Building Fire Injuries Reported to NFIRS
by Urban/Nonurban Areas
Rural
16%
Suburban
6%
Urban
78%
Sources: 2007-2009 NFIRS and Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes.
17
Residential
Building Fire Dollar Losses Reported to NFIRS
by Urban/Nonurban Areas
Rural
23%
Suburban
12%
Sources: 2007-2009 NFIRS and Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes.
Note: The 2007 and 2008 dollar loss values were adjusted to their equivalent 2009 dollar loss value.
Urban
65%
18
Loss Measures for Reported Residential Building Fires
by Urban/Nonurban Areas
(3-year average)
Residential Building Fires
Urban
Suburban
Rural
Deaths/1,000 Fires
4.4
6.6
9.4
Injuries/1,000 Fires
31.4
21.4
22.4
$15,310
$24,830
$19,230
Dollar Loss/Fire
Sources: 2007-2009 NFIRS and Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes.
Notes: Average loss for fatalities and injuries is computed per 1,000 fires; average dollar loss is computed
per fire and is rounded to the nearest $10. The 2007 and 2008 dollar loss values were adjusted to their
equivalent 2009 dollar loss value.
19
Reported Residential Building Fires by
Property Use within Urban/Nonurban Areas
58.9
One- and Two-Family
87.3
83.8
35.2
Multifamily
Urban
6.4
Suburban
Rural
9.1
6.0
Other Residential
6.4
7.2
0.0
20.0
40.0
60.0
80.0
100.0
Percent of Residential Building Fires
Sources: 2007-2009 NFIRS and Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes.
20
Reported Residential Building Fire Causes
within Urban/Nonurban Areas
Urban
Suburban
Rural
3.9
Intentional
2.8
3.8
0.6
0.5
0.6
Playing with Heat Source
1.9
1.3
1.4
Smoking
9.5
Heating
19.5
16.2
Cooking
43.3
18.2
18.1
5.2
Electrical Malfunction
7.8
8.6
2.0
2.0
1.8
Appliances
3.8
Open Flame
5.0
4.9
2.7
3.6
3.6
Other Heat
1.0
1.1
0.9
Other Equipment
1.1
Natural
2.4
1.9
1.8
2.4
1.8
Exposure
2.8
3.4
3.5
Equipment Misoperation, Failure
4.3
Other Unintentional, Careless
7.2
8.3
0.9
0.7
0.7
Investigation with Arson Module
15.2
Unknown
22.2
0.0
5.0
10.0
Sources: 2007-2009 NFIRS and Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes.
15.0
20.0
24.0
25.0
30.0
35.0
Percent of Residential Building Fires
40.0
45.0
50.0
21
Reported Fatal Residential Building Fire
within Urban/Nonurban Areas
Urban
Intentional
Suburban
Causes
Rural
6.8
2.1
4.4
0.7
1.5
1.0
Playing with Heat Source
Smoking
6.3
3.1
Heating
3.5
11.1
7.5
5.1
2.3
1.5
1.8
Cooking
5.8
6.6
7.2
Electrical Malfunction
1.0
0.3
1.0
Appliances
Open Flame
4.7
4.5
3.7
Other Heat
4.5
3.3
3.7
1.1
1.2
1.5
Other Equipment
0.2
0.6
0.9
Natural
0.3
0.3
0.6
Exposure
1.5
1.5
Equipment Misoperation, Failure
3.4
8.1
Other Unintentional, Careless
9.6
8.8
Investigation with Arson Module
3.4
6.1
5.4
42.7
Unknown
50.2
47.6
0.0
10.0
Sources: 2007-2009 NFIRS and Rural-Urban Commuting Area (RUCA) codes.
20.0
30.0
40.0
Percent of Fatal Residential Building Fires
50.0
60.0
22
Accessing NFIRS Web Based Report Summaries:

Your fire department must participate in NFIRS
 Contact your State NFIRS Reporting Representative in
order to set up an account. State contacts may be
found at:
http://www.usfa.dhs.gov/pocs/

Other NFIRS related questions may be directed to the
NFIRS Support Center
Telephone: (888) 382-3827
Email : [email protected]
23
Emerging Fire and EMS
Challenges, Risks and
Opportunities for Research
24
Forward to the Future
“Man
will not fly for 50 years.”
Wilbur Wright, co-inventor of the airplane,
1901

The First Manned Flight in History:
December 17, 1903
10:35 a.m.
Orville Wright: Distance covered 120 feet
Time aloft was 12 seconds
26
United States Population
1990 - 249 million
2009 - 307 million
Approximately 23% Increase
27
Worldwide Fire Situation
28
Worldwide Fire Situation
29
Demographics
30
Demographic Challenges
Ominous Impending Conditions
31
Demographic Challenges
High Risk Population
80 million Baby Boomers
Three leading causes of home deaths among
the senior population are:
 Trips and falls in the home
 Fires caused by portable space heaters
 Smoking and cooking fires
32
Demographic Challenges
Older Adult Fatalities in Home Fires
Caused by Cooking
 75> age group 3 times as likely to suffer a fire
related death
 85> age group 4 times more likely suffer a fire
related death
33
Demographic Challenges
 Approximately 85% of Fire Fatalities Every Year
Occur in Residential Occupancies
 77 % of Fire Related Injuries Occur in Residential
Occupancies
34
Senior Population
35
Demographic Predictions



Population 309 million now
Growth projection 392 million by 2050
More than a 50 percent increase from the 1990 population
-13%
(U. S. Census)
+40%
36
37
Fire Growth Patterns
38
NIST Studies
Available Safe Escape Time (ASET)
Typical Household
NIST Indiana Dunes II Study (R35) in 2007
3 minutes ASET
Compared to a similar study in 1975
17 minute ASET
39
40
From the Laboratory to the Field
41
Other Emerging Issues
Alternative Fuels
Antibiotic Resistant Infectious Diseases
Technology:
Smart vehicles
Robotics
Nanotechnology
42
Electric Cars Available
http://www.evsafetytraining.org/
43
44
Photovoltaic’s
45
Research on Sounder Technology
C3# – 138 Hz
C5 – 523.25
Hz
G7 – 3,136 Hz
47
Thank You!
48
49

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