HIV and HPV: What*s New for Men and women

Report
HIV and HPV:
What’s New for Men &
Women
Karla Maguire MD, MPH
Jorge Garcia, MD
Isabella Rosa-Cunha MD
JoNell Potter PhD, RN
University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HPV AND HIV &
SCREENING FOR CERVICAL CANCER
KARLA MAGUIRE MD, MPH
Financial Disclosures
• None
Objectives
• Discuss HPV and its association with
cancer
• Describe the ways HPV is different in
HIV positive women
• Understand screening for cervical
cancer in HIV negative and HIV positive
women
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)
• Common sexually transmitted infection
• > 100 types
– 40 infect cervix
– 13 oncogenic (16, 18, 31, 33…)  cancer
– 6, 11  genital warts
CDC Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections
in HIV-infected adults and adolescents, MMWR, 2009.
HPV is common
• Estimated Incidence: 6.2 million/year1
• Estimated prevalence: 20 million1
• Women 50 years of age: 80% will have
acquired genital HPV infection2
• Sexually active,15-24 years old, currently
infected: 9.2 million3
1. CDC National prevention Information network, 2004.
3. Weinstock H, Perspect Sex Reprod Health, 2004.
2. Cates W, Sex Transm Dis, 1999.
HPV and HIV
• HPV is more persistent in HIV positive
women
• Higher levels of HPV are detected in HIV
positive women
• Multiple HPV infections are more
common in HIV positive women
HPV and HIV - Persistence
HPV Type
HIV Positive :
Persistent HPV
Infection (%)
HIV Negative :
Persistent HPV
Infection (%)
High risk: HPV
16 associated
14.1
3.0
High risk: HPV
18 associated
8.2
0
Intermediate
risk
6.4
0.9
1.8
0.4
24.1
3.9
Low risk
Any
Sun XW, NEJM, 1997.
HPV and HIV - Persistence
Jamieson DJ, AJOG, 2012.
HPV and HIV – Higher levels
Measure of
Expression
PCR signal
intensity
(3 or 4)
Jamieson DJ, AJOG, 2012.
HIV positive
80.6%
HIV negative
PR
(95 CI)
62.6%
1.3
(1.1 – 1.5)
HPV and HIV – Multiple infections
Measure of
Expression
≥ 2 HPV
infections by
PCR
Jamieson DJ, AJOG, 2012.
HIV positive
37.8%
HIV negative
PR
(95 CI)
19.6%
1.9
(1.3 – 2.9)
Audience Response Question
• Which cancer is NOT associated with
HPV infection?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
Cervix
Vulva
Vagina
Ovary
Penis
Oral cavity
Oropharynx
CDC Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections
in HIV-infected adults and adolescents, MMWR, 2009.
HPV
• Persistent HPV infection can lead to:
– Warts
• Genital
• Anal
• Oral
– Cancer precursors
•
•
•
•
CIN
VIN
VAIN
AIN
– Cancer (squamous and adeno)
•
•
•
•
•
•
Cervix
Vulva
Vagina
Oral cavity
Penis
Oropharynx
HPV Symptoms
• Warts
– Flat, papular, pedunculated growths
– Millimeters to centimeters
– Multiple or single
– Asymptomatic, itching, discomfort
• Cancer precursors
– Asymptomatic
• Cancer
– Asymptomatic, bleeding, pain, mass
CDC Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections
in HIV-infected adults and adolescents, MMWR, 2009.
HPV and Cancer
Anatomic site
Total cancers*
% estimated
HPV attributable
fraction†
Cervix
11,820
100
Anus
4,187
85
Vulva/vagina
4,577
40
Penis
1,059
40
Oral/pharyngeal
29,627
15
* CDC. Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine: recommendations of the Advisory
Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR 2007;56(No. RR-2):1–24.
† Parkin M. Presented at the International Papillomavirus Conference, Vancouver,
Canada, 2005
U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group, http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/surv-manual/chpt05-hpv.pdf
Audience Response Question
• The incidence rate of cervical cancer in
women with AIDS is how many times
more than the general population?
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
2
3
5
9
20
Mbulaiteye SM, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 2003.
Cervical Cancer Screening
• USPTF recommendations for routine
screening
Moyer VA, Ann Intern Med, 2012.
Screening
• However, these new recommendations
do not apply to:
– Women who have received a diagnosis of
high grade precancerous cervical lesion or
cancer
– In utero exposure to DES
– Immunocompromised women
Moyer VA, Ann Intern Med, 2012.
Screening
• Screening for HIV positive women
– Twice the first year after diagnosis
– Annually thereafter
CDC Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections
in HIV-infected adults and adolescents, MMWR, 2009.
Screening
• HIV positive women should be referred
to colposcopy if their pap result is:
– ASCUS
– ASC-H
– AGC
– LSIL
– HSIL
• Currently insufficient evidence for use of
HPV as an adjunct to testing
CDC Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections
in HIV-infected adults and adolescents, MMWR, 2009.
Screening
Massad LS, JAIDS, 1999.
Results of screening
• Approximately 40 percent of HIV positive
women will need follow-up with
colposcopy!
EVALUATION AND TREATMENT OF
ANOGENITAL HPV INFECTIONS IN HIV
POSITIVE WOMEN
JORGE J GARCIA MD
Objectives
• Identify the clinical findings associated
with anogenital HPV infections
• Understand the histologic basis of
abnormal colposcopic/anoscopic
patterns
• Discuss treatment options for managing
anogenital intraepithelial neoplasia
Goals of Anogenital Cancer
Screening
• Identify and treat high-grade cancer
precursors.
• Reduce a woman’s risk of developing
invasive cancer.
• Prevent unnecessary and potentially
hazardous evaluations and treatment.
• Minimize costs to healthcare system.
Current Approach to Anogenital
Cancer Prevention
Requires 3 separate but linked components
– Screening (cytology with or without HPV DNA
testing)
– Evaluation of screen positive women using
colposcopy/anoscopy and biopsy
– Treatment of women with biopsy-confirmed
high-grade cancer precursors
Wright T, Obst Gynecol, 2004.
Hans Hinselmann
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File.HansHinselmann.png
Georgios N. Papanikolaou
http://medicalhistory.blogspot.com
Harald zur Hausen
http://www.bestontop10.org/?p=636
Anogenital Cancer Screening Today
•
•
•
•
•
•
Liquid media and sampling devices
Bethesda Classification
HPV testing
New screening guidelines
ASCCP algorithms
Anal screening- no guidelines
http://www.wcpl.com/physician_supplies.asp
Evaluation
•
•
•
•
•
•
Inspection
Bimanual examination
DRE (digital rectal examination)
Colposcopy
Digital imagining
Biopsies
Anatomy
http://healthy-life-for-all.blogspot.com
Clinical Findings
http://genital-warts-medication.com
Clinical Findings
http://genital-warts-medication.com
Clinical Findings
http://genital-warts-medication.com
Clinical Findings
http://www.shifa2006.net
Clinical Findings
http://genital-warts-medication.com
Bimanual Exam
http://www.epubbud.com/read.php?g=XWL9CAZ3&p=1
DRE (digital rectal exam)
http://artofanesthesia.blogspot.com
Colposcopy
• Localize the T-zone (squamo-columnar
junction.
• Evaluate the extent of the disease.
• Locate the area most suspicious (for
biopsy).
• Determine if invasive cancer exists.
Colposcope
http://screening.iarc.fr/colpo.php
http://screening.iarc.fr/colpo.php
Audience Response Question
Acetic acid has all of the following
properties except:
a) Coagulates and clears the mucous
b) Causes swelling of tissue
c) Is glycophilic
d) Causes a reversible coagulation and
precipitation of the nuclear proteins and
cytokeratins
• Reversible precipitation of nuclear proteins
and cytokeratins.
– Reaction known as Acetowhitening.
– Directly related to the nuclear density
Vazquez E. General Principles of Colposcopy, Residents Academic Day 7/22/2010 #7
•
•
•
•
Mature squamous epithelium = glycogen
CIN and invasive Cancer = no glycogen
Iodine is glycophilic
No uptake looks yellow (mustard color)
Vazquez E. General Principles of Colposcopy, Residents Academic Day 7/22/2010 #7
Colposcopy
Normal Cervix
http://screening.iarc.fr/colpo.php
Squamocolumnar Junction
• Intersection between cervical glandular
columnar epithelium and squamous epithelium
• Exposed columnar epithelium undergoes
gradual replacement by squamous epithelium
(squamous metaplasia)= Transformation Zone
• Location of neoplastic change
• Important landmark for
colposcopy
Auerbach R, www.coopersurgical.com/pages/residencyprograms.aspx
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
Vazquez E. General Principles of Colposcopy, Residents Academic Day 7/22/2010 #7
Dysplasia
Vazquez E. General Principles of Colposcopy, Residents Academic Day 7/22/2010 #7
Colposcopic Findings
The colposcopic diagnosis of cervical
neoplasia depends on the recognition of
four main features:
• Intensity (color tone) of acetowhitening
• Margins and surface contour of
acetowhite areas
• Vascular features
• Color changes after iodine application
Aceto-White Epithelium
Auerbach R, www.coopersurgical.com/pages/residencyprograms.aspx
Normal Vascular Patterns
http://screening.iarc.fr/colpo.php
Abnormal Vascular Patterns
Auerbach R, www.coopersurgical.com/pages/residencyprograms.aspx
Punctations
Auerbach R, www.coopersurgical.com/pages/residencyprograms.aspx
Mosaicism
Auerbach R, www.coopersurgical.com/pages/residencyprograms.aspx
Schiller’s test
Vazquez E. General Principles of Colposcopy, Residents Academic Day 7/22/2010 #7
Cervical Biopsy
http://screening.iarc.fr/colpo.php
Audience Response Question
All of the following are treatment options
for cervical dysplasia except:
a) Cryotherapy
b) Trichloroacetic acid
c) LEEP (loop electrocoagulation excision
procedure)
d) Laser vaporization
e) CKC (cold knife conization)
Cryotherapy
http://screening.iarc.fr/colpo.php
Loop Electrocoagulation
Excision Procedure
LEEP
http://my.clevelandclinic.org
Audience Response Question
New technologies likely to play a
significant role in anogenital cancer
screening in the future are:
a) p16 staining
b) Digital imaging and computerized
wavelength analysis
c) Viral DNA methylation
d) Anal cytology and anoscopy for high
risk patients
e) All of the above
Anal Screening
• Women with CIN, VIN, VAIN, and EGW
may also present with AIN.
• We should consider AIN as part of a
multicentric disease of the lower genital
tract .
• Anal cytologic screening should be
offered to these women.
ANAL HPV AND HIV
ISABELLA ROSA-CUNHA, MD
Financial Disclosures
• None
OBJECTIVES
• Anal Dysplasia and HIV
• Screening anal dysplasia
• Setting up anal dysplasia clinic
Patel P et al. Annals of Int Med 2008.
Johnson et al. Cancer 2004.
Audience Response Question
HIV-infected individuals at risk for anal
dysplasia are…
a) HIV-infected men who have sex with men.
b) HIV-infected men and women engaging in
anal sex.
c) HIV-infected men and women.
d) A+B.
Piketty C et al. Ann Inter Med 2003.
Holly E et al. J Natl Cancer Inst 2001.
ANAL HPV DISEASE
ANAL
HPV INFECTION
CONDYLOMA
ANAL INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA
AIN I,II,III
ANAL CANCER
ANAL INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA (AIN)
•IN A STUDY FROM SAN FRANCISCO
277 HIV-positive, 211 HIV-negative MSM
4 year follow up
Baseline anal cytology: normal, ASCUS or Low grade dysplasia.
49% HIV-positive progressed to high grade dysplasia.
17% HIV-negative progressed to high grade dysplasia.
•IN A STUDY FROM SEATTLE
158 HIV-positive, 147 HIV-negative MSM
No anal dysplasia at baseline
21 months follow up
15% HIV-positive developed high grade dysplasia.
5 % HIV-negative developed high grade dysplasia.
Palefsky AIDS 1998; Critchlow AIDS 1995.
CERVICAL/ANAL CANCER
•Caused by HPV.
•Arise at the transitional
zone from columnar to
squamous epithelium.
http//www.lab.anhb.uwa.edu.
Anal cancer like cervical cancer is
a potentially preventable
disease…
Audience Response Question
Does your HIV practice offer anal
dysplasia/cancer screening?
a) Yes
b) No
Mbulaiteye SM, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr, 2003.
There are no national and/
or international guidelines…
•New York HIV Clinical guidelines
In order to receive state or Federal HIV funding,
health centers
must perform routine anal pap smear in HIV-infected
individuals:
MSM, h/o anogenital condyloma and women with
abnormal
cervical and/or vulvar histology.
•Newly established society
International Anal Neoplasia Society (IANS).
http://ians.memberlodge.org
www.ucsfhealth.org/images/doctors
Joel Palefsky, MD. UCSF Medical Center
Anal Pap Smear Screening
Chin-Hong and Palefsky 2006.
DRE (digital rectal exam)
http://artofanesthesia.blogspot.com.
ANAL PAP SMEAR
Liquid Media
Polyester Swab
Pennsylvania/MidAtlantic AETC.
Anal Pap Smear: A Simple, Fast and Easy Procedure
Source: Pennsylvania/MidAtlantic AETC
Instructional video on performing anal Pap smears.
Available on CD-ROM. Call the Johns Hopkins Local Performance site
to order: 888-333-2855 (toll-free).
ANAL CYTOLOGY
http://5minuteconsult.com
Bethesda Criteria: no malignant cells, AS-CUS, LSIL, HSIL.
Adam et al. Gynecol Oncol 2012.
ANAL CYTOLOGY
•Sensitivity- 69% to 93%
•Specificity- 32% to 59%
Palefsky et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Synd Hum Retrovirol 1997; Mathews et al. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2004;
Lee et al. Int Conf AIDS 2004; Panther et al. CID 2004; Fox et al. Sex Transm Infect 2005; Salit at al. Annual Conference in Retroviruses
and Opportunistic Infections 2005.
AIDS Reader 2009. vol19 No5.
HISTOLOGY
Low-grade
squamous lesion
(LGAIN)
AIN I (mild dysplasia)
AIN II (moderate dysplasia)
High-grade
squamous lesions
(HGAIN)
AIN III (severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ (CIS))
TREATMENT
•Patient-applied:
5% imiquimod
0.5% podofilox gel
5% fluoracil cream
•Clinician-applied:
Cryotherapy
Infra red coagulation
Electrocautery
Laser ablation
COST- EFFECTIVENESS
•Anal cytology has previously been shown to be a cost-effective screening method
for the detection of squamous intraepithelial lesions
in populations at high-risk for developing anal carcinoma.
•Annual screening of HIV-positive MSM with anal Pap tests
provided an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $16,600 per quality-adjusted
life year saved.
•This ratio is comparable with other widely accepted
screening procedures, such as screening for colon cancer in the general population.
Goldie SJ et al. JAMA 1999; 281:1822–1829; Inadomi. Curr Opin Gatroenterol 2003.
DOES IT MAKE A DIFFERENCE?
Chiao EY et al. CID 2006: 43(15 July).
CERTIFICATION
•Currently there are no national and/or international specific
requirements
or board certification to perform HRA.
•You will need to work with your institution to request
privilege.
•There are colposcopy and HRA courses by ASCCP.
BILLING
There is no billing code for a visit for anal cytology collection.
There are billing codes for the cytology billing:
88108 for liquid based cytology.
88104 for conventional brushing.
88160 for anal-rectal smears using Dacron® swab.
88112 for selective cellular enhancement technique with interpretation.
BILLING
High resolution Anoscopy CPT Codes:
Category I
46600- Anoscopy w/wo collection specimen.
46606- Anoscopy w/Biopsy, single or multiple.
Category III
0226T- anoscopy High Resolution w/specimen collection.
0227T- anoscopy High Resolution w/biopsy.
The goal of screening is to detect anal dysplasia early and
eradicate AIN, preventing the progression of such lesions to
invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
The optimum use of HPV testing,
alternative screening methods
and impact of HPV vaccination on anogenital HPV infection
are yet to be defined.
A heighted awareness of anal cancer among HIV-infected
individuals is warranted and anal health should be an issue
of priority in HIV care.
Thank you!

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