Tier 2 Continuumx

Report
Tier 2 Continuum of Behavior Support
Data, Teaming & Intervention Systems
Chris Borgmeier PhD
Portland State University
[email protected]
www.tier2pbis.pbworks.com
Tier 2 & 3 Logic
Assessment & Intervention
Many
Minutes
Intensive
Increasing Minutes
Spent on Assessment
and Intervention
Few
Minutes
Targeted
Universal
School-Wide Assessment
School-Wide Prevention Systems
Few
Minutes
Teaming Structures & Processes
Screening
Decision Rules
Progress Monitoring
Individual PBIS

Efficient Teaming Process
◦ Clear roles, procedures & responsibilities

Intervention Focused
◦ Linked to Continuum of Interventions (Tier 1  2  3)
◦ Try the easy things first (Tier 2 Interventions)
◦ …then Tier 3 (FBA/BSP)

Data focused & Early Identification
◦ Progress Monitoring
◦ Student Identification through Systematic Screening
Individual PBIS
Team Responsibilities
Universal
Screening &
Identifying
Students at risk
Individual PBIS Team
Tier 2/3 Progress Monitoring
(Systems & Students)
Monitor Systems
(Tier 2 & Tier 3)
Team Members:
Administrator
Behavior Specialists
-e.g. SPSY, SPED
CICO Coordinator
-e.g. counselor, IA
Meets every 2 wks 30-45 min.
Monitor
Student
Progress
Match
Students to
Intervention
RESPONSE TO INTERVENTION (RTI)
From Tier 2 to Tier 3
Tier I
Tier II
Universal
SWPBIS
Team
Progress
Monitoring
Team
Plans SW
& Classwide
supports
Monitors
effectiveness
and fidelity of
Tier 2
Interventions
(overall and for
each student)
Trust the System -- Tier 2 Process
Maximizing # of minutes/ student
Sept. 1, 2009
Tier III
FBA Team
Conducts FBA,
develops BIP
NOT a standing
team
Student 1
FBA/BSP team
Student 2
FBA/BSP team
Administrator
Behavior Specialist
Student Centered
team
Individual PBIS Team
Tier 2/3 Progress Monitoring
(Systems & Students)
Team Members:
Administrator
Behavior Specialists
-e.g. SPSY, SPED
CICO Coordinator
-e.g. counselor, IA
Student 4
FBA/BSP team
Administrator
Behavior Specialist
Student Centered
team
Meets every 2 wks 30-45 min.
Administrator
Behavior Specialist
Student Centered
team
Student 3
FBA/BSP team
Administrator
Behavior Specialist
Student Centered
team
Student Screening &
Identification
Emphasize early identification
Individual PBIS
Team Responsibilities
Universal
Screening &
Identifying
Students at risk
Individual PBIS Team
Tier 2/3 Progress Monitoring
(Systems & Students)
Monitor Systems
(Tier 2 & Tier 3)
Team Members:
Administrator
Behavior Specialists
-e.g. SPSY, SPED
CICO Coordinator
-e.g. counselor, IA
Meets every 2 wks 30-45 min.
Monitor
Student
Progress
Match
Students to
Intervention
Universal Screening
Before the 1st Day of School

Review Data from last year
◦ Your school data
◦ And data on incoming students (if available)

Identify students who had Behavior Support Plans in
place per IEP (or otherwise)
◦ Prepare to implement BSP with necessary modifications from
beginning of the school year

Identify returning students with more than 5 referrals
last year who might benefit from behavioral support to
begin the year
Previous Years Discipline data
Who needs to be on our radar from Day 1?
Who had FBA/BSP’s last year?
Which students moved on? Which are returning this year?
Can we get data for our incoming class & new students?
Decision Rule
Returning Students (8+ referrals)
Three returning students had FBA/BSPs last year
◦ Students w/ 16, 11, & 10 referrals
◦ Make modifications to last years BSP & prepare to implement from
beginning of school year
These returning students did not have behavioral interventions in place
last year
Plan a Check-In Event
(orientation) for students
before the school year begins
Start Supports from the
beginning of year –
NO WAITING TO FAIL!

Robbie - 9 referrals last year
Jaden - 8 referrals last year
Jorge – 10 referrals last year
Logan – 11 referrals last year
Galen - 11 referrals last year

Get all 5 started on CICO during 1st week of school




Continuing Screening through the
Year

I-PBS team reviews student referral data
every 2 weeks at each meeting
◦ Many referrals might also go directly to the
CICO manager

Develop Decision Rules for continuing
Student Identification through the year
◦ Example: Students receiving 3rd referral or 2nd
in a month
Tier 2 & 3 -- RTI
Assessment & Intervention
Wraparound Supports
Refer to Tier 3 team:
Practical FBA
Intensive
Individualized Behavior
Support Plan
Modified CICO
Matched to Function
Non-Responder
Preliminary FBA
Borderline
Initial CICO Data
Screening
Referral Data
(ODRs)
Targeted
“Tweak”/ Small
change to CICO
Basic CICO
Universal
School-Wide Assessment
School-Wide Prevention Systems
Team Tasks – Universal Screening

Develop a plan for Universal Screening to implement before Day 1 of
the school year:
◦ Who will meet? when? & where?
◦ What data will you use to ID students for intervention?
◦ Develop DECISION RULES for identifying students:
 At the beginning of the year?
 On a continuing basis throughout the year
◦ Using your current data, which students do you want to target for
intervention NOW & Next Fall?
◦ What interventions & activities will you implement to support these
students from the beginning of the school year?
 CICO
 FBA/BSP
 Other?
Tier 2 & 3
Continuum of Interventions
Tier 2 & 3
Continuum of Interventions
Wraparound Supports
Intensive
Individualized Behavior
Support Plan
Modified CICO
Matched to Function
Targeted
“Tweak”/ Small
change to CICO
Basic CICO
Universal
School-Wide Assessment
School-Wide Prevention Systems
Questions about Tier 2 Interventions
Systems Considerations

What constitutes a Tier 2 Intervention?
◦ EFFICIENCY & MAXIMIZING RESOURCES
◦ An intervention that:
 Serves multiple students at one time (15-25 student at once)
 More efficient use of resources that 1 student at a time
 Students can get started with almost immediately upon referral
 Requires almost no legwork from referring staff to begin
implementation of the intervention with a student
 All school staff know about, understand their role with, and know
the referral process for
◦ SYSTEMS NOTE: Resources Required:
 If program is not self-sufficient… and requires significant
organization by referring staff… it’s not a Tier 2/ targeted
intervention
CICO
from Simple to Advanced

Start with Basic CICO
◦ Should work for the majority of at-risk students
◦ Complete CICO Fidelity Assessment

Once implementing CICO with fidelity &
using data for decision making
◦ Data for student identification
◦ Data for student progress monitoring to ID
responders/borderline/non-responders

Start adding variations of CICO
Major Features of Targeted Interventions






Intervention is continuously available
Rapid access to intervention (72 hr)
Very low effort by teachers
Consistent with school-wide expectations
Implemented by all staff/faculty in a school
Flexible intervention based on assessment
◦ Functional Assessment

Adequate resources (admin, team)
◦ weekly meeting, plus 10 hours a week


Student chooses to participate
Continuous monitoring for decision-making
CICO: Implementation Checks

SYSTEM
◦ Person assigned with FTE to coordinate &
manage daily implementation of CICO
◦ Bi-weekly team meetings for student referral/
identification for CICO & progress monitoring
◦ Materials & incentives readily available
◦ Staff-wide buy-in, commitment & training in roles,
responsibilities related to CICO
 Regular updates to staff on student data &
implementation
CICO: Implementation Checks

PRACTICES
◦ Reliable daily am check-in & pm check-out
◦ Students earn rewards for success (daily at first)
◦ Not punitive
CICO: Implementation Checks

DATA
◦ Daily collection of point card data
◦ Regular review of graphic student data for
decision making (at least every 2 weeks)
◦ Regular student referral for early
identification of at-risk students
Data Collection

Focus on Efficiency

Generic point card
◦ Expectations linked to School-wide rules
◦ Limited individualization
◦ We do not want to spend time tailoring the
point card at this level of intervention
Generic Point Card
No time spent individualizing
Team Task:
1. Take a few minutes to
complete the BEP-FIM as
a Self Assessment.
2 = In Place
1 = Partially In Place
0 = Not in Place
2. Identify actions
necessary to address
areas to improve CICO
implementation
CICO: Advanced Applications
Small Modifications or “Tweaks”
Additional Tier 2 Interventions

Remember focus on Efficiency in Progress
Monitoring Meeting
◦ Minutes per Student
 Tweak or Small CICO Modification
 Alternate Tier 2 Intervention (Function-based)
 Escalate to Tier 3 Student Centered team

Trust the Process
◦ Most difficult thing = not talking about a
student before it’s time
Tier 2 Assessment & Intervention
Intensive
Borderline
Initial CICO Data
Student
Referral Data
(ODRs)
Targeted
“Tweak”/ Small
change to CICO
Basic CICO
Universal
School-Wide Assessment
School-Wide Prevention Systems
Small Changes
“Tweaks”

In Progress Monitoring meetings – always weighing
Minutes/Kid
◦ Tweaks to the plan for Borderline Responders should only
take a couple of “minutes”
◦ Look at initial CICO data
◦ Not an extensive discussion

Should have a menu of quick changes/ “tweaks”:
◦
◦
◦
◦
Change CICO mentor
Change incentives
Change/individualize goals
More frequent check-ins -- “adding hair”
Borderline Responder
Last 3 weeks -- 10 of 16 days over 80%, but last 8 days -- 3 of 8 days over 80%
“just missing”… but downward trend
Good Candidate for a Small Change/ “Tweak”
In 2 minutes or less - Which change is most likely to work for this student?
Change (a) CICO mentor, (b) incentives, (c) individualize goals OR
(d) more frequent check-ins
Borderline Responder
Look at Initial CICO data
Quick Check:
Anything we can do
about Period 3?
Ready to Make Quick Changes

Readiness – what needs to be ready to make these
‘quick’ changes?
◦ Change/individualize goals
 Need alternate point card readily available to individualize
◦ Change CICO mentor
◦ Add Mid-Day Check-in & incentive
◦ Change incentives
 Individualize incentives for the student
◦ More frequent check-ins
 With teacher? With CICO Specialist?
 Need an adjusted point card?
Individualized Point Card
Fill in more specific behaviors
Individualized Point Card
Robbie
Oct. 14th 20--
More Frequent Check-Ins
“CICO Hair Club for Kids”
•Teacher gives more frequent feedback by applying hair – then uses
hair to inform overall score for period
•Another Alternative – Create alternate card which breaks day into
smaller intervals
Team Work Time

What ‘tweaks’ do you want to develop to be
ready for borderline responders?
◦ Adapt existing materials and/or Develop
new materials required to make ‘tweaks’
readily available and accessible?
◦ Remember in the meeting, decisions regarding
small intervention changes or ‘tweaks’ should
occur in less then 2 minutes of discussion….
“Ready to Go” intervention options/ “tweaks”
will make this as easy as possible
Non-Responders
Modified (Function-Based) CICO
Tier 2 Assessment & Intervention
Intensive
Modified CICO
Matched to Function
Non-Responder
Preliminary FBA
Borderline
Initial CICO Data
Student
Referral Data
(ODRs)
Targeted
“Tweak”/ Small
change to CICO
Basic CICO
Universal
School-Wide Assessment
School-Wide Prevention Systems
Non-Responder
Typical Reasons CICO may not be
working for an individual student
Address
Implementation
Issue
Individualize
Tier 2
1)
2)
3)
4)
Escalate to
Tier 3 Support
5)
Low fidelity of implementation
The student needs more instruction
on how to use the program
The rewards are not powerful or
desirable for the student
The program does not match the
function of the problem behavior
The student requires more intensive,
individualized support
Behavioral Explanations for “Why”
 Don’t
forget - From student’s perspective,
problem behavior serves a purpose, such
as…
◦ Gaining attention
◦ Gaining access to activities or tangible items
◦ Avoiding or escaping from something student
finds unpleasant (e.g. difficult or undesired tasks)
Using Function of Behavior to Inform
CICO Modifications

Individual Student Planning
◦ Can use “Function of Behavior” to match
students to appropriate version of CICO
◦ Function-Based Assessment might include:
 Data from ODRs “Possible Motivation”
 Or Preliminary/Brief FBA
Minor – “Uh-Oh”
Preliminary FBA

Use existing data for preliminary FBA
◦ ODR data
 Identify function/motivation
 Identify antecedents – time/location/persons
involved, etc.
◦ CICO data
 Identify antecedents – time/location
Non-Responder
Preliminary FBA
Does this tell us anything
about when/ where/ who is
involved (antecedents)?
Preliminary FBA

Discipline Referral Summaries
◦ Suspensions, detentions, office referrals
◦ Look for patterns
 Triggers/Antecedents  Day of the week, Time of
Day, Location, Students Involved
 Behavior
 Consequences/Function  Possible Motivation,
Disciplinary Action, Administrative Decision
Student Referral Report - SWIS
Date
Staff
Time
Location
Prolem
Behavior
Motivation
Others
Involved
Admin
Decision
1 02/08/11
43866
12:15PM
Plygd
Agg/Fight
Unknown
mot
Peers
Out-sch
susp
2 01/28/11
47522
1:30PM
Class
Disrespt
Avoid Task
Teacher
Detention
3 01/10/11
47522
10:30AM
Class
Disrespt
Avoid Task
Teacher
Detention
4 12/18/10
47522
9:30AM
Class
Disrespt
Avoid Task
Teacher
Detention
5 12/08/10
47522
1:00AM
Class
Disrespt
Avoid Task
Peer
Detention
6 12/08/10
47522
10:15AM
Class
Disrespt
Avoid Task
Teacher
Parent
7 11/20/10
47522
9:30PM
Class
Disrespt
Avoid Task
Teacher
Parent
How about when/ where/
who (Antecedents)?
Does this tell us anything
about the function of
student behavior?
Advanced Applications of CICO
Function-Based Modifications
of CICO
Breaks Are Better
Function = Escape Task (elem)
Justin Boyd
University of Oregon
Logic Guiding Breaks are Better

Children may benefit from taking small,
appropriate breaks

If breaks are available, students may:
◦ Engage in less escape-maintained problem
behavior
◦ Request breaks less often than escape-maintained
problem behavior occurred

Increased reinforcement for:
◦ Asking for assistance
◦ Taking a break appropriately
CICO Modification Elementary
Escape Academic Task

Explicitly teach an alternative/replacement
behavior (i.e., break requests)

Promote self-management by teaching students
to “keep track” of their breaks

Establish & Teach teachers (and students) how
this will look in the classroom

Make it feasible and sustainable for classroom
teachers to implement
Breaks are Better Modifications

Prior to intervention:
◦ Child & teacher identify appropriate “break” activities
◦ Student is taught:
 How to request a break
 How to take a break
 How to return to work

Points earned for:
◦ Meeting academic-specific expectations
◦ Asking for break appropriately or not needing a break
◦ Weekly point total tied to reinforcers
Sample Break Options & Rewards






Break Options
Weekly Rewards
Move to separate desk
for quiet activity
Quiet activity at desk
Drawing
Doodle on notebook
Stretch in backroom
Run errand for teacher






Computer time
Extra Recess
Coupon for bonus
points on assignments
Coupons for buddy
work
Coupon to make
assignment shorter or
easier
Library pass
Breaks are Better Card
Taking a Break in the Classroom
ABC: Academic Behavior CICO
Function = Escape Task (MS)
Jessica Turtura
University of Oregon
Logic Guiding ABC

Students benefit from organizational structure

More frequent and tangible reinforcement for:
◦
◦
◦
◦

Recording assignments
Completing in-class work & participating
Asking for help
Completing homework
Parental structure for homework completion:
◦ Parents are aware of assignments
◦ Parents check for completion
Academic focused CICO (Escape Tasks)
Middle School
•
Morning Check-in
– Students check-in with counselor
– All homework completed? Prepared for the school day with all necessary
materials?
– Opportunity to complete unfinished homework and to gather materials
•
Daily point card and Homework tracker
– Receive feedback each period about behavior during class (participation, staying ontask, completing work)
– Record assignments on homework tracker
•
Afternoon Check-out
– Check-out with counselor
– Review point card and homework tracker
– Does student know what is due tomorrow? Have all materials needed to complete
assignments?
•
Home Component
– Parents review daily feedback with student
– Sign card to indicate if student has completed all homework
ABC Modifications

Prior to intervention – coordinator meets w/ parents

Morning Check-In: Assess & give bonus pts for:
◦ Materials Ready & Homework Completed

Afternoon check-out: Check Tracker

Expectations focus on Academic Behaviors + Add’l
Expectation of completing Tracker

Parent signature with focus on Homework
Completion
ABC Point Card -- Front
ABC Point Card -- Back
Non-Responders
Escalate to Tier 3
Tier 2 Assessment & Intervention
Refer to Tier 3 team:
Practical FBA
Intensive
Individualized Behavior
Support Plan
Modified CICO
Matched to Function
Non-Responder
Preliminary FBA
Borderline
Initial CICO Data
Student
Referral Data
(ODRs)
Targeted
“Tweak”/ Small
change to CICO
Basic CICO
Universal
School-Wide Assessment
School-Wide Prevention Systems
Non-Responder
Tweak
ABC
CICO
After multiple interventions, including
match to function-based CICO
RTI  Time to move to Tier 3 Support
Student 1
FBA/BSP team
Administrator
Behavior Specialist
Student Centered
team
Meeting 1
Permissions
Coordinate
Assessment (FBA)
Meeting 2
Review Assessment&
Finalize
Implementation Plan
Meeting 3
Monitor Student
Progress &
Review/Modify
Plan
Individual PBIS Team
Tier 2/3 Progress Monitoring
(Systems & Students)
Team Members:
Administrator
Behavior Specialists
-e.g. SPSY, SPED
CICO Coordinator
-e.g. counselor, IA
Meets every 2 wks 30-45 min.
Meetings
Ongoing as needed to
Monitor Student Progress &
Review/Modify Plan
Student 1
FBA/BSP team
Student 2
FBA/BSP team
Administrator
Behavior Specialist
Student Centered
team
Individual PBIS Team
Tier 2/3 Progress Monitoring
(Systems & Students)
Team Members:
Administrator
Behavior Specialists
-e.g. SPSY, SPED
CICO Coordinator
-e.g. counselor, IA
Student 4
FBA/BSP team
Administrator
Behavior Specialist
Student Centered
team
Meets every 2 wks 30-45 min.
Administrator
Behavior Specialist
Student Centered
team
Student 3
FBA/BSP team
Administrator
Behavior Specialist
Student Centered
team
A Proactive Approach to Behavior Support
Planning
• Majority of problem behaviors that teams encounter do not
require comprehensive FBA-BSP (Loman & Horner, in press)
• Using simplified FBA-BSP procedures that “match” the level and
intensity of problem behavior
• Provide FBS at the first signs of persistent problem behavior
Basic FBA:
Complex FBA:
Behaviors and Maintaining
Functions are Easily Defined
and Identified
Behaviors and Maintaining
Functions Vary, and are not Easily
Defined and/or Identified
District Behavior
Support Specialist
Train and
coach PBIS
at all three
tiers
Support
Teams
building
behavior
support
plans from
Assessment
information
Train 1-2
people per
school to
conduct
“basic”
FBA/BSP
Building Capacity for FunctionBased Support

Basic FBA2BSP Training

Series of 7 - 90 minute trainings
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
 (each training spaced about 2 weeks apart)
Session 1: Basics of Behavior
Session 2: FBA Interview
Session 3: FBA Observation
Session 4: Function-Based Intervention
Session 5: Behavior Support Planning
Session 6: Implementation Planning
Session 7: Evaluation Plan & Monitoring
Format of
Basic FBA to BSP Training Sessions
Objectives
Checks for
Understanding
Review
Comments/
Questions
Activities
Tasks
Key Points

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