2. Computers: The Machines Behind Computing

Report
MIS
CHAPTER 2
COMPUTERS: THE
MACHINES BEHIND
COMPUTING
Hossein BIDGOLI
1 laptop per child
Get me the Geeks
Chapter 2 Computers: The Machines Behind Computing
learning outcomes
LO1
Define a computer system and describe its
components.
LO2
Discuss the history of computer hardware and
software.
LO3
Explain the factors distinguishing computing power
of computers.
LO4
LO5
Describe the major operations of computers
Summarize the binary system and data
representation.
Chapter 2 Computers: The Machines Behind Computing
l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s (cont’d.)
LO6
Discuss the types of input, output, and memory
devices.
LO7
LO8
LO9
Explain how computers are classified.
Describe the two major types of software.
List the generations of computer languages.
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1. Increase employee productivity by reducing time,
errors and costs using
2. Enhance decision making
3. Improve team collaboration
4. Create business partnerships and alliances
5. Enable global reach all over the world taking into
consideration the culture of each nation or society.
6. Facilitate organizational transformation as the
organization evolves and responds to the ever-changing
marketplace.
4
Output Device
Monitor
Input Device
Keyboard
Processing Device
The System Unit
A5
Exhibit 2.1
The Building Blocks of a Computer
Motherboard
• Central Processing Unit (CPU)
•
•
•
•
RAM and _________
Secondary Storage Devices (e.g. hard drive)
Slots - connecting specialty processors
___________ - connecting input/output devices
A-7
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Called the “_________________________”, its role is to perform
the operations of the computer using two components:
• Control Unit – this device interprets instructions and
transmits direction to the computer’s components
• Arithmetic Logic Unit – this device performs math
as well as logical operations by interpreting and
executing instructions
A-8
Moore’s Law (1970s)
Dr. Gordon Moore from Intel
hypothesized that processing
performance would double every
18 months
CPU Processing
Intel Pentium IV
CPU packs 55
million transistors
A-9
Table 2.1
The History of Computer Hardware
Hardware Generators
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Factors that exceed human capacities:
◦ Speed
◦ Accuracy
◦ Storage and retrieval
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Input devices
◦ Send data and information to computer
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Types
◦
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Keyboard
Mouse
Touch screen
Light pen
____________
Data tablet
Barcode reader
– Optical character reader
– Magnetic ink character recognition
system
– Optical mark recognition system
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Output devices
◦ For mainframes and personal computers
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Soft copy
◦ Monitor
 Cathode ray tube (CPT), plasma, liquid crystal display (LCD)
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Hard copy
◦ Printer
 Inkjet, laser
◦ Voice
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Main memory
◦ Stores data and information
◦ Volatile
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Secondary memory
◦ ______________________
◦ Holds data when the computer is off or during
course of a program's operation
◦ Serves as archival storage
Primary Storage
This storage is used for temporary storage to support computer
processing and comes in RAM and ROM types
Random Access Memory (RAM)
Read-Only Memory (ROM)
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
(EEPROM or also called Flash Memory)
A-15
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Magnetic disks
◦ Made of mylar or metal
◦ Used for random-access processing
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Magnetic tape
◦ Made of a plastic material
◦ Stores data sequentially
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____________ discs
◦ Use laser beams to access and store data
◦ CD-ROM, WORM, DVD
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Other secondary memory
◦ Hard disk
◦ USB flash drive
◦ Memory card
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Redundant array of independent disks (RAID)
system
◦ Collection of disk drives used for fault tolerance
and improved performance
◦ If one disk in the array fails, data isn’t lost
Table 2.4
Capacity of Secondary Memory Devices
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Classify based on:
◦ Cost, amount of memory, speed, sophistication
Supercomputers
Mainframe
Computers
Workstations
A-20
Personal
Computers
Tablet PC
Notebook
Handheld Computer
http://www.microsoft.com/uk/windowsmobile/business/videocasestudies.mspx
http://pergatory.mit.edu/robotworld/multimedia/index.html
A-21
Network
Computers
1 laptop per child
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The ______________ _____________ refers to
the gap between people with effective access
to digital and information technology and
those with very limited or no access at all.
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Also called:
◦ Pervasive computing
◦ Third wave computing
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Wearable computers
◦ Cell phones
◦ Medical devices
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Server
◦ Computer and all the software for managing
network resources and offering services to a
network
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Types of servers
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Application
Database
Disk
Fax
File
Mail
– Print
– Remote access (RAS)
– Web
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All the programs that run a computer system
Classified broadly as:
◦ System software
◦ Application software
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Operating system (OS)
◦ Set of programs for controlling and managing
computer hardware and software
◦ Provides an interface between a computer and the
user
◦ Increases computer _________________ by helping
users share computer resources and performing
repetitive tasks for users
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Operating system control programs
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Job management
_______________ allocation
Data management
Communication
Kernel
◦ Supervisor program
◦ Responsible for controlling all other programs in
the OS
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Application software
◦ Commercial software or software developed inhouse
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Software types
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Word processing
Spreadsheet
Database
Presentation
Graphics
Desktop publishing
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Free Web-based application for creating
◦ Word processor documents, spreadsheets,
presentations, and forms
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Create and edit document
Collaboration in real time
Save in various formats
_______ computing (Dropbox)
◦ Security risks
Table 2.2
Computer Language Trends
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Machine language
◦ 0s and 1s
◦ Code written for one type of computer does not
work on another
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Assembly language
◦ Higher level than machine but still machine
dependent
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High-level languages
◦ C++, Java, VB.Net
◦ Used for Web development and the Internet
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Fourth generation languages
◦ Easiest to use
◦ SQL
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Fifth-generation languages (5GLs)
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____________ -based systems
Natural language processing (NLP)
Visual programming
Graphical approach to using programming
Get me the Geeks
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Components and distinguishing factors of
computers
Brief history of computer hardware and
software
Input, output, and memory devices
Classifications for computers
Different types of software
Generations of computer languages

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