3.11 MB - National Association of Child Care Resource and Referral

Report
Reducing the Achievement Gap: Native American Programs that Produce Results
•Laurie Hand, Cherokee Nation
•Sherry Rackliff, Delaware Tribe of Indians
•Dallas Pettigrew, Cherokee Nation,
•Kim Nall, Colusa Indian Community
Overview
• Tribal overview and funding
• Native American Student
Achievement
• Perspectives from three
tribes
– Organizing the early childhood
community
– Tribal culture and early childhood
practices
– Incorporating current trends in tribal
child care centers
Tribal Child Care
• 566 Federally
recognized American
Indian and Alaska
Native Tribes
•
260 tribal Child Care
and Development
Fund Grantees
representing 539
tribes
American Indian Student Achievement
Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Florida, Hawaii, Michigan. Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas,
Utah, Washington, Wyoming
School Completion
Of every 100 White
Kindergartners:
Of every 100
American Indian
Kindergartners:
94 Graduate from
71 Graduate from
high school
high school
66 Complete at least
30 Complete at
some college
least some college
34 Obtain at least a
7 Obtain at least a
bachelor’s degree
bachelor’s degree
Source: The Education Trust, 2001.
“Native students have the highest dropout rate in the nation. Without education they are
disempowered and disenfranchised” (Indian Nations At Risk, 1991)
American Indian Student Achievement
• Early Childhood
Longitudinal Studies
– As late as 22 months cognitive
gaps do not exist between
Native American Children and
others
– By kindergarten significant
gaps are evident
Working within our communities
• Purpose is to educate – to make them
understand and care about the quality of
early childhood programs
• To change a way of thinking about the
education of young children
• Not just about funding for early childhood want them to understand and care
Working within our communities
• Build relationships
• Do not always go to them asking for small
donations - with hand out
• Funding may follow but it is after the
relationship is established and they
understand importance of EC
• Be sincere
Working within our communities
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Relationships
Take the time
Don’t give up
Send email’s
Invite them to speak
Attend community events
Keep telling your stories
Listen to their stories – and be sincere
Make volunteer time
meaningful.
• Relationships
• Sincerity
Involve community members in what you do and
what you promote.
Involvement
• Relationships
• Share about their
occupations
• Invite them when
appropriate
• Not too often
• Remember – it needs to be meaningful –
for the children and for the community
leader
Listen, participate, sincerity
• Listen to what they have to say – really
listen and comment about something they
said about what was important to them the
next time you meet
• Participate in community boards, activities,
events
• Be sincere!
Involve the media – and parents!
•
Nearly 15 community members — including Representative Earl Sears, Representative Steve Martin
and Senator John Ford — started Tuesday morning off with doughnuts and coffee before boarding a
bus and heading to several local child development centers.
•
The goal of the Child Watch Tour was to raise awareness of the problems affecting local children and
families, with a limited number of quality childcare programs in this area.
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The group met at the Delaware Child Development Training Center for lunch and to discuss the
findings and issues that were raised during the visits. Arlette Denton, a parent of a two-year-old child
addressed the group regarding her search for quality care for her daughter, Juliana. She was very
aware of the type of care that children require and wanted Juliana to be in a program that would
develop her cognitive skills as well as her social and emotional well-being. She was on a waiting list
for several months before she could find the type of care she knew would benefit her daughter. The
group discussed possible solutions to the shortage of quality childcare slots in Washington County,
including mentoring child are providers, looking at options to recruit other childcare organizations to
open centers in Bartlesville and working with the community to provide childcare during non-traditional
hours.
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The Child Watch Tour was an initiative of Sx6/Smart Start Bartlesville operated by Delaware Child
Development. Sherry Rackliff, Executive Director of the DCD said, “The child watch tour was a great
success because it raised awareness for the need for quality care for young children in our society and
the community’s responsibility to see that children receive a strong foundation during their formative
years of growth.”
Child Watch Tours
The Extra Touch!
• State Representative Earl Sears
help – State Senator John Ford
• Business leader’s children
• Or grandchildren
• Ask for advice from business
leaders that have an interest in EC
and a strong leadership or
management background – they
can see it from a different angle
• Senator Coburn’s staffer
• Be sincere
Funding opportunities may follow…
• 8 years - funding cuts businesses donating funds
because they know it is important
• Tribe donates buildings - use HUD ICDBG to build
centers and office buildings to support EC
• Rotary Club – attends every week at lunch
meeting - brought in EC speakers several times to
present information - one of their focuses is on EC
and donates to our program annually - not large
amount but it is because they know it is important
• Remember the PURPOSE is to educate
• And that is about building relationships
Commitment
• We not only want to educate the
communities about how important the
early years in a child’s life is to his
development and future
• We know the importance
of the work we do with
young children
• We want the community to
understand and care
Change in societal view
• We want their heart and soul invested in
early childhood
• Only then will we be
able to make a
difference
• Make that commitment
of time to invest in the
community
• Mind shift – a shift of societal view of early
childhood education
A Discussion on the Overlap Between
Current Evidence-Based Best-Practices in
Child Care and Development
and
Traditional Child Rearing Practices of the
Cherokee and Other Hunter/Gatherer
Societies
The Problem
• Maladapted children
– Don’t get along with others
– Struggle to function with peers and groups
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ADD/ADHD, etc.
Obesity
Violence
School failure
The economy…
Current Evidence-Based Best
Practices for Optimal Development
Optimal Development is easy as math…
The Child
+
Things that Help
–
Things that Hurt
Optimal Development!
Things that Hurt
(Impair Optimal Development)
• Child Abuse (Physical, Emotional, Sexual)
• Child Neglect (Physical, Emotional,
Educational)
• Mother Treated Violently
• Household Substance Abuse
• Household Mental Illness
• Parental Separation or Divorce
• Incarcerated Household Member
Courtesy 2007 Kids Count ACEs Study
The Brain
http://www.ahaf.org/assets/images/anatomy_of_brain_border.jpg
The Brain
http://healthpages.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/brain-functions.jpg
Things that Hurt
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Brain DVD’s
Baby Carriers
Pacifiers (not binky’s)
Solitude
Lack of interaction
Lack of touch
Things that Help
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Natural childbirth
Breastfeeding
Interaction with many caregivers
Parent skill-building by peers and family
Unstructured play
Nature
Multiple age-groups
More
Natural Childbirth
• Oxytocin (the Love Hormone) is released during
labor and delivery and facilitate the mother-baby
bonding process. These hormones provide
moms with the energy and instinct to nurture
their children.
• Oxytocin promotes contractions, dilation of the
cervix, positioning of the baby, expulsion of the
placenta, limits blood loss and promotes
lactation.
www.childbirthconnection.org/article.asp?ck=10184
Natural Childbirth
• Another hormone released: Endorphins
– Endorphins relieve pain and calm; “natural
opiate”
– Epidurals decrease the level of endorphins
released by the brain
– Endorphins can balance adrenaline which
can work to stall pregnancy
Breastfeeding
• Promotes oxytocin release in mother and
child (calms both, increases bonding)
• “Liquid Gold” (colostrum) is the first
breast milk made after birth
• Breast milk changes as the baby ages
• Easier to digest
• Fights disease
www.womenshealth.gov/breastfeeding/why-breastfeeding-in-important/
Many Caregivers
• Children who are held and attended to
have better outcomes developmentally.
• Busy parents may not be able to attend to
a child constantly.
• Additional caregivers support child care
and safety of children.
• Protective Factor: An extra adult
caregiver for children.
Parenting Skill Building
Best practices in parenting says that, “Children
with authoritative parents (high-warmth, highcontrol) do significantly better on a range of
psychosocial outcomes than do (other)
children…” and “The most successful parents
combine clear, consistently enforced rules with
warmth and responsiveness.”
Rhodes, J.E. & Spencer, R., (2010, Summer). Structuring mentoring relationships for
competence, character, and purpose. New Directions for Youth Development. doi:
10.1002/yd.356
Unstructured Play
• Children need to use their imaginations to help
them develop creativity, innovation and
ingenuity. Unstructured play also promotes
independence, patience and confidence.
• Imaginative play is healthy and easy! Put a
child in front of a refrigerator box and you’ll see
him play for days.
• Unstructured time decreases stress and anxiety
and promotes cognitive development.
Unstructured Play Citations
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Steinman, E. (2012, February 4). Unstructured play makes kids smarter. Care 2 Make A Difference. Retrieved
from: http://www.care2.com/greenliving/unstructured-play-makes-kids-smarter.html
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Scholastic (n.d.) The joys of doing nothing. Retrieved from: http://www.scholastic.com/resources/article/the-joysof-doing-nothing
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Entin, E. (2011, October 12). All work and no play: Why your kids are more anxious, depressed. The Atlantic.
Retrieved from: http://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2011/10/all-work-and-no-play-why-your-kids-are-moreanxious-depressed/246422/
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Starling, P.E., (2011, May 16). An investigation of unstructured play in nature and its effect on children’s selfefficacy. Doctorate in Social Work (DSW) Dissertations. Paper 15. Retrieved from:
http://repository.upenn.edu/edissertations_sp2/15
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American Academy of Pediatrics (n.d.). New AAP report stresses play for healthy development. AAP Newsroom.
Retrieved from: http://www2.aap.org/pressroom/play-public.htm
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Mulligan, D.A., (2011, December 26). The importance of play in promoting healthy child development and
maintaining strong parent-child bond: Focus on children in poverty. Pediatrics 129.1. doi: 10.1542/peds.20112953. Retrieved from: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/129/1/e204.full
Nature
• http://www.whitehutchinson.com/children/
articles/benefits.shtml
• Tribal people have always used nature as
a setting for play for children.
Mixed Age Groups
• Children who group up in their natural
extended families have time with children
of various ages all around them. Siblings
and cousins are of many ages and there
are significant benefits.
• Children learn sharing, cooperation,
respect, leadership, and how to fight!
http://www.pac.dodea.edu/edservices/educationprograms/Research%20article.pdf
We could go on…
• We could talk about:
– Community gardens
– Shared resources
– Sense of belonging
– Shared concern for society
– Empathy and care for others
– Social isolation as a means of promoting
expectations
– And more…
An interesting author
• Darcia Narvaez
• Google her and “hunter/gatherer”
Healthy From the Start!
• Strategies that work
• Family involvement
• Community involvement
Obesity Epidemic
The fight against
childhood obesity
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Dramatic increases in the number of
children preschool aged, who are
overweight or obese (prevalence of
obesity has more than doubled in the
past 30 years (CSREES, 2005).
Habits around eating and exercise
behaviors are formed in the early
childhood years, which makes these
years the best time for prevention of
obesity
Garden projects are a great way to
help form healthy approaches to
eating
www.earlysprouts.org
Website for early childhood that helps
cultivate healthy food choices.
Gardening with Kids
Children who garden are in touch with nature and food in
a way that makes sense!
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Growing fruits and vegetables can be a family,
Community or school effort
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Gardening can help stretch food dollars
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Children can be a source of education for their family.
Children can influence their parents to eat healthy too
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Through garden efforts children and families form
a bond, learn life lessons, give back to community,
exert energy and use imagination
Junior Master Gardeners www.jmgkids.us
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Keep it simple – start small
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It’s okay to be messy!
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Gardens don’t have to be perfect
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Grow “quick gratification” plants like radishes and
sunflowers
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If space is limited try container gardening
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Get a map of your states garden planting guides for seeds
And transplants
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Don’t be afraid to experiment
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Be creative, have fun!
Resources:
Life Lab Science Program
Santa Cruz, CA
www.lifelab.org
Allow Children to Explore Nature!
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Children who are outdoors are more physically
active than those who are primarily indoors
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Get active – aim for a total of 60 minutes (min) for
children and 30 minutes (min) for adults per day
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Explorations and connections with nature provide a
variety of health benefits:
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Intellectually
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Emotionally
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Socially
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Spiritually
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Physically
“Unstructured free play brings cognitive, social and
health benefits to children”.
Cognitive benefits include creativity, problem solving,
focus and self-discipline. Social benefits include
cooperation, flexibility, and self-awareness.
Emotional benefits are stress reduction, reduced
aggression, and in increased happiness.
2010 Children & Nature Network
Let’s Move in Indian Country
(LMIC) & Let’s Move! Child Care
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LMIC - Goals
Create a healthy start on life for children
Creating healthier schools
Ensure access to healthy, affordable, and
where possible, traditional foods
Increase opportunities to be physically
active
Develop a food policy council/committee
*Handouts w/more information will be
provided
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Let’s Move Child Care - Goals
Provide 1 – 2 hours of physical activity
throughout the day, including outdoor
time
o Screen time – no more than 30 minutes
per week during child care, and no more
than 1-2 hours of quality screen time per
day. No screen time for children under 2.
o Serve fruits or vegetables at every meal,
eat meals family style, no fried foods
o Provide access to water during meals
and throughout the day, do not serve
sugary drinks. For children over 2, serve
low-fat (1%) or non-fat milk. Limit
juice(100%) to one 4 -6 oz /day
o Infant Feeding – help support mothers
who breastfeed at child care.
What does it look like?
Playing outdoors!
Eating Healthy Foods:
Be a role model
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Children follow your lead – have a
policy for nutrition and health in
your program
Get up and move with the children
Eat nutritious family style meals
with children
Try new foods – be open-minded
yourself!
Be prepared to follow children’s
lead – let them lead an activity
Implement a community training
around Let’s Move!
Physical Activity
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Improves self-esteem
Increases fitness levels
Helps to build and maintain bones,
muscles and joints
Helps with flexibility
Lowers your risk for heart disease,
cancer and type 2 diabetes
Relieves stress
Helps with school performance
Leads to building a foundation for
lifetime physical activity
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You can break up the time into 10
– 15 minute increments
Strive for 60 minutes of activity at
least per day
There is no wrong way to play!
Provide a safe environment
Family & Community Involvement
• Family
Involvement:
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When you host a family event, engage
the group in a physical activity to join
in together
Have a garden planning/work day –
invite families to join you
Provide samples from your menus for
the families to try during family events
Invite your families to join you in a
meal; cook the meal together
Provide newsletters, resources and
materials for families about the
importance of physical activity and
nutrition
• Community
Involvement:
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Ask your community to help organize a
community or school garden
• Invite community members to your
programs to see what you are doing
around nutrition and physical activities
• Implement a Farm to School program
www.ecotrust.org/farmtoschool/Farmto-Preschool-101.ppt - Stacey Sobell
• From our Farms
http://gloucester.rcre.rutgers.edu/fchs/from
ourfarms.html
www/ourcommunityyourkids.org – San
Diego County , CA
Newly formed Sub-Committee
Farm to Preschool – National
Resources
Children & Nature Network –
www.childrenandnature.org
Early Sprouts –
www.earlysprouts.org
From Our Farms –
http://gloucester.rcre.rutgers.edu/fchs/fromourfar
ms.html
Growing a Green Generation –
http://horticulture.unh.edu/ggg.html
Harvest of the Month –
http://healthycalifornia.ocde.us/For_Educators/
Pre-K.htm
Show Me Nutrition –
http://extension.missouri.edu/publications/Displa
yPub.aspx?P=SMN100
Healthy Beginnings –
http://www.co.shasta.ca.us/html/Public_Health/s
ervices/Preschool_Daycare_Resources.htm
Eat Well Play Hard: In a Child Care Setting –
http://www.health.state.ny.us/prevention/nutrition
/cacfp/ewphccs_curriculum/index/.htm
Let’s Move! Child Care –
http://www.letsmove.gov
Kids Gardening –
http://www.kidsgardening.org
Dinner from Dirt, by Emily Scott and Catherine
Duffy. Salt Lake City: Gibbs Smith
Publisher, 1998
“ Ten meals kids can cook and grow”; for example, a salsa
garden which includes growing tomatoes, cucumbers, and
all the other ingredients to make salsa, with a recipe at the
end; simple explanations; photographs.
A Child’s Seasonal Treasury, by Betty Jones.
Berkeley, CA: Tricycle Press, 1996.
A compilation of songs, verses, activities, and recipes for
children to read about and do in each season.
Network for a Healthy California –
www.cachampionsforchange.net
More Resources…
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Let’s Move Child Care –
www.HealthyKidsHealthyFuture.org
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Prevent Obesity –
http://www.preventobesity.net
Farm Cookbook for Kids –
http://www.cde.ca.gov/ls/nu/he/documents/kidsc
ookcomplete.pdf
San Diego, CA - Farm to School Program (free
curricula)www.ourcommunityourkids.org
Stacey Sobell, MPH, Western National Lead for
the National Farm to School Network
www.ecotrust.org/farmtoschool/Farm-toPreschool-101.ppt
Small garden example
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Questions?
Contact Information
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Dallas Pettigrew - [email protected]
Kim Nall - [email protected]
Sherry Rackliff- [email protected]
Laurie Hand- [email protected]
National Indian Child Care Association - www.nicca.us

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