Fanworks: PYD a Yellow Brick Road The 6 Cs of Fanworks and Their Effects on Positive Youth Development Tara M. Popp Michigan State University Spring 2014 Presentation Outline • • • • • • • Objectives Part I: The Net Generation Framework Part II: Understanding Fandom and Fanworks Part III: The 6 Cs of Fanworks Conclusion Gratitude References Objectives • To introduce and define Net Generation and their mindset. • To identify and differentiate fandom and fanworks. • To show how fanworks affect youth development through my version of the 6 Cs. Part I: The Net Generation Framework Who Are the Net Generation? • Tapscott (2009) considers Net Generation or Net Gen as individuals born between January 1977 and December 1997. • Individuals born between January 1998 to present are known as Generation Next or Generation Z (Tapscott, 2009). Net Generation: Computer & Internet Usage Statistics • By 2009, youth’s computer usage outside of schoolwork increased to 90 minutes daily on average (Rideout, Foehr, & Roberts, 2010). • According to Lenhart (2014), 95% of teens use the Internet and 93% of teens have a computer or have access to one. Net Generation: Active versus Passive Media Consumption • According to Tapscott (2009), Net Generation view and consume media actively, usually on multiple devices. • Those from the older generation, who grew up with television, tend to be passive with their media consumption. The Eight Net Generation Norms • #1: Net Gens value freedom in everything they do. • #2: Net Gens love to customize and personalize. • #3: Net Gens will scrutinize products they use. • #4: Net Gens seek corporate integrity and openness about their product. (Tapscott, 2009) The Eight Net Generation Norms (cont.) • #5: Net Gens want to combine entertainment and play in their life. • #6: Net Gens are all about collaboration and relationship. • #7: Net Gens love speed in what they do. • #8: Lastly, Net Gens are innovators. (Tapscott, 2009) Part II: Understanding Fandom and Fanworks Fandom versus Fanworks • Fandom is a “community” where like-minded fans gather offline or online based on an existing source (Warburton, 2010). • Within fandoms, fans participate in creating fanworks, works created based on the fandom (Thomas, 2011). Fanwork Types • • • • • • • • Fanfiction or fanfics Fanart Fanvideos or fanvids Fanmixes Fansites or fanshrines Fanzines Cosplaying Miscellaneous fanworks (Fanlore, 2013) History of Fanworks • One of the earliest examples of fanworks occurred in the 1800s by the Brontë (British Library, 2011). • In the 1930s, fanzines began to appear, and fanworks existed in science fiction magazines (Coppa, 2006; Thomas, 2011; Warburton, 2010). (The Brontë siblings) • In the 1960s and 1970s, Star Trek fans began to create slash fanworks (Coppa, 2006; Tosenberger, 2008b; Warburton, 2010). History of Fanworks (cont.) • Until the Internet, fanzines were the main method of fanwork sharing (Verba, 2003). • In the 1990s, fans shared their works on usenet groups (Coppa, 2006; Thomas, 2011; Warburton, 2010). • Fans used Yahoo.com mailing lists to share fanworks before transitioning to social media websites (Warburton, 2010). The Fans Behind the Fanworks According to Warburton (2010): • Fans come from all over the world. • 90% of fanfiction writers are women. • The ages of fans range from those in their teens to those over 50 years. • Many of the women discovered fanfictions and other fanworks in their teens. Part III: The 6 Cs of Fanworks Promoting Fanworks in Positive Youth Development The proposed 6 Cs of Fanworks are: • Cognitivity • Communication • Community • Contribution • Character • Cheer The 6 Cs of Fanworks: Cognitivity • Fanworks promote the idea of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development (Inhelder & Piaget, 1958; Piaget, 1972). • Fanworks encourage youth to think abstractly. Examples include: – Questioning the meaning behind a work and thinking of alternate scenes. – Bringing characters to life in cosplaying. – Combining different mediums together. The 6 Cs of Fanworks: Cognitivity (cont.) • Fanworks allow youth to think creatively. Schaffner (2009) describes fanworks as creative form of criticisms. • “Good” creativity is both multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary in nature, and fanworks transcend both (Dena, 2009; Henriksen, 2011; Root-Bernstein & Root-Bernstein, 2009). • The different mediums (multimodality) of fanworks provide fans plenty of opportunities to express their creativity (Black, 2009; Chandler-Olcott & Mahar, 2003; Fukunaga, 2006). The 6 Cs of Fanworks: Cognitivity (cont.) Along with different output, fans gain new knowledge and skills through their exposure to fanworks (Black, 2009; Fukunaga, 2006). The 6 Cs of Fanworks: Communication • In order to share their love for a particular fandom, fans communicate with each other. • Communication between fans occurs: – Offline – Online The 6 Cs of Fanworks: Communication (cont.) • In reference to cognitivity, many fans not only learn new skills and knowledge in fandom, but they use fandom to learn new languages. • Fans learn languages related to website creation (Dachis, 2011). The 6 Cs of Fanworks: Community • Fans unite to form a community (fandom) and fans come from all over world (Taylor, 2011; Warburton, 2010). • Because of the diverse nature of fandoms and fans, subcultures exist in fandom, and rules and terminology differ in fandoms, which gives fandom a collectivist feel (Thomas, 2011). The 6 Cs of Fanworks: Community (cont.) • Despite the fandom rules, fans ensure that fandom is a safe place for them to form relationships, create fanworks together, and help in non-fandom-related issues (Tosenberger, 2008a; Warburton, 2010). The 6 Cs of Fanworks: Contribution • Contributing in a fandom is also known as participatory culture (Jenkins, 2006). • Fans contribute to fandom by: – Creating fanworks for pleasure and for a good cause – Providing feedback to the creators – Operating websites – Being a beta (see next slide) The 6 Cs of Fanworks: Contribution (cont.) • A beta is an individual who volunteers to help the creator with their fanworks (Karpovich, 2006; Warburton, 2010). • The relationship between the creator and their beta can be based on friendship or on a mentor-mentee relationship (Warburton, 2010). The 6 Cs of Fanworks: Character • Fans are encouraged to find themselves and to promote their own individualism (Black 2009; Tosenberger, 2008a; Warburton, 2010). • Black (2009) discovered that fans bring their own culture into their works and share it with other fandom members. The 6 Cs of Fanworks: Character (cont.) • Tosenberger (2008a) and Warburton (2010) state that fandom allows teenage fans to explore their sexuality. • Fanworks also encourage young people to develop certain traits and attributes that allow them to become better individuals (Warburton 2010). The 6 Cs of Fanworks: Cheer As tools, fanworks affect an individual’s development, but most importantly fanworks and fandom are meant to be fun (Thomas, 2011). The 6 Cs of Fanworks: Cheer (cont.) Conclusion • Fanworks are a effective tools that promote positive youth development. • Parents, educators, and youth professionals are instrumental in encouraging youth to engage in fanworks for their benefits. Tara’s Experience Jenki says: “My life progressed because of me being a fan” (personal communication, March 5, 2014). Gratitude • My parents for their constant love and support! • My work managers and colleagues for their support and understanding! • Dr. Hoisington and my three musketeers for their feedback and help this semester! • My online and offline friends – Mwname, Jenki, KMJ, Thilia, Penguin, LLBB, Euterpe, Cat M., Alia, BunnyUnnie – were great help! • Mr. Norris, Dr. Vorhees, Ms. Claudette, and Mrs. Lee for their recommendation to this programme! • Mrs. Lee, my beloved band teacher, allowed me to use her room to do my schoolwork, and who introduced me to students who helped me with my assignments. In fact, I’d like to dedicate this presentation to her! References Andersen, N. (2010). Media literacy’s gifts to literature study. English Teaching, 9(1), 103-113. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.msu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/926190819?accountid=12598 Benson, P. L. (2008). Sparks: How parents can ignite the hidden strengths of teenagers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Black, R. W. (2005). Access and affiliation: The literacy and composition practices of English-language learners in an online fanfiction community. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 49(2), 118-128. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1598/JAAL.49.2.4 Black, R. W. (2009). Online fan fiction, global identities, and imagination. Research in the Teaching of English, 43(4), 397-425. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.msu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/61877783?accountid=12598 British Library. (2011). The Brontës’ secret science fiction stories. Retrieved from http://pressandpolicy.bl.uk/PressReleases/The-Bront%C3%ABs-secret-science-fiction-stories-4e7.aspx Chandler-Olcott, K., & Mahar, D. (2003). Adolescents’ anime-inspired "fanfictions": An exploration of multiliteracies. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 46(7), 556-566. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.msu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/216913696?accountid=12598 Coppa, F. (2006). A brief history of media fandom. In K. Hellekson & K. Busse (Eds.), Fanfiction and fan communities in the age of the internet (pp. 41-60). Jefferson, NC: McFarland. Dachis, A. (2011). How to make a web site: The complete beginner’s guide. Retrieved from http://lifehacker.com/5790955/how-to-make-a-web-site-the-complete-guide Dena, C. (2009). Transmedia practice: Theorising the practice of expressing a fictional world across distinct media and environments. (Doctoral Dissesrtation). Retrieved from http://cirettransdisciplinarity.org/biblio/biblio_pdf/Christy_DeanTransm.pdf Fanlore. (2013). Fanwork. Retrieved from http://fanlore.org/wiki/Fanwork References (cont.) Fukunaga, N. (2006). "Those anime students": Foreign language literacy development through Japanese popular culture. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 50(3), 206-222. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1598/JAAL.50.3.5 Henriksen, D. (2011). We teach who we are: Creativity and trans-disciplinary thinking in the practices of accomplished teachers. (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from http://danah-henriksen.com/wpcontent/uploads/2013/06/Danah-Dissertation.pdf Inhelder, B., & Piaget, J. (1958). The growth of logical thinking from childhood to adolescents. New York City, NY: Basic Books. Jenkins, H. (2006, October 20). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21 st century. [Web log entry]. Retrieved from http://henryjenkins.org/2006/10/confronting_the_challenges_of.html Karpovich, A. I. (2006). The audience as editor: The role of beta readers in online fanfiction communities. In K. Hellekson & K. Busse (Eds.), Fanfiction and fan communities in the age of the internet (pp. 171-188). Jefferson, NC: McFarland. Lamerichs, N. (2011). Stranger than fiction: Fan identity in cosplay. Transformative Works and Cultures, 7. Retrieved from http://journal.transformativeworks.org/index.php/twc/article/view/246/230 Lang, A. (2013, Summer). How to write fanfiction. Broken Pencil, 24-25. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.msu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1463079640?accountid=12598 Lenhart, A. (2014). Teens & technology: Understanding the digital landscape [PowerPoint Slides]. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/02/25/teens-technology-understanding-the-digital-landscape/ Mahar, D. (2003). Bringing the outside in: One teacher’s ride on the anime highway. Language Arts, 81(2), 110-117. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.msu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/196898006?accountid=12598 O'Reilly, T. & Battelle, J. (2009). Web squared: Web 2.0 five years on. Retrieved from http://www.web2summit.com/web2009/public/schedule/detail/10194 Piaget, J. (1972). Intellectual evolution from adolescence to adulthood. Human Development, 15, 1-12. References (cont.) Rideout, V. J., Foehr, U. G., & Roberts, D. F. (2010). Generation M2: Media in the lives of 8- to 18-year-olds. Retrieved from http://kaiserfamilyfoundation.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/8010.pdf Roberts, D. F., Henriksen, L., & Foehr, U. G. (2009). Adolescence, adolescents, and media. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of Adolescent Psychology, Vol 2: Contextual Influences on Adolescent Development (pp. 314-344). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc. Rolfe, J., & Gilbert, M. (2006). Youth, new media, technology, and communication. Young Consumers, 7(3), 15-21. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17473610610705327 Root-Bernstein, R., & Root-Bernstein, M. (1999). Sparks of genius: The 13 thinking tools of the world’s most creative people. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin. Ruble, J., & Lysne, K. (2010). The animated classroom: Using Japanese anime to engage and motivate students. English Journal, 100(1), 37-46. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.msu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/757168948?accountid=12598 Schaffner, B. (2009). In defense of fanfiction. The Horn Book Magazine, 85(6), 613-618. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.msu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/199455043?accountid=12598 Steinkuehler, C. (2010). Video games and digital literacies. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 54(1), 61-63. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.msu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/757168982?accountid=12598 Stern, S. (2008). Producing sites, exploring identities: Youth online authorship. In D. Buckingham (Ed.), Youth, identity, and digital media (pp. 95-118). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Subrahmanyam, K., & Greenfield, P. (2008). Online communication and adolescent relationships. The Future of Children, 18(1), 119-146. Retrieved from http://futureofchildren.org/futureofchildren/publications/docs/18_01_06.pdf Tapscott, D. (2009). Grown up digital: How the net generation is changing your world. New York, NY: McGraw Hill. References (cont.) Taylor, E. E. (2011). Community, commentary & collaboration: Fanfiction & the student writer. (Order No. 1502992, Texas Christian University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 84. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.msu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/914239170?accountid=12598. (914239170). Thomas, B. (2011). What is fanfiction and why are people saying such nice things about it? Storyworlds: A Journal of Narrative Studies, 3, 1-24. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5250/storyworlds.3.2011.0001 Tosenberger, C. (2008a). Homosexuality at the online Hogwarts: Harry Potter slash fanfiction. Children’s Literature, 36, 185-207, 273. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.msu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/195576756?accountid=12598 Tosenberger, C. (2008b). "Oh my god, the fanfiction!": Dumbledore’s outing and the online Harry Potter fandom. Children’s Literature Association Quarterly, 33(2), 200-206. doi:http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1353/chq.0.0015 Verba, J. M. (2003). Boldly writing: A Trekker fan & zine history, 1967-1987. Minnetonka, MN: FTL Publications. Waggoner, E. B. (2012). Television and fanfiction online: Finding identity, meaning, and community. (Order No. 1531378, Gonzaga University). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 88. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.msu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1269526163?accountid=12598. (1269526163). Warburton, J. (2010). Me/Her/Draco Malfoy: Fangirl communities and their fictions. In S. R. Mazzarella (Ed.), Girl wide web 2.0 (pp. 117-137). New York, NY: Peter Lang.