PPT EN version

Report
Fabio Gargantini IECEE Workshop
IECEE Lead
August 26 & 27
Assessor
Nairobi - Kenya
IEC SYSTEM OF CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT
SCHEMES FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL
EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS
Summary
• Safety and performance aspects of
household refrigerating appliances
• Conformity Assessment of household
refrigerating appliances
• Building a Testing Laboratory for safety
and performance tests of refrigerating
appliances
Standards on safety and performance
of household refrigerators
• Why a standard is needed
• To give a common harmonized approach to
the evaluation and testing of a product
• To be used as common reference for the
producer, the laboratory, the client, the
Regulators, the Market surveillance
Authorities
• To serve as reference for the international
trade and acceptance of products worldwide
Safety of refrigerating appliances
• Refrigerators are covered by ​IEC 60335-2-24 Edition
7.1:2012
• IEC 60335-2-24 supplements or modifies IEC 60335-1
Edition 5:2010
• Appliances covered:
• refrigerators for household and similar use
• ice-makers with motor-compressor and ice-makers
incorporated in frozen food storage compartments
• refrigerating appliances and ice-makers for use in
camping, touring caravans and boats for leisure
purposes.
Safety of refrigerating appliances
Examples of appliances NOT covered by IEC 60335-2-24:
• motor-compressors (IEC 60335-2-34);
• appliances intended to be used in the open air
• appliances designed exclusively for industrial
purposes
• appliances with remote motor-compressors;
• commercial dispensing appliances and vending
appliances (IEC 60335-2-75);
• commercial refrigerators and freezers (IEC 603352-89);
•
commercial ice-cream appliances.
Safety of refrigerating appliances
• IEC 60335-2-24 covers safety requirements
• IEC 60335-2-24 does not cover:
•
•
•
•
•
Performances and energy efficiency
Fitness for use
RoHs
PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons)
WEEE
Safety of refrigerating appliances
• Main risks covered by IEC 60335 Series :
• Risks of electrical origin: access to live parts
or parts that may be live in case of faults
• Risks due to contacts with hot accessible
surfaces
• Risks due to access to moving parts
• Risks due to flames and fire
Safety of refrigerating appliances
• Main points of IEC 60335-2-24
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•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Scope and definition
Instructions and marking
Accessibility to live parts
Heating and abnormal use
Construction: grounding connections, resistance
of materials
Protection to penetration of liquids or solids
Insulation distances
Resistance to fire/no spread of flames
Safety of refrigerating appliances
Accessibility to live parts (Cl. 8)
• Accessibility to live parts with a
test finger to verify if no active
parts are accessible
• For Class II appliances, only double or
reinforced insulation can be touched by the
test pin (pin 15 mm long, with 3 mm diameter).
Safety of refrigerating appliances
How the test is carried out?
Safety of refrigerating appliances
Examples of different probes for accessibility to live parts (Cl. 8)
Safety of refrigerating appliances
Heating test (Cl.11)
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•
•
Scope: to verifiy that temperatures of
accessible surface and components
are within limit prescribed for the
specific material
Test set-up: appliances installed in a
test corner and thermocouples
positioned in the relevant parts of the
appliance (e.g. components,
accessible surfaces, plastic materials,
wiring)
Appliances supplied and temperatures
measured with appropriate equipment
& instruments
Safety of refrigerating appliances
Protection against moisture (Cl.15)
• Scope: to verifiy that penetration of water does not
cause reduction in creepage and clearances
• Test set-up: appliances subjected to water penetration
Product under test a luminaire, but test set-up is the same !
• The results of the test:
Safety of refrigerating appliances
Abnormal use (Cl.19)
• Scope: to verifiy that non operation of temperature
control devices, or overload, or EMC phenomena, or
failures in components, do not cause safety problems
• Test set-up: appliances subjected to consequences of
unwished situations (e.g shortcircuit of thermostats)
• Some results of the test :
Safety of refrigerating appliances
Stability Test (Cl.20)
• Scope: to verify that
overturning of the product
does not cause safety
problems
• Test set-up: appliance
placed on an inclined plane
Safety of refrigerating appliances
Mechhanical resistance (Cl.21)
Scope: to verifiy that
product resists to
impacts
Test set-up: appliance
subjected to impacts
with impact hammer
Safety of refrigerating appliances
Supply connection (Cl.25 & 26)
• Scope: to verifiy that means for connection to supply
are suitable
• Tests: verification of terminals and supply cable subject
to pull and push force
Safety of refrigerating appliances
Provision for earthing (Cl.27)
• Scope: to verifiy that means for earthing are
suitable
• Tests: verification of suitability of earth connection
Safety of refrigerating appliances
Resistance to heat and fire (Cl.30)
• Scope: to verify that plastic materials have adequate
characteristics to avoid deformation or leakages or
spread of fire
• Tests carried out:
CTI
Current Tracking Index
Ball pressure
Glow Wire
Performance and noise emission
of household refrigerators
• Covered by ​IEC 62552 Ed.1 2007 for
performances and IEC 60704-2-14 Ed. 2 2013
for noise Emission
• ​IEC 62552 is a stand alone standard
• IEC 60704-2-14 is a part 2 of EN 60704-1 Ed. 3
2010 and shall be read with 60704-3 Ed. 2 2006
• Appliances covered by IEC 62552 and IEC
60704-2-14: all refrigerators for household
and similar use
Performance and noise emission
of household refrigerators
• Appliances NOT covered by IEC 62552 and IEC
60704-2-14
•
•
•
•
•
•
ice-makers with motor-compressor and ice-makers
incorporated in frozen food storage compartments
appliances designed exclusively for industrial
purposes
appliances with remote motor-compressors;
commercial dispensing appliances and vending
appliances
commercial refrigerators and freezers
commercial ice-cream appliances.
News on standard for performance
of household refrigerators
IEC 62552 under significant revision
process
• CDV circulated in May 2013
• Comments by August 2013
• By end 2013 it should be possible
to release an FDIS, depending on
comments from NCs
New Edition should be published in 2014
Why a new edition
• Variety of standards used worldwide
linked to regional regulatory
measures, such as energy labelling.
• Revision aims at a global acceptance
and application.
• The new Edition will have very
significant changes and major
improvements.
• Revision is in fact an integration of
different worldwide standards into one
New Standard on Performance
of household refrigerators
• IEC 62552-1, Definitions and General conditions for testing:
• IEC 62552-2: Determination of linear dimensions, volumes
and areas - Energy consumption test
• IEC 62552-3: Other checks
• air-tightness of doors, lids or drawer seals
• opening force of doors or lids
• durability of doors, lids and drawers
• mechanical strength of shelves and similar components
• storage temperatures, temperature rise test
• freezing test
• ice-making test
• cooling test (not in 1st Edition)
New Standard on performance
of household refrigerators
Energy consumption tests:
• Performed with the appliance in empty condition
rather than loaded with test packages
• Significant reduction of the uncertainty in the test
result is expected
• The thermal capacity of frozen food compartments
is reduced, the testing time will be shortened.
New Standard on performance
of household refrigerators
Energy consumption test
• Performed at two ambient temperatures (16 and 32 °C
instead of only at 25 °C)
• Rated energy consumption calculated by a combination
of the results at 16 and 32 °C
The weighting factor to be defined and can be different
depending on the world region
• Fresh food compartment temperature reduced to 4 °C
New Standard on performance
of household refrigerators
Energy consumption test:
• A new adaptive test algorithm defines the time needed
for a stable and reproducible test
Test time reduced from a 70 ÷ 120 h to 10 ÷ 30 h
• Very short test times for regular behaving products
• Test time automatically increases for products having
an irregular control behavior
• Algorithm is also applicable to frost-free appliances
This new procedure will reduce the uncertainty and the
costs of the tests
New Standard on performance
of household refrigerators
Temperature performance testing
• Storage temperature tests still performed with
packages
• The warmest package in frozen food
compartments must meet the -18 °C to
guarantee proper conservation
• Load scheme drastically simplified using only
0.5 kg packages
• A new cooling capacity performance test
introduced for fresh food compartments
New Standard on performance
of household refrigerators
• Due to changes in reference temperatures, ambient
temperatures and procedures, changes to the rated
energy consumption are evident for all products
• Rated energy consumption of refrigerators-only will
increase
• Rated energy consumption of frozen food
compartments will decrease
• Combination appliances will be between these two
extremes.
New Standard on performance
of household refrigerators
The new energy consumption values can be
matched reasonably to the current values,
though actual values will be different for every
product
Related parameters in a test under
EEE Scheme
Energyconsumption
Storage
Temperature
Freezing
capacity
Temperature
Rising
Time
Noise
Volume
The impact of the new standard
As the new global standard significantly differs
from the current standard, many questions may
arise. Points to be addressed:
1. The change in rated energy consumption of a
series of appliances in various categories as a
function of the weighing factor
2. The effect on the uncertainty of the test results
3. Have ambiguities been effectively removed?
4. Effect on testing costs
The new standard
in the international arena
High worldwide interest in the new IEC 62552
• China new energy label will include the most important
changes of the new standard (freezer unloaded, test at
ambient temperature 16°C and 32°C, etc.)
• 2015 energy regulations in Australia/New Zealand will
be based on the new global standard
• Europe will consider the new standard in revision
process of Ecodesign and Energy labelling
Regulations
Conformity Assessment of
household refrigerating appliances
Conformity Assessment ?
Demonstration that specified requirements
(IEC Standards) relating to a product,
process, system, person or body are fulfilled
Testing, inspection and certification are part of
the concept of Conformity Assessment either
as a stand alone activity or all together.
Conformity Assessment
of household refrigerating appliances
under IECEE Scheme
IECEE is operating Third Party conformity assessment
schemes
Third-party conformity assessment activity is performed by
a person or body that is independent from the person or
organization that provides the product, and of users of that
product.
Criteria for the independence of conformity assessment
bodies and accreditation bodies are provided in the
International Standards and Guides applicable to their
activities
Conformity Assessment
of household refrigerating appliances
under IECEE Scheme
Safety
Category HOUS – Household and similar
equipment
Standars applied IEC 60335-1 and IEC
60335-2-24
Performances and energy
efficiency
Category E3
Standards applied IEC 62552 and
IEC 60704-2-14
Conformity Assessment
of household refrigerating appliances
under IECEE Scheme
• Products are tested to IEC standards with
provision for supplementary testing for national
differences, when relevant.
• Reciprocal recognition of test results among all
participating Certification Bodies simplifies the
granting of certification or approval at national
levels.
• CB Test Certificates and associated Test Reports
facilitate obtaining secondary certifications.
Conformity Assessment
of household refrigerating appliances
under IECEE Scheme
Why a CB Certificate + Test Report
• Quick testing and certification
• Worldwide recognition
• Accelerate Product Acceptance
• Recognized by Regulators & Authorities
• Accepted by Retailers and Buyers
• Expanded markets
• Faster TtM
IECEE Certificate and Test Report
Conformity Assessment of
household refrigerating appliances
IECEE CB-Scheme process
Applicant
Application to the NCB A
NCB A processes application and
CBTL carries out the testing
NCB A Issues CB Test Certificate with Testing Report
Applicant receives CB Test Certificate and associated Test Report
CB Test Certificate + Test Report
Applicant sends documents to NCB B/C/D/n...
CBTL A completes Testing to the IEC Standard +
National Difference
CBTL A Issues Test Report
NCB A reviews and validates the
Test Report
NCB B/C/D/n.. processes the
received documents and grants its
certification marks)
Applicant is granted with NCB B/C/D/n.. certification mark
within 15 working days
Conformity Assessment of
household refrigerating appliances
CB-Scheme Direct acceptance by the market place
Applicant request certificate for their product
Application to the NCB
NCB processes application and assigns
a CBTL to carry
out the testing
CBTL completes Testing to the
IEC Standard + National Difference
Applicant receives CB Test Certificate and associated
Test Report
CB Test Certificate + Test Report
Applicant addresses CB Test Certificate +Test Report to
Retailers, Buyers, vendors and National Regulatory Authority
CBTL Issues Test Report
NCB receives and validates the
Test Report
NCB Issues CB Test Certificate
Retailers, Buyers, vendors and
National Regulatory Authority
purchase/accept the CBTC/ CBTR to
allow access to their respective market
Product can be sold in the relevant market
Building a Testing Laboratory for
safety and performance tests
What is important?
• Quality system set-up according to ISO/IEC 17025
• The key components for a good laboratory:
• Testing apparatus
• Measuring instruments and their calibration
(CTL-OP 111)
• Personnel
• Procedures
Main test apparatus for safety tests
• Suitable air conditioning throughout the whole lab
• Suitable control of characteristics of supply voltage and
frequency (CTL-OP 110)
• Temperature controlled chambers
• Environmental chamber min 93% humidity
• Room for tests on materials (CTI, Glow Wire, Needle
flame test)
• IP Test apparatus
Main test equipment and measuring
instruments for safety tests
• Voltmeters. ammeters, multimeters, temperature
recorders, scanners,
• Thermocouples (CTL-OP 108 and 109)
• Series of test probes for Cl. 8, 11, 20, 22
• Leakage current meter, HV test supply, earth continuity
tester
• Force gauges, impact hammer, masses, inclined plan,
torque screwdriver, water pressure test,
• Ball pressure, needle flame
• Critical consumable material (e.g. exhane, paper for GW,
gas for needle flame)
Tests than can be subcontracted
for safety tests
• EMC tests (Cl. 19.11.4)
• Oxigen bomb test
• Tests on components (e.g. on motor compressor,
capacitors)
• Coated printed circuit boards
• Software evaluation
• Vibration tests
• Tests for flammable refrigerants
The CTL list of test equipment
• For IEC 60335-1
• For IEC 60335-2-24
Main test equipment and measuring
instruments for performance tests
In addition to those required for safety tests:
• Specific suitable control of characteristics of supply
voltage and frequency (CTL-OP 110)
• Specific temperature controlled room
• Calibrater meter and ruler for volume
measurements
• Test packages
• Device for durability of hinges of doors
Main test equipment and measuring
instruments for noise tests
• Suitable control of characteristics of supply voltage
and frequency
• Specific anechoic or reverberation room (very
expensive)
• Reference Sound Source (RSS)
• High sensibility microphones
In most cases noise measurements are subcontracted
Main items for testing engineers and
reviewers
• University or technical school degree on
electrotechnics, electronics, telecommunications
• Theroetical and practical training and experience
on tests according to the relevant standard(s)
• Participation to standarisation activities
• Knowledge of IECEE Scheme (e.g CTL DSHs,
ODs, IEC ISs)
Fabio Gargantini IECEE Workshop
August 26 & 27
IECEE Lead
Nairobi - Kenya
Assessor
IEC SYSTEM OF CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT
SCHEMES FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL
EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS

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