P5- Group dynamics and performance in team sports

Report
Group: “Two or more persons who are interacting
with each other in such a manner that each person
influences and is influenced by each other person”.
What defines a group?
- Interaction between the members.
- Positive feelings towards each other.
- A collective identity distinctive from other groups.
- A sense of shared purpose or objectives
Ensure all members
understand their own
role.
Making sure that
members accept their
role.
Acknowledging informal
roles where they are
helpful to the group and
dealing with unhelpful
informal roles (e.g.
troublemakers)
Team:
“A good team is more than a group of skilled
players; members need to work together effectively
to be successful. Steiner (1972)”.
What examples can you think of to back this up???
- Football, Ryder Cup, Lions
Task
Using the paper as stepping stones:
 Get across the room without falling into the
water”.
If you step off any paper it will float off down
the river.
Group Development
Becoming a team is a process…
Tuckman and Jensen (1977):
Forming
Group Comes together
Storming
Period of conflict as roles and
status within group are tested
Norming
As conflict subsides, cooperation to common goals
Performing
Group works together to
achieve mutual goals.
Relationships are
established. New members to
group undergo the same
process
How did the task
reflect that
process???
 How do we know this is a
group?
 Give examples of the
roles in this team (formal
and informal).
 How can they make this
group more effective?
 Which stage would this
group be in?
Group effectiveness: Actual productivity
=
Steiner (1979)
Actual Productivity= The
actual performance
Potential productivity= The best
possible performance
achievable based on group
resources
(ability/knowledge/skill)
Process loses= Due to
working as part of a group
(loss in motivation/ lack of
communication/ loss of
confidence/ reliance on other
players etc)
Potential
productivity –
losses due to faulty
group processes.
EG:
Tug of war team:
- Individually they can pull
100kg each, yet as a team of 4
they can only pull 360kg in
total… why?
What can coaches
do????
- Need to improve skill level and
performance of players whilst reducing
the faulty processes mentioned before.
But HOW can they do that???
Clarify roles, better tactics, selection of players, improve fitness…
Ringlemann Effect:
Tendency for
individuals to
lessen their effort
when pat of a
group.
Tug of war experiment=
More men pulling, the
less effort each
individual put in.
SOCIAL
LOAFING
When in groups performers
are motivated to work, yet
save their best performance
when under scrutiny/ alone.
What is Cohesion?? Find a
definition…
Task Cohesion: The
degree to which
group members work together
and are committed to reaching
common goals.
The degree to
which group members like
each other and get on.
Social Cohesion:
More positive relationship between task
cohesion and performance than between
social cohesion and performance
Factors that affect Cohesion:
 (Type of sport) – cohesion facilitates in interactive
sports eg team sports;
 (Stability) – more stable gives more time for
cohesion to develop;
 (Group size) – smaller groups have greater cohesion
because of more interaction;
 (External threats) – increase cohesion by forcing
members to ignore internal divisions;
 (Status) similarity of status/age/ability aids
cohesion;
 Satisfaction with rest of group aids cohesion;
 Group success increases cohesiveness”
Cohesion
and Team
performance:

One of the defining features of a
group is that its members have
common beliefs.
As the group develops so do
these norms which members
of the group are committed to.
If a group is to be successful Those who challenge the norms
there needs to be an
element of success.
 It has been suggested that
cohesion develops as a
direct result of success.
 It is assumed the more
cohesive a group, the better
the chance of victory.
also challenge the group’s
solidarity; hence groups
exert pressure on their members
to conform to these norms.
The leader of the group’s role is
to set
and maintain
these norms.
TASK…
1. Were you a group or a
team?
2. What skills did you have
to use in order to
achieve the task aim?
3.
HUMAN KNOTS…
In teams of 6-8, each team
forms a small circle. Ask them
to extend their right hand
across the circle and hold the
left hand of the other team
member opposite them. Then
extend their left hand across
the circle and hold the
right hand of another group
member. The task is to unravel
the spider's web of
interlocking arms without
letting go of anyone's hands
“Behavioural process of
influencing individuals and
groups towards goals”
Barron, 1977
Leaders determine how a task is
completed… How
is their
role different from
managers?
Leaders…
PRESCRIBED leaders…
Are appointed by a person of authrority, for example a chairman
appointing a manager or manager appointing a coach.
EMERGENT leaders…
Emerge from a group and take over responsibility, for example John Terry
becoming the England captain or Chris Robshaw being the England
rugby captain.
How would both of these differ in terms of how
the captain is received by his team mates??
Theories:
To help understand effective leadership…
• Trait Approach
• Behavioural Approach
• Interactional Approach
Born/
predisposed
A person who is a good leader in one
to
leader
situation is a good leader in all
personality
situations
traits
• What stable and
Trait Approach:
common personality
traits can you think of,
that leaders must
have?
Behavioural
Approach:
Learn leadership
behaviours from
other effective
leaders.
Interactional
Approach:
- Can predict leaders on personality
- Leadership is dependent on certain situations,
as some function better in certain situations
- Leadership styles change to suit the situation
Multidimensional
model of sport
leadership:
If the leader behaves
appropriately for the
particular situation
and such behaviour
matches the group
personalities… this
will result in their
best performance.
Modern theories from
Chelladurai and Saleh
(1980) suggest that
effective leadership vary
depending on:
CHARACTERISTICS of
the ATHLETES, the
LEADER and
SITUATION.
Different
Leadership styles:
Different leaders find different
styles successful in one
situation and not in another…
Democratic Behaviour:
- Athlete is involved in the decisions regarding the group goals/ strategies
Autocratic Behaviour:
- Coach/ leader forces decisions o the group independently
Social Support Behaviour:
- Developing group relationships, in order to improve well being of the
group
Positive Feedback Behaviour:
- Rewarding individual and group actions through acknowledgement of
effort and performance
For P5, learners must identify four factors which
influence group dynamics and performance in
team sports. This should include aspects of
group processes, cohesion and
leadership. This could be based on the
observation of a game or match; learners could
observe the changes in behaviour due to changes
in the situation.
P5:
Group
processes (e.g groups
or
teams,
stages
of
group
development
and theories regarding
group
effectiveness)
Cohesion (e.g task and social
team climate
and factors
cohesion)
cohesion,
effecting
Leadership
(e.g qualities and behaviour,
prescribedversus
emergent leaders,
and theories of
leadership)
For M3, which links to P5,
learners must explain
the four factors which
influence group dynamics
and performance in team
sports.
Analysing the
positive and
negative factors
on performance

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