Arousal

Report
Arousal
P4/M2
P4 describe three theories of
arousal and the effect on
sports performance
M2 explain three theories of
arousal and the effect on
sports performance
Definitions…
 A positive aspect of stress and shows how motivated
we are by a situation.
The more aroused we become, the more interested and
excited we are by the situation.
‘A general physiological and
psychological activation of
the organism (person) that
varies on a continuum from
deep sleep to intense
excitement’.
Continuum
Arousal continuum showing
varying levels of arousal…
Deep Sleep
Mild Interest
Attentive
Absorbed
Engrossed
Frenzied
Cognitive
 Arousal can be
Somatic
Cognitive- involving thought
processes… or even
Somatic- involving a
change in bodily response.
If we become over-aroused this usually
has a negative affect on performance,
caused by anxiety and stress.
Theories of
arousal
Drive theory
Inverted ‘U’
theory
Catastrophe
theory
Each theory has its
use in explaining the
relationship
between arousal
and level of
performance…
Drive theory
Drive theory suggests a linear relationship
between arousal and performance.
Hull (1943): As arousal
levels rise, so does
performance. In a
linear fashion.
Having positive effect on
performance!!
Yet…
Later research adapted this
theory, proposing that the
performer’s dominant habit or
response would be more evident
as his or her arousal level
increased.
Dominant response: if a skill is learned well= positive
performance. If the performer is a novice… how will this
affect their performance??
 This relationship is expressed as P = f (H x D)
 Where P = performance f = function H = dominant
habit or response and D = Drive or level of arousal
Inverted ‘U’ theory
 A – Under aroused –
performer may show lack of
concentration and attention
 B – Optimal level of arousal,
good selective attention and
level of concentration
 C – Over aroused –
performer may lose focus,
miss cues, become anxious,
experience muscle tension,
make poor decisions and
possibly display aggressive
behaviour
 Each individual will have a different optimal level of
arousal/ IPS (ideal performing state). These factors
need to be considered when attempting to
determine the personal optimum level of arousal.
TASK:
With a partner discuss how the following factors may influence
optimal arousal.
 Nature of the task
 Skill level of the performer
 Personality of the performer
Catastrophe
theory
 Adapted further by Fazey and Hardy (1988)…
agreeing with the ‘Inverted U hypothesis’, but once
arousal level has reached a certain point, the IPS
drops DRASTICALLY, rather than STEADILY!
The drop in
performance
is called
Cotastrophe!
Rank the following activities in order (1 to 10) of
importance for high levels of arousal.
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Golf putt
High Jump
Hockey penalty flick
Boxing
Archery
100m sprint
Rugby
Pistol shooting
Weight lifting
Gymnastic vault
Task… P4/ M2

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