失諧理論(incongruity theory)

Report
幽默看得見
在大腦花園中尋幽探徑
臺灣師範大學 心輔系
陳學志 詹雨臻
臺灣大學 心理系
周泰立 梁庚辰 鄭昭明
Humor
幽默是人類特有的高層次心理功能,
過去研究發現幽默不但能緩衝壓力、調節
失敗挫折的衝撀,也是人際交往的潤滑
劑,良好的使用幽默對於個人身心健康都
有莫大的助益(Goel & Dolan, 2001; Mobbs et al., 2003; Moran et al., 2004; Watson et
al., 2007)。
2
幽默與心理健康
• 將痛苦、困難的情境轉換或解釋成為快樂的情境,幫助人
們適應焦慮或挫折,使我們在面對現實生活的衝突或挫折
中,得到緩和紓解。(Wolfenstein,1955; Dixon,1980;
Veatch,1998)
• 詹雨臻、陳學志*、卓淑玲、Martin, R. A.(2011)。區
分良善與有害的幽默─中文版幽默風格量表的發展。測驗
學刊,專刊,207-234。(TSSCI)。
• 何宜錚、黃鴻程、陳學志*、王雅萍、賴惠德(2010)。國
中生幽默風格與自尊及情緒智力之相關研究。中華心理衛
生學刊,23(2),271-304。(TSSCI)
• 張慧菊、王建雅、陳學志*(2010)。當禁忌和攻擊變幽默
-青少年幽默因應中的禁忌與語文攻擊表現。中華心理衛
生學刊,23(2),241-269。(TSSCI)
幽默與心理健康
• 被老師評為適應不良的兒童,比較喜歡「攻擊性」和
「反社會」的笑話。(Nicholson,1973)
• 在心理治療情境中,兒童喜歡的笑話主題,多半和他
們內心困擾或衝突有關。(Yorukoglu,1977)
• Chang, H. J., Wang, C. Y., & Chen, H. C.* (2013). The
analysis of elementary and high school students' natural
and humorous responses patterns in coping with
embarrassing situations. Humor – International Journal of
Humor Research. (SSCI)
幽默的情緒能力
•
•
•
•
•
•
能夠進行情緒的轉換(emotional Shift)
(Morreall,1987)
能發掘出潛在的童心(Kris,1952)
能夠短暫否定現實
能夠以幽默的方式表達攻擊、生氣以及焦慮
。(Freud,1950)
能夠使用幽默因應壓力
能夠嘲笑自己,接受自己不完美(Mindess)
幽默與人際關係
• 可以增加團體士氣、達到凝聚團體成員的作用,更可以控
制團體內成員的行為,甚至可利用它來引發對其他團體的
敵意。(Martineau,1972)
• 為何使團體成員形對內成強烈歸屬感,對外產生同仇敵愾
的感受呢?一群人若能為同件事開懷大笑,表示他們有共
同的生活經驗、態度或信念。(Lorenz,1963)
• 張景媛、陳學志、黃譯瑩(2004)。幽默課程融入綜合活
動對國一學生創造思考及人際關係之影響。教育心理學報
,36(1),13-33。(TSSCI)
• 何宜錚、黃鴻程、陳學志*、王雅萍、賴惠德(2010)。國
中生幽默風格與自尊及情緒智力之相關研究。中華心理衛
生學刊,23(2),271-304。(TSSCI)
– 孟德爾頌有天走在柏林的街上,突然和一名孔武有力的普魯士警察
撞在一起,那警察當場咆哮道:「豬玀!」孟德爾頌知道倘若回嘴
,肯定挨揍,於是採取不一樣的策略,他脫帽深深施了一禮,回答
道:「孟德爾頌。」
幽默與教學
• 小學學生在回憶作業(配對作業)表現上,發現幽默配對的
回憶成功量是優於非幽默配對的狀況。(Hauck與
Thomas,1972)
• 小學一、二年級的學生,在能自由轉台的情況下,觀看穿插
幽默場景的教學影片時間,明顯多於沒有穿插幽默場景的影
片。此外,幽默場景若以分散方式呈現,效果比密集呈現的
為佳。(Wakshlag,Day與Zillmann,1981)
• 陳學志(1996)。幽默語句之記憶效應研究。應用心理學報
,5,35-65。
• 陳學志、余曉清、蘇嘉鈴(2011)。讓評量變得有趣─幽默
式評量。科學發展,462,12-21。
• 方紫薇、陳學志、余曉清、蘇嘉鈴(2011.12)。正向情緒
及幽默有助於國中生之科學問題解嗎?。教育科學研究期刊
,56(4),43-68。
幽默與創造力
• Chan, Y. C., Chen, H. C*., & Lavallee, J. P. (in
press). The impact of gelotophobia, gelotophilia and
katagelasticism on creativity. Humor – International
Journal of Humor Research. (SSCI)
• 邱發忠、陳學志、卓淑玲(2003)。幽默創造訓練之課程設計
暨實徵效果評估。教育心理學報,34,179-198。(TSSCI)
• 陳學志(2004)。從「哈哈」到「啊哈」--統整知、情、意
、行的幽默課程對創造力培養的影響。教育心理學報,35,
393-411。(TSSCI)
• 陳學志、徐芝君(2006)。幽默創意課程對教師幽默感及創造
力的影響。師大學報:教育類(創造力特刊),51,71-93。(
TSSCI)
騎馬減肥開始
幽默的定義
 引起幽默反應的特定刺
激型態(笑話、喜劇、機
智)
 幽默刺激被個體感知後
的認知或情緒經驗(有
趣、好笑、可笑)
 幽默產生後的外顯行為
反應(笑、微笑、狂笑)
(Nazareth,1988)
3個月內瘦了30公斤
問世間幽默為何物?
• 幽默是一個相當難界定的心理現象
– 1901年英哲James Sully曾說:「語言中幾乎沒有一個詞彙比這個人
人熟悉的詞更難下定義了。」
– 「為幽默下定義,是沒有幽默感的人所進行的無聊遊戲。」(王瑋,
民79)
• 陳學志、鄭昭明、卓淑玲(2001)。笑話中幽默因子的訊息整合歷程研
究。中華心理學刊,43(2),137-153。(TSSCI)
• 陳學志(1995)。從「聽笑話」到「鬧笑話」--由幽默理解看幽默創造
。輔仁學誌文學院之部,24,240-261。
• 陳學志、王慶中(2005)。笑話與幽默。應用心理研究,26,55-56。
• 陳學志、徐芝君(2006)。幽默創意課程對教師幽默感及創造力的影響
。師大學報:教育類(創造力特刊),51,71-93。(TSSCI)
• 陳學志〈2010〉。「幽默與心理衛生」專題導讀:中外古今覓幽默,喚
起民族幽默感。中華心理衛生期刊,23(2),173-182。(TSSCI)。
幽默幽默你是誰─幽默的定義(2)
•幽默是對不協調、矛盾或超乎常態的刺
激,在經過推論及似是而非的理解過程
後,所產生的愉悅、放鬆的心理感覺以及
外顯的微笑或大笑反應。而這種過程之目
的在增進和諧以及增加對人生的領悟。
笑話的基本結構
Setup
營造語句
精神病院院長:「你們知道明天是什麼重大的
日子嗎?」 病人搖頭,院長:「明天總統要
來,我咳一聲,你們就拍手,表現好的話,每
人一個大肉包。」隔天總統來了,院長咳一聲
後,每個病人都開始拍手。
Punch line
關鍵語句
突然一個病人衝出去打總統一巴掌說:「你不
想吃肉包嗎?」
12
失諧理論(incongruity theory)
Nerhardt 「重量遽改實驗」:
在一個安全、無威脅的情境下, 預期與實際知覺出
現矛盾(失諧)時,便會產生幽默
刺激材料的「不可預測性」、「失諧性」與「幽
默與否」成高度正相關
 失諧幽默四種特質:非預期下出現、與周遭環境
不一致、不合邏輯或不被理解、太過誇張
Suls(1972)失諧-解困理論(incongruity-resolution theory)
故事或卡通的
營造
結局是否符合
預期?
結果的預期
否
是
未失諧
無驚奇
沒有笑
驚奇(失諧)
尋找能使結局與先
前內容一致的規則
能否發現規則?
失諧解困
能
笑(解困)
14
否
困惑
失諧未解困
理解-推敲理論(Comprehension Elaboration
Theory )Wyer & Collins(1992 )
理解-推敲理論區分幽默理解包含「理解」及「推
敲」的歷程。
「理解」意味我們會以先前形成的概念或基模來
處理幽默訊息,而推論出「在幽默語句裡未描述
,但卻是了解該幽默語句所需的命題」。
「推敲」則指意識的推論出「與幽默語句有關,
但不是了解該幽默語句所必要的命題」,因此,
推敲的成分包含了對人特質、事件、過去或未來
發生事件的推論。
反向合意模式(陳學志 1991,1995)
蘇東坡:反向合意謂之趣
「人們從某個既存的優勢基模快速移轉至另一個
語意反向的對立基模而產生心理的震盪(失諧)
之後,又能以逆溯推論的方式尋求一種合理化的
連結,使得這兩個原本互相排斥的基模能合理相
容共存」。
認知活動
幽默
結構
失諧
生理
喚起
基模
轉換
局部邏輯
解困
推敲
歷程
幽默
內容
禁忌
攻擊
貶抑
情意活動
笑的
反應
驅力
釋放
自尊
滿足
放鬆
愉悅
情緒標準化常模及其
生理機制
• 陳學志、詹雨臻、鄭昭明、梁庚辰(in press).情緒標
準化常模研究:笑話刺激。中華心理學刊。(TSSCI)
• Chan, Y. C., Chou, T. L., Chen, H. C., Yeh, Y. C.,
Lavallee, J. P., Liang, K. C., & Chang, K. E.
(2013). Towards a neural circuit model of verbal humor
processing: An fMRI study of the neural substrates of
incongruity detection and resolution. NeuroImage. 66C,
169-176. (SCI)
• Chan, Y. C., Chou, T. L., Chen, H. C., & Liang, K. C.
(2012). Segregating humor comprehension and elaboration
process of verbal jokes: An fMRI study. NeuroImage.
61(4), 899-906. (SCI)
Verbal Joke
• While a great deal of the humor that we experience
on a daily basis is verbal in nature (Brownell et al.,
1983),
• We used verbal jokes instead of films, meaning that
our material was more semantic in nature.
• The cognitive processes underlying the resolution of
verbal jokes seem to be a part of executive functions
such as disambiguation, bridge inferences, and
schema shifting to reestablishment of context
(Bekinschtein et al., 2011).
20
Nonverbal jokes
• Most studies using functional magnetic resonance
imaging (fMRI) technology to study humor
processing have focused on non-verbal processing,
using, for example,
• nonverbal visual cartoons (Azim et al., 2005; Bartolo
et al., 2006; Moran et al., 2004; Samson et al., 2008,
2009; Wild et al., 2006) or humorous videos (Moran
et al., 2004; Neely et al., 2012).
• This study joins earlier studies (Bekinschtein et al.,
2011; Goel and Dolan, 2001; Watson et al., 2007) in
focusing on verbal humor processing.
21
Non-verbal jokes
(cartoon and film)
Kohn et al., (2011)
Moran et al., (2004)
22
Nature Neuroscience
Goel and Dolan, 2001
(UCL)
• Participants listened to riddles containing either phonological
jokes or semantic jokes, as well as a set of nonhumorous
control riddles.
• The semantic jokes induced greater activation in regions of
both the left and right temporal lobes (e.g., MTG, ITG) that are
involved in semantic processing of language.
• The Phonological jokes induced greater activation in areas of
the left frontal lobe (e.g., IFG).
• Subjects’ post-scan funniness ratings of jokes were correlated
with significantly greater activation of the vmPFC, an area
with connections to the limbic system that plays an important
role in integrating cognitive and emotion processes.
23
Nature Neuroscience
Goel and Dolan, 2001
(UCL)
• What do engineers use for birth control?
– Their personalities. (Funny)
– The pill. (Unfunny)
• Why did the golfer wear two sets of pants?
– He got a hole in one. (Funny)
– It was a very cold day. (Unfunny)
24
Nature Neuroscience
Goel and Dolan, 2001
bilateral MTG
left inferior
precentral
gyrus/insula
Left IFG
(UCL)
Right MTG, Left ITG
Left
vmPFC
25
The Journal of neuroscience
Bekinschtein et al., 2011
(University of Cambridge)
Jokes versus non-jokes effects while ambiguity effect was only seen in left
ITG (LITG) and left anterior IFG (L-ant-IFG; shaded bars for ambiguity).
26
Neuron
Mobbs et al., 2003
(Stanford University)
27
Neuron
Mobbs et al., 2003
(Stanford University)
Funny Minus Nonfunny Cartoons
extent threshold (p 0.05) corrected at the whole-brain level
28
Neuron
Mobbs et al., 2003
(Stanford University)
Covarying with Degree of Humor Intensity
extent threshold (p 0.01) corrected at the whole-brain level
29
Study 1
Segregating the
Comprehension and
Elaboration Processing of
Verbal Jokes: An fMRI Study
Chan, Y. C., Chou, T. L., Chen, H. C., &
Liang, K. C. (2012). NeuroImage, 61(4),
899-906.
Funny vs. Unfunny
Funny
(incongruity-resolution)
(amusement)
vs.
Unfunny
(no incongruities)
(calmness)
Cognitive
component
Comprehension
+
Elaboration
Emotional
component
31
comprehension and elaboration
of humor
32
Garden path
• Garden path sentences refer to sentences that are
grammatically correct, but which readers typically
misinterpret in their first reading, leading to a
semantic dead end (i.e., incongruity).
• Readers are then required to resolve this
incongruity by rereading the sentence to construct
a sustainable interpretation (i.e., resolution of
incongruity) (Christensen, 2010, Uchiyama et al.,
2008).
33
Funny vs. Garden path vs. Unfunny
Comprehension
Elaboration
vs.
Funny
Garden Path
Unfunny
(incongruity-resolution)
(Amusement)
(incongruity-resolution)
(Calmness)
(no incongruities)
(Calmness)
vs.
vs.
Elaboration
Comprehension
34
Participants
• Twenty neurologically healthy volunteers [10
males and 10 females aged 20–29 years, 23.40
± 2.74 years (mean ± SD)] participated in this
study.
• They were all right-handed as determined by
the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (Oldfield,
1971) and native Mandarin speakers.
35
Stimuli
• Sixty stories in Mandarin Chinese were
selected, including twelve stories for each of
three different conditions: the funny, unfunny,
and garden path story conditions.
• Twenty-four filler stories were also included.
• Each joke structure contained two
components: the setup and the punch line.
36
某天,媽媽下了班,從公司附近的百貨公司買了
一些甜甜圈及點心,回到家,她對兩兄弟中的老
大說:「小明,媽媽買了些甜點回來,你拿一個
甜甜圈去跟弟弟分著吃,不要全部都自己吃掉!」
小明乖巧地從媽媽手上接下甜甜圈,跟媽媽說了
聲謝謝之後,便走向弟弟……
並說:「來~哥哥吃旁邊,那你就吃中間!」 笑話
花園路徑句
並說:「我不吃巧克力甜甜圈才合我胃口。」
並說:「來~哥哥吃一半,那你吃另一半!」 非笑話
37
Ready!
Send a trigger
0 sec
Ready
Dummy scan
9 sec
●
+
Fixation
1 sec
Setup
Stimuli
Present Setup sentence
19 sec
Stimuli
Present Punch Line
Setup
9 sec
Punch Line
Emotion Rate
Repeat
Funny ?
3 sec
食指 Y
中指 N
ISI
5.1, 7.3, 9.6 sec
Jitter
●
38
Experimental paradigm
39
Image analysis
• Given our a priori hypothesis based on
previous imaging studies, a region of interest
(ROI) analysis was performed (Poldrack et al.,
2008).
• According to the finding of previous studies of
humor, laughter, and reward, we used 13
hypothesis-driven ROIs with a radius of 10
mm centered at peak voxels of brain regions.
40
humor comprehension: the garden path versus
unfunny conditions
右腦額下回
左背側額下回
左腦前區額下回
左腦額上回
左腦腹側紋狀體
41
humor elaboration:
the funny versus garden path conditions
雙側杏仁核
雙側海馬旁回
左腹內側前額葉皮質
42
Post-scan rating:
the high versus low comprehensibility conditions
• The contrast of the high versus low
comprehensibility conditions produced greater
activation in the left SFG (MNI coordinates: -9,
2, 73) and left anterior IFG (-45, 35, 10; Z =
2.57, p < .01 uncorrected) with the use of ROIs.
43
Post-scan rating:
the high versus low funniness conditions
• The contrast of the high versus low funniness
conditions produced greater activation in the
left vmPFC (MNI coordinates: -6, 53, -11), left
amygdala (-24, -7, -23), right amygdala (24, -7,
-29), left parahippocampal gyrus (-21, -13, 26), and right parahippocampal gyrus (21, -13,
-23) with the use of ROIs.
44
Humor comprehension (IFG,
SFG)
• The association observed here between humor
comprehension and activity in the frontal
regions of the bilateral IFG and the left SFG
verifies that the main functions of incongruity
detection, semantic selection, and semantic
integration are located in this area.
45
Humor elaboration
(cortical and subcortical regions)
• The vmPFC, bilateral amygdalae and bilateral
parahippocampal gyri are related to the reward
associated with the feeling of amusement.
46
Left and right hemisperes
• The present study also reveals that the
activated areas related to humor processing are
located in both hemispheres, and in both
cortical and subcortical regions.
• This finding is consistent with earlier research
(i.e., Bartolo et al., 2006; Bekinschtein et al.,
2011; Mobbs et al., 2003).
47
Study 2
Dissociating the Incongruity Detection
and Resolution of Verbal Jokes during
Humor comprehension: An fMRI Study
Chan, Y. C., Chou, T. L., Chen, H. C., Yeh, Y. C., Lavallee, J. P., Liang, K.
C., & Chang, K. E. (2013). Towards a neural circuit model of verbal humor
processing: An fMRI study of the neural substrates of incongruity detection
and resolution. NeuroImage. (SCI)
Humor comprehension
49
Unfunny, Nonsensical, Funny
實驗設計加入「失諧未解困句」
vs.
失諧解困語句
失諧未解困句
未失諧一般句
(失諧)
(解困)
(失諧)
(-----)
(-----)
(-----)
vs.
解困歷程
vs.
失諧偵測
51
Stimuli
• Sixty-four stories in Mandarin Chinese were
selected, including sixteen stories for each of
three different conditions: funny, unfunny,
and nonsensical.
• Sixteen filler stories were also included.
失諧解困
專業顧問收到新印的名片,氣急敗壞地打
未失諧
電話向印刷廠抗議:「搞甚麼鬼?我的名
片印成『專業顧門』,少了一個口!」
專業顧問收到新印的名片,氣急敗壞地打
「對不起,馬上幫您重印!」數日後,寄
失諧未解困 研究方法
電話向印刷廠抗議:「搞甚麼鬼?我的名
來重新印好的名片,上面印著:「專業顧
片印成『專業顧門』,少了一個口!」
專業顧問收到新印的名片,氣急敗壞地打
門口。」
「對不起,馬上幫您重印!」數日後,寄
電話向印刷廠抗議:「搞甚麼鬼?我的名
來重新印好的名片,上面印著:「專業顧
片印成『專業顧門』,少了一個口!」
問。」
「對不起,馬上幫您重印!」數日後,寄
來重新印好的名片,上面印著:「空白活
頁紙。」
右腦顳中回
右腦額中回
Incongruity
detection:
The
nonsensical
versus
unfunny
conditions
左腦額上回
左腦頂下葉
Incongruity
resolution:
The funny
SFG
versus
nonsensical
conditions
IPL
Incongruity detection: further analysis of
surprisingness ratings
• Based on the rating scores, the contrast of the high
versus low ‘surprisingness’ conditions for the ROIs
produced greater activation in the right MTG (58, -1,
-8; BA 21, 69 voxels; Z = 3.13, p < .05 FWE
corrected) and right MFG (12, -10, 66; BA 6, 38
voxels; Z = 3.21, p < .05 FWE corrected).
• The results are consistent with those shown in Table 1
for incongruity detection, providing further support
for our account of the neural substrates associated
with the detection of incongruities in the humor
comprehension process.
Incongruity resolution: further analysis
of comprehensibility ratings
• Based on the rating scores, the contrast of the high
versus low comprehensibility conditions for the ROIs
produced greater activation in the left SFG (MNI
coordinates: -9, 47, 45; BA 8, 96 voxels; Z = 5.42, p
< .05 FWE corrected) and left IPL (-60, -49, 42; BA
40, 56 voxels; Z = 4.97, p < .05 FWE corrected).
• The results are consistent with those shown in Table 1
for incongruity resolution, providing further support
for our account of the neural substrates associated
with incongruity resolution in the humor
comprehension process.
Conjunction analysis
• In order to examine regions involved in the incongruity
detection process, we performed a conjunction analysis (using
MarsBaR and WFU PickAtlas in SPM8) of regions activated
in both the nonsensical and funny conditions.
• The conjunction analysis, masked by the main effect of
incongruity detection (p < .05 uncorrected, 10 voxels), was
performed to highlight regions of activations associated with
nonsensical and funny conditions [conjunction (nonsensicalunfunny), (funny-unfunny)].
• This analysis revealed a significant activation in the right
middle temporal gyrus (MNI coordinates: 57, 2, -11; BA 21,
56 voxels, p < .05 FDR corrected).
MTG, MFG, SFG, and IPL
• The present findings thus suggest that the neural circuit
for humor comprehension may include distinct
components for the detection of incongruity and the
resolution of incongruity, with initial incongruity
detection processed by the MTG and MFG in the right
hemisphere, followed by semantic integration and
resolution processed in the SFG and IPL in the left
hemisphere.
• These results are consistent with Jung-Beeman‟s recent
discussion of bilateral processes for comprehending
natural language (Jung-Beeman, 2005).
General discussion
Towards a Three-stage Neural Circuit
Model of Verbal Humor Processing
Neural circuit of verbal humor
processing
61
幽默三階段大腦迴路
失諧:顳中回、額中回
1
2
解困:額下回、額上回、頂下葉
愉悅:內側前額葉皮質、杏仁核、海馬旁回
3
62
額上回
額中回
頂下葉
額下回
腹內側前額葉皮質
杏仁核
海馬旁回
顳中回
63
Conclusion
• 幽默是荒謬與邏輯的美麗和解協調。
• 幽默是全腦瞬間有次序的活化激發。
• 幽默是皮質與皮質下的互動與共舞。
64

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