Infrared Sensor - ECE7750 Distributed Control Systems

Report
ECE5320 Mechatronics
Assignment#01: Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators
Topic: Infrared Sensor
Prepared by: Long Di
Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Utah State University
E: [email protected] ; T: (435)754-6787
3/10/2010
ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators
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Outline
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Reference list
To Explore Further
Major Applications
Basic Working Principle
Typical Sample Configuration in Application
Major Specifications
Advantages
Limitations
Places to Buy
Conclusion
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Slide-3
Reference list
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“FMA Direct IR Sensor,”
URL http://www.revolectrix.com/pic/Co-Pilot
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G. Egan and B. Taylor, “The Use of Infrared Sensors for Absolute
Attitude Determination of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles,” Tech. Rep.
MECSE-22-2006, Monash University, Australia, 2006.
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L. Di, H. Chao, and Y. Q. Chen, “A Two-stage Calibration
Method for Low-cost UAV Attitude Estimation Using Infrared
Sensor”, submitted to 2010 IEEE/ASME International
Conference on Mechatronic and Embedded Systems and
Applications, July 15-17, 2010, Qingdao, ShanDong, China
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Slide-4
Reference list
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Paparazzi Autopilot_Infrared Sensors
URL http://paparazzi.enac.fr/wiki/Infrared_Sensors
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“The Electromagnetic Spectrum,”
URL http://science.hq.nasa.gov/kids/imagers/ems/infrared.html.
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To Explore Further
(survival pointers of web references etc)
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passive_infrared_sensor
http://trace.wisc.edu/docs/ir_intro/ir_intro.htm
http://www.glolab.com/pirparts/infrared.html
http://kitsrus.com/pdf/k30.pdf
http://www.acroname.com/robotics/info/articles/sharp/s
harp.html
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Major applications
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Attitude estimation devices (Focus in this assignment)
Augmentative communication devices
Car locking systems
Computers
Emergency response systems
Environmental control systems
Home security systems
Telephones
TVs, VCRs, CD players, stereos
Toys
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Slide-7
Major applications
Infrared Home Security
System
Instead of being triggered by any
motion, the system detects
infrared energy. This energy must
register as a certain profile in
order for the alarm to trigger.
That profile of course is one of a
human rather than an animal.
This enables the infrared system
to lower the amount of false
alarms while still being triggered
before the door or window is
damaged.
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Slide-8
Major applications
Automotive : Body Systems :
Window Condensation
(Fogging) Sensing and
Prediction
In combination with a
humidity sensor and Melexis
IR sensors, mounted behind
the windscreen, can be used to
predict the occurrence of a
fogging condition prior to fog
forming on the glass.
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Slide-9
Major applications
Distance measurement (Sharp IR sensor)
A pulse of IR light is emitted by the
emitter. This light travels out in the field of view
and either hits an object or just keeps on
going. In the case of no object, the light is never
reflected and the reading shows no object. If the
light reflects off an object, it returns to the
detector and creates a triangle between the point
of reflection, the emitter, and the detector.
The angles in this triangle vary based on the
distance to the object. The receiver portion of
these new detectors is actually a precision lens
that transmits the reflected light onto various
portions of the enclosed linear CCD array based
on the angle of the triangle described above. The
CCD array can then determine what angle the
reflected light came back at and therefore, it can
calculate the distance to the object.
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Basic Working Principle(1)
Infrared radiation exists in the electromagnetic
spectrum at a wavelength that is longer than
visible light. It cannot be seen but it can be
detected. Objects that generate heat also generate
infrared radiation and those objects include
animals and the human body whose radiation is
strongest at a wavelength of 9.4um. Infrared in
this range will not pass through many types of
material that pass visible light such as ordinary
window glass and plastic. However it will pass
through, with some attenuation, material that is
opaque to visible light such as germanium and
silicon. An unprocessed silicon wafer makes a
good IR window in a weatherproof enclosure for
outdoor use. It also provides additional filtering
for light in the visible range.
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Basic Working Principle (2)
Most IR sensors consist of two to four pixels of equal
areas made by photosensitive material. It measures the
infrared radiation of objects based on their temperature
from its field of view.
Sensor FOV
+/- Do
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Basic Working Principle (3)
Then the radiation goes into the front of the sensor faces
and through the photoelectric effect, the nature of the
photosensitive material gets changed. This directly
changes the current or voltage in the internal sensor
circuit.
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Slide-13
Typical Sample Configuration in
Application (1)
• Attitude estimation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)
• The paparazzi autopilot uses infrared thermopiles for primary attitude
sensing.
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Typical Sample Configuration in
Application (2)
• The theory is that at zero
bank or pitch angle, the
difference in the heat
between the two sensors
should be zero, and at 90
degrees it should be
maximum. From this
relationship a linear
regression is made and
angles are calculated during
flight.
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Slide-15
Typical Sample Configuration in
Application (3)
• Each pair of sensors measures one
axis, a minimum of 2 pairs must
be used to measure pitch and roll
but best results are obtained thru
the use of a 3rd pair on the vertical
axis. Since the output signal from
each sensor pair is proportional to
both the attitude and the
weather/terrain, systems with only
x-y sensors require a ground
calibration and may not provide
accurate angle calculations as the
aircraft travels over terrain with
different IR radiation.
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Typical Sample Configuration in
Application (4)
The Infrared measurements get the difference between
each pair of the sensor pixels and determine the
attitudes of the object.
Head
IR sensor
Left
IR sensor
θ
X Axis
t
Tail
IR sensor
Φ
t
Y Axis
r
p
Ground
θ
Z Axis
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IR sensor
Right
Φ
Ground
Z Axis
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Major Specifications
Specification
Parameters
Weight
0.39oz
Vibration
200G max
Operating Current
<10 milliamps
Operating Voltage
+3 to +9 volts DC
Sensing Element
photosensitive material
Updating Frequency
60 Hz
Power Consumption
30 mW
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Advantages
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Low power requirements: therefore ideal for laptops,
telephones, personal digital assistants
Low circuitry costs
Simple circuitry: no special or proprietary hardware is required,
can be incorporated into the integrated circuit of a product
Higher security: directionality of the beam helps ensure that
data isn't leaked or spilled to nearby devices as it's transmitted
Portable
Few international regulatory constraints: IrDA (Infrared Data
Association) functional devices will ideally be usable by
international travelers, no matter where they may be
High noise immunity: not as likely to have interference from
signals from other devices
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Limitations
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Line of sight: transmitters and receivers must be
almost directly aligned (i.e. able to see each other) to
communicate
Blocked by common materials: people, walls, plants,
etc. can block transmission
Short range: performance drops off with longer
distances
Light, weather sensitive: direct sunlight, rain, fog,
dust, pollution can affect transmission
Speed: data rate transmission is lower than typical
wired transmission
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Places to Buy
• http://www.fmadirect.com/detail.htm?item=1778
&section=20
• http://www.melexis.com/Sensor_ICs_Infrared_an
d_Optical/Infrared_Thermometers/Infrared_Sens
or_IC_19.aspx Piezocryst -
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Conclusion
Infrared Sensors have some many advantages
(small size, low power consumption, etc.) They also
have several limitations(temperature, line of sight,
etc.) They have been widely used on unmanned
aerial vehicle (UAVs) related project for attitude
estimations for their low cost and acceptable
accuracy features.
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