Caseworker Training

Report
EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings- II
Effective Practices in Correctional Settings-II
Introductions
Melanie Lowenkamp
Jen Kisela
“When I read about the training I thought
“I already do that”….when I went to the
training I thought “I already do
this”….when I got back and did it how I
was trained I thought “I have been doing
this”….it wasn’t until I got this incredibly
different response from the offenders that
I realized I had never done this before.”
-Federal Probation Officer Anna
Pakiela, Personal Communication
2009.
EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
Ohio Community Corrections Data
EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
What Do You Feel Responsible
For?
Inter Heart Study

Risk factors for heart attack

Identified 9 factors that predicted 90% of
all heart attacks

First 2 predicted 2/3rds
Risk Factors For Heart Attack









Cholesterol
Current smoking
Diabetes
Hypertension
Abdominal obesity
Psychosocial
Failure to eat vegetables and fruits daily
Failure to exercise
No alcohol consumption
Comparison of HA & Crime Risk
Factors









Cholesterol
Current smoking
Diabetes
• Attitudes
• Peers
• Personality
Hypertension
Abdominal obesity
Psychosocial
• Employment
• Family
• Substance abuse
Failure to eat fruits & veg
Failure to exercise
No alcohol consumption
• Housing, finances
• Personal distress
• Lower socio-economic
status
How Does What We Target & How
We Target Make A Difference

Plenty of current research indicating that
when we incorporate core correctional
practices we see reductions in recidivism

Using core correctional practices ensures
we are targeting relevant criminogenic
needs & using a general model to change
behavior
Quality and nature of relationship
• Skeem et al, 2007, Trotter, 1996 & 1999,
Paparozzi & Gendreau, 2005, and others
What we talk about
• Andrews & Dowden, 1999 and others
Moving beyond the check in
• Taxman 2008
Core Correctional Practices
• Bonta et al., 2008, Dowden & Andrews, 2004
The Balanced Approach
Outcome Measures by Officer Orientation
70.0%
58.8%
60.0%
50.0%
42.5%
37.9%
40.0%
Law Enforcement
32.3%
Balanced
30.0%
Social Work
19.0%
20.0%
16.2%
12.7%
10.0%
5.4%
6.3%
0.0%
TV
Revoked New Conviction
Revocation
Paparozi and Gendreau. An Intensive Supervision Program that Worked: Service Delivery, Professional
Orientation, and Organizational Supportiveness. The Prison Journal, Vol. 85 No. 4, December 2005.
Core Correctional Practices
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
34
31
30
30
28
27
25
16
11
11
12
10
10
10
9
11
Present
Absent
Dowden and Andrews, 2004
What to
target
How to
target
How well
we do
both
• Behavioral Analysis
• RACE
• CHART-session structure
• Bridging skills
• Intervention skills
• Fidelity of implementation
• Peer coaching
Relationship Skills
Relationship Skills
What type of relationship yields the highest
benefit
 How to coach and mentor your clients &
peers
 Important factors associated with effective
correctional programs

EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
Relationship
EPICS-II

“a connection, association, or
involvement”

Professional and work related

Friendly, but not friends
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
Discussion
Think about an effective coach you’ve had in
your life (for sports, work, etc.)
What qualities did that person have?
What made him/her a good coach?
EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
Relationship Skills
Spiegler and Guevremont note that the
relationship “…is a necessary but not a
sufficient condition of treatment.”
Must also target criminogenic
needs
EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
Relationship Skills
Skills:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Collaboration, autonomy, self-efficacy
Empathy
Active listening
Giving feedback
Role Clarification
Structured skill building and graduated practice
EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
Role Clarification
Key skill in working with involuntary clients
 Helps the client understand what to expect
and what is expected of them
 Should be covered at the beginning of
supervision

EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
Role Clarification
Explain the supervision process
 Explain the various roles and responsibilities
of a supervision officer

•What are we (officer/offender) here for?
•What are we hoping to get out of this?
•What is required?
•What can be negotiated?
•Confidentiality of information
EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
Steps of Role Clarification
1.
Identify the agency’s goals for the supervision process
2.
Ask the client to identify what he hopes to accomplish
during the supervision process
3.
Identify what you, as a representative of the agency,
hope to accomplish
4.
Define the supervision process
5.
Identify and discuss expectations of confidentiality
What to target
Behavioral
Analysis
RACE
CHARTsession
structure
Risk Assessment
Important for driving case planning,
management, and risk reduction
 The results direct:
Whom to target (high risk)
What to target (criminogenic needs)

EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
Sample assessment scores
Criminal History=MODERATE
Substance Use= HIGH
Education, Employment, and
Financial situation=LOW
Peer Associations= HIGH
Family and social support=LOW
Neighborhood Problems= LOW
Criminal Attitude and behavior
problems= MODERATE
To be effective at reducing an offender’s
risk we have to understand what puts
them at risk.
EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
Behavioral Analysis
“How do I know what to target?”
Identifies high risk people, places, things, thoughts
Uncovers specific targets for discussion
Given as homework
Used throughout supervision
EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
Behavioral Analysis

Process where offender reports the offense chain for the last
ten times he/she was in trouble or could have been in
trouble

Allows you and offender to look for patterns in behavior.

These patterns tell us what to extinguish, identify situations
to avoid, skills to develop, and what to reinforce

This process makes supervision proactive instead of
reactive!
Behavioral Analysis
When (day of
week and time)
Who were you
What were you
with
Where were you? thinking/feeling
(before/during)?
(before/during)?
What did you
do?
What were you
thinking/feeling
after?
When (day of
week and time)
Weekday
Afternoon
Sunday
morning
Weekday
morning
Who were you
with
before/during?
Where were
you?
Sample BA
Guys at
Community downtown
service
Andre
Da’shon
Self
What were you
thinking/feeling
before/during?
Prison
I got time to
stop by my
house and see
my grandma
and get
something to
eat.
What did you do?
I shouldn’t have
done that.
Stopped by
the house for That was stupid
a few minutes
I could’ve gotten
then went
caught
back
I’m gonna play
this football
I played it and
ticket and make
got caught
some money
with it
afterwards
My house
I could get a
good chunk of
money for my
mom’s TV
What were you
thinking/feeling
after?
That’s a petty
rule
It’s not about the
ticket.
Annoyed
I need help.
I took the
TV to the
pawn shop
Guilt
RACE
Relapse prevention
model used to help
understand how to
respond to their high
risk people, places,
things.
EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II



Along with BA used
early in supervision
Implementing the steps
of RACE will be an
ongoing process
Helps the client learn
to make responsible
choices
RACE
RECOGNIZE
• High risk influencers that tempt the offender
AVOID
• By taking steps away from situations
COPE
• In situations where the high risk influencer cannot be
avoided
EVALUATE
• Evaluate progress, make changes to the plan
RACE
Recognize
Learn to recognize
high-risk situations
Avoid
Cope
Can you avoid? Plan If you cannot avoid,
to avoid
plan to manage
Evaluate
How can you better
handle the scenario?
What did you do well?
RACE Audio example
EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
Avoidance Worksheet
Can you realistically avoid this high risk person, place, thing, trigger (PPTT)?
List all of the
situations you
might
encounter this
PPTT?
If you avoid this
situation what
will you do
instead?
What specific
steps will you
take to avoid
this situation
What problems
do you
anticipate in
avoiding this
situation?
What skills will
you need to
successfully
implement the
plan?
After completing avoidance worksheet proceed to coping-contingency plan
Avoidance Worksheet - R=Stress
Can you realistically avoid this high risk person, place, thing, trigger (PPTT)?
List all of the
situations you
might
encounter this
PPTT?
If you avoid
this situation
what will you
do instead?
What specific
steps will you
take to avoid
this situation
What
problems do
you anticipate
in avoiding
this situation?
What skills will
you need to
successfully
implement the
plan?
Conflict with
girlfriend
(screaming at
each other)
Separate from
each other
when tension is
present.
Talk to her
when we are
both calm.
Difficulty
learning a new
way to
communicate.
Communication
skills
Going back to
old habits.
Time out
technique
Calmly discuss
issue.
Create a plan
that we both
agree on.
3 Step
Coping Worksheet-contingency
Complete the following worksheet to be used in situations where unforeseen high-risk
situations occur
List some
potential
situations where
the avoidance
plan may fail:
What specific
steps will you
take to remove
yourself with
minimal risk of
relapse or other
problems
What potential
problems can
you anticipate by
implementing
your plan?
How will you
handle these
problems?
What skills will
you need to
successfully
implement the
plan?
Coping Worksheet-primary plan
Complete the following worksheet to be used in situations where the high risk
PPTT CANNOT be avoided.
When encountering this high risk PPTT my risk reaction is:_________________
List specific
circumstances
surrounding this
PPTT that
increase the
likelihood of
triggering your risk
reaction
What specific
steps will you
take to effectively
cope with these
circumstances
What potential
problems can you
anticipate by
implementing your
plan
How will
you handle
these
problems
What skills will
you need to
successfully
implement the
plan
Coping Worksheet-primary plan
Complete the following worksheet to be used in situations where the high risk
PPTT CANNOT be avoided.
When encountering this high risk PPTT my risk reaction is: Anger/ Violence
List specific
circumstances
surrounding this
PPTT that
increase the
likelihood of
triggering your
risk reaction
What specific
steps will you
take to
effectively cope
with these
circumstances
What potential
problems can you
anticipate by
implementing your
plan
How will
you
handle
these
problems
What skills will
you need to
successfully
implement the
plan
She starts
accusing me of
being with
other women
Explain to her
that I don’t
want to argue
Tell her we
need to
separate until
we are both
calm.
Leave the
She’ll continue to
scream at me.
She won’t let me
leave.
She’ll start hitting
and kicking me.
Take a
deep
breath
Don’t raise
my voice.
Explain
that I will
call her in
an hour.
3-step
Skill step
“responding to
anger”
Skill step
“responding to
an accusation”
Structure of an interaction

Purposeful and Intentional

Focuses on addressing and changing target
behaviors
•Be prepared for meeting
EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
Questions to ask yourself
C
• Check-in
H
• Homework
A
• Assess & Apply
R
• Reinforce
T
• Teach
Session 2- How to target
Bridging
Skills
Intervention
Skills
Structured
Skill
building
Bridging Skills
EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
Bridging Skills

Serve as a “bridge” between relationship and
behavioral change

Development and maintenance of a
relationship

Basis of behavioral change
EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
Bridging Skills
Changing offender
behavior
Effective
Use of
Authority
Effective Use of
disapproval
Effective use of
Reinforcement
Changing Offender Behavior

Punishment and Reinforcement
Building blocks of operant conditioning
 Behavior is developed and maintained through
a series of consequences
 Punishment stops a behavior/ Reinforcement
strengthens and teaches a new behavior

EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
Effective use of reinforcement
EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
Reinforcement
Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement

Involves the application of
a stimulus to increase
behavior.

Involves the removal of a
stimulus to increase
behavior.

Example: A client reports
getting a job and receives
verbal praise.

Example: A halfway house
client has clean U.A.s for
an entire month and is
taken off restriction
Types of Reinforcers
Social reinforcers
• Praise, acknowledgement, attention, approval, etc.
• Advantages: ease of administration, limitless supply,
can use immediately, naturally reinforcing
Reinforcing activities
• Watching television, playing sports, listening to music,
playing computer games, and talking on the telephone
Token items and material objects
• Certificates, bus tokens, food, etc.
• Hard to do in criminal justice system
Skill Steps for Effective
Reinforcement
Tell the client what she did that you like and why
it is important
Ask the client, in her own words and thoughts,
what are the short and long term benefits of
continuing to use the behavior
Contract with the client to use the skill/behavior,
you are discussing, again in the future
Audio Demonstration
Effective use of punishment and
disapproval
EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
Punishment
(Positive) punishment
(Negative) punishment

Involves the application of
a stimulus to decrease
behavior.

Involves the removal of a
stimulus to decrease
behavior.

Example: An offender
submits a positive drug
screen and is required to
report weekly.

Example: An offender
fails to report and has the
privilege of picking report
day and time removed.
Skill Steps for Effective
Disapproval
Identify the inappropriate behavior and tell the client, in an
objective manner, that you disapprove of what was said or
done.
Ask the client to explore the short-and long-term
consequences of continuing to engage in that behavior.
Ask the client to identify and discuss pro-social
alternatives that could be used in place of the
unacceptable behavior.
Contract with the client to use the pro-social alternative in
the future.
Effective use of disapproval
IF YOU ARE ADMINISTERING A
PUNISHMENT FOLLOW STEPS 5 & 6
Tell the client what the consequence will
be
• “Because you chose to ____, then your
consequence will be ______”
Deliver the consequence
Audio Demonstration
Effective use of Authority
EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
Effective use of Authority


Using authority in an effective manner
Nature of our jobs: getting people to do what they
don’t want to do

Gives the client control in making decisions

Firm, but fair approach
Skills steps for effective use of
authority
Identify a situation where the client is in a
decision-making position
Present the available choices and the
attendant consequences
• DO NOT USE DOOMSDAY ULTIMATUMS
At the next available opportunity, follow-up by
determining if objectives were met (which
choice did they make?)
Reward or praise compliance (if applicable)
Intervention Skills
EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
Intervention Skills
1.
2.
3.
4.
Cognitive Model
Applying and reviewing the cognitive model
Problem-solving skills
Time out
EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
Cognitive Model
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
 Evidence based treatment
 Yields the strongest, most consistent benefit in
reducing recidivism
 Emphasizes the important role that thoughts and
feelings have in determining behavior
The Cognitive Model:
A pictorial representation of external
events, thoughts, and the resulting
behavior.
EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
Cognitive Behavioral
Therapy
Everyone has thoughts before acting, we just aren’t
always tuned into them
63
Cognitive Model
Benefits of teaching the Cognitive Model

Increases awareness of high risk thoughts that
typically lead to trouble

Helps the client see and understand the connection
between thinking and behavior

Starts the process of restructuring antisocial
thoughts and replacing them with alternative, prosocial thoughts
The Cognitive Model
EXTERNAL
INTERNAL
BEHAVIOR
“Thinking Controls Behavior”
Cognitive Model worksheet
EXTERNAL
INTERNAL
THOUGHTS
BEHAVIOR
CONSEQUENCES
REPLACEMENT
THOUGHTS
NEW BEHAVIOR
CONSEQUENCES
Sample worksheet
EXTERNAL
Friends that I
used with in the
past called me to
see if I wanted to
go out with them
INTERNAL
THOUGHTS
This could be a lot
of fun. I have
been
working
hard. I deserve a
break. I won’t use
I’ll just watch and
laugh.
I might
meet a guy.
REPLACEMENT
THOUGHTS
I will feel like hell
tomorrow. I will feel
guilty.
I will worry
about having to drop. I
could get arrested. I
might use.
I might
meet a guy but he’ll be
a loser. I could go back
to prison.
BEHAVIOR
Go hang
Might use.
out.
NEW BEHAVIOR
Told friends I can’t
do that anymore.
Stayed at home with
my son. Felt a big
relief after I hung
up phone.
CONSEQUENCES
Get arrested. Test
positive.
Get
revoked.
CONSEQUENCES
Felt proud and like
“I can make it”.
Spent time with son.
Stayed out of
trouble
Why does training fail?
EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II
Integrating Training into the
Workplace

Joyce and Showers (2002): Training
consisting of..
Theory and +
Discussion
Demonstration + Practice and
and Modeling
Feedback
Resulted in…
Only 5% of teachers
using the skills
Joyce and Showers (2002)
Theory and
Discussion
Demonstration
+ and Modeling +
Practice and
Feedback
+
On-the-job training
Resulted in…
95% of teachers
used the skills
Integrating New Training in the
Workplace
Rogers (2002)
“only about 10% of what is taught in training
is transferred to the job”


Training alone is not sufficient to ensure
fidelity
Why is it so
difficult to
adopt a new
skill?
2 main reasons:
1.
The training was inadequate.
2.
Failure in the transfer of learning back to the
workplace.
Why?

Newly learned behavior is fragile and needs to be supported
in the face of reactions from clients
 Initial reaction may be positive or negative
 Negative reactions may cause the behavior to desist
 Stress or discomfort may cause the behavior to desist

Difficult to extinguish old habits
Perception that new behavior will be too time consuming
or difficult to master
Organizational characteristics do not support new behavior


EPICS-II







Assists in building the infrastructure to support
implementation
Provides the keys for effective implementation
Training for “peer coaches”
Support staff through early stages of
implementation until new behavior is embedded
Prepare staff for potential reactions
Work one on one with staff with master the skills
Direct observation & providing feedback
Keys to Effective Implementation
Start small, train staff
 Ensure program integrity through consistent
coaching and careful monitoring


Tape interactions
As supports are in place continue to train
staff
 Pick one target and target it well!

Closing & Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Assessment, Relapse Prevention and
Session Structure
Relationship & Coaching Skills
Bridging Skills
Intervention Skills
Fidelity of Implementation
EPICS-II
Effective Practices In Correctional
Settings-II

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