Guided Reading and the DRA-II (and Reading Interventions)

By Christina Delk
What is Guided Reading?
 Guided reading is small-group instruction for students who
read the same text.
 The group is homogeneous: the students read at about the
same level, demonstrate similar reading behaviors, and share
similar instructional needs.
 The small groups are temporary; they change as you assess
your students’ growth and needs.
 Within these groups, students are reading books which they
can read with 90-94% accuracy and 90% comprehension. The
teacher’s focused instruction is provided as support to allow
students to gain the skills necessary to move on to the next
reading level.
--from Guiding Readers and Writers: Grades 3-6 by
Fountas & Pinnell
Sample Guided Reading Lesson Plan
Before Reading- (Day 1)
Focus on vocabulary, phonics, sentence structure, content, and/or word work
Includes a Picture Walk
During Reading- (Day2-4)
Read for meaning and fluency
Opportunity to discuss figurative language
Teachers review selected comprehension skill and students practice (with
After Reading- (Day 5)
Extending the Meaning of the Text (Optional)
Different authors’ treatment of the same topic.
Different books by the same author.
Different biographies of the same individual.
Similar concepts across fiction and nonfiction.
Genre study.
More Word Work (Optional)
Quick word solving lesson that is taught in isolation from text.
Visual Supports for Selected Comprehension
Create chart with visual prompts for student reference
(see example)
Assign a graphic organizer to each comprehension skill
(This may also be used to assist in DRA/DRA-II testing
for students who require visual references.)
Guided Reading Scheduling
What are the Other Students Doing While I’m
Teaching Reading Groups?
 Students could be reading independently or
working in center activities related to reading.
 Another option is a rotating schedule of three
stations that include Guided Reading (with
you the teacher), individual intervention,
intervention with assistant or another teacher.
Why use Guided Reading with DHH
 “…this model pinpoints a student’s instructional reading
level, the teacher is able to build upon each student’s
knowledge base to steadily improve language skills, word
recognition, fluency, and comprehension skills regardless of
initial ability and background.”
 Current research over the past two years at Michigan School
for the Deaf indicates a possible growth in reading skills of a
half to two years each year.
(“Guided Reading Approach,” Barbara Schirmer & Laura Schaffer,
Teaching Exceptional Children, May/June 2010)
How to adapt a Guided Reading
program for DHH students
Make sure students understand book knowledge (cover, back, spine,
author, illustrator, letter, word, sentence, beginning, end…)
*Pre-teach vocabulary
*Have students read in story sign ( “aloud”)
*Retell in ASL
*Can also incorporate bi/bi methods of determining differences in both
Other strategies:
Student contract (set reading goal together)
Phrasal verbs
Figurative Language
Multiple Meaning Words
Sight Words (with multiple meanings)
Constantly review comprehension strategies
Track progress on everything and share with student!
Using assessment to drive
 Sight words (with multiple meanings)
 Miscellaneous Data (for literacy goals)
 Running Record: track fluency and miscues
 DRA/DRA-II: track student comprehension
Use this information to change groupings or intervention
Administering the DRA-II
 The Guided Reading approach requires regular
student assessment of reading skills.
 The DRA/DRA-II tests reading comprehension and
gives a score that can be correlated with a grade level
 Use assessment to identify the independent reading
level of students then progress up to find instructional
level (used for guided reading groups)
 DRA-II : K-3rd and 4th-8th grade kits
Ways to Adapt Running Records
 Note when students use fingerspelling- if there is a
designated sign it probably means the word is unknown.
Go back and check for comprehension after read aloud if
 If student uses voice consistently to communicate, note
when endings (Ex. –s, -ed, -ing) are not pronounced for
collaboration with speech pathologists or audiologists.
 Note when incorrect meaning for a multiple meaning word
is given. (Student is not reading for comprehension.)
 A similar method of adapting running records with
described in “Miscues: Meaningful Assessment Aids
Instruction, Pamela Luft, Odyssey 2009)
Reading Interventions
 QuickReads
 Science and social studies based
 Passage is read three times to build fluency: once by student (silently), once by
teacher, again by student
 Vocabulary improves through repetition
 Charted data
 Levels A,B=second grade then progress C=third, D= fourth, etc.
 Comprehension Plus
 Introduces the focus comprehension skill in easy-to-understand terms.
 Motivates reading with high-interest selections written on a specific grade or reading level.
 Connects topic and skill to a writing activity, and reviews and maintains previously taught
 Successmaker Reading (Online w/ site license)
 Earobics
 Good for students with some residual hearing;
builds auditory discrimination, listening, memory…
 Example using syllables:
How to adapt reading
interventions for DHH students
 Quickreads: Be slightly lenient on timing fluency to
account for signing delay.
 Comprehension Plus: Make sure questions are clear.
 Successmaker: Visual supports, white board/markers,
and/or interpreter for students who sign.

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