CHAPTER 11 NERVOUS SYSTEM II

Report
DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
PARTS:
BRAIN
SPINAL CORD
DURA MATER
TOUGH, WHITE, DENSE WHITE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
PERIOSTEUM OF SKULL BONES
BLOOD VESSELS
SOME AREAS PENETRATE BETWEEN BRAIN LOBES
DURAL SINUSES (VENOUS BLOOD)
CONTINUES DOWN AROUND SPINAL CORD
EPIDURAL SPACE: BLOOD VESSELS, CONNECTIVE TISSUE,
ADIPOSE TISSUE
ARACHNOID MATER
THIN, WEB-LIKE
NO BLOOD VESSELS
ON BRAIN BUT DOESN’T DIP INTO BRAIN
SUBARACHNOID SPACE: CEREBROSPINAL FLUID
PIA MATER
THIN
MANY NERVES AND BLOOD VESSELS TO NOURISH BRAIN & SPINAL
CORD CELLS
4 INTERCONNECTED CAVITIES IN BRAIN AND
BRAIN STEM
•CONNECT TO CENTRAL CANAL IN SPINAL
CORD
•OPENS TO SUBARACHNOID SPACE
•CHOROID PLEXUSES:
•SPECIALIZED CAPILLARIES OF PIA MATER THAT
SECRETE CSF
•COVERED BY EPENDYMAL CELLS WHICH FORM A
BLOOD-CSF BARRIER
•REGULATES CSF COMPOSITION BY FACILLITATED
DIFFUSION AND ACTIVE TRANSPORT
•
140 ML FILLS SPACE
•PRODUCE 500ML/DAY ????
•REABSORBED AT ARACHNOID GRANULATIONS
•CLEAR, VISCID
•HAS MORE SODIUM AND LESS POTASSIUM &
GLUCOSE THAN OTHER EXTRACELLULAR FLUIDS
•FUNCTIONS:
•PROTECTION: ABSORBS FORCE;
•NUTRITION;
•HOMEOSTASIS: IONIC CONCENTRATION;
•REMOVAL OF WASTE;
•PROBABLY TELLS AUTONMOMIC SYSTEM WHAT IS
HAPPENING
•FROM FORAMEN MAGNUM TO 1ST/2ND LUMBAR VERTEBRAE
• 31 SEGMENTS WITH PAIR OF SPINAL NERVES
•THICKENINGS: WHERE? FOR?
•CEVICAL ENLARGEMENT
•LUMBAR ENLARGEMENT
•CONUS MEDULARIS
•FILUM TERMINALE TO COCCYX
•CAUDA EQUINA
•GROOVES:
•ANTERIOR MEDIAN FISSURE: DEEP
•POSTERIOR MEDIAN SULCUS: SHALLOW
•WHITE MATTER ON OUTSIDE/ GREY MATTER ON INSIDE
•GREY MATTER: MOSTLY INTERNEURONS, SOME MOTOR
NEURONS
•WHITE MATTER: 3 DIVISIONS:
•ANTERIOR,
LATERAL, POSTERIOR FUNICULI: MAJOR NERVE TRACTS
FUNCTIONS:
REFLEX CENTER
TRANSFER NERVE IMPULSES
•SIMPLEST: 2 NEURONS
•SENSORY RECEPTOR ON DENDRITE OF SENSORY
NEURON: AFFERENT
•INTERNEURON: CNS: TO OTERH INTERNEURONS
OR MOTOR NEURON
•MOTOR NEURON: EFFERENT: TO EFFECTOR
•EFFECTOR: SPINAL REFLEXES ARE SIMPLEST
RESPONSE
•FUNCTIONS:
•MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS
•AUTOMATIC ACTIONS: SWALLOWING, SNEEZING,
COGHING, & VOMITTING
•AUTOMATIC RESPONSES TO CHANGE IN STIMULI
•SENSORY RECEPTOR SENSORY NEURON  CNS:
INTERNEURONS  MOTOR NEURON  EFFECTOR
•AFFERENT NEURON  INTERNEURON  EFFERENT
NEURON
•SPINAL REFLEXES: SIMPLEST
REST TO BRAIN
•MONOSYNATPTIC REFLEX: 2 NEURONS:
SENSORY-MOTOR
•STRIKING PATELLAR LIGAMENT
•KEEPS UPRIGHT POSITION WHEN KNEE SAGS
•PAIN STIMULI
•SENSORY INTERNEURON  MOTOR
•SIGNAL TO ONE SET OF MUSCLES TO CONTRACT
AND TO ANOTHER SET OF MUSCLES TO RELAX ??
•IPSILATERAL FLEXOR CONTRACT/
CONTRALATERAL FLEXOR INHIBITED AND
CONTRALATERAL EXTENDER CONTRACT TO
TAKE SHIFT IN WEIGHT: CROSSED EXTENSOR
REFLEX
•ALSO SENDS MESSAGE TO BRAIN ??
•FUNCTION??
•USUALLY ALL AXONS IN SAME TRACT ORIGINATE
IN SAME PLACE AND TRAVEL TO SAME PLACE
•FASCICULUS GRACILUS & FASCICULUS
CUNEATUS: POSTERIOR FUNICULI; SENSORY
IMPULSES FROM SKIN, MUSCLES, JOINTS, BONES;
INFO FOR TOUCH, PRESSURE AND BODY
MOVEMENT; MOST CROSS ??
•SPINOTHALAMIC: LATERAL AND ANTERIOR
FUNICULI; FROM DIFFERENT BODY REGIONS TO
BRAIN; TOCU AND PRESSURE; CROSS OVER
•SPINOCEREBELLAR: LATERAL FUNICULI;
POSTERIOR UNCROSSED; ANTERIOR CROSSED;
FROM LOWER LIMBS AND TRUNK TO
CEREBELLUM FOR COORDINATION
•CORTICOSPINAL: LATERAL AND ANTERIOR
FUNICULI; CROSS OVER; VOLUNTARY MUSCLE
MOVEMENTS (SKELETAL MUSCLES); PYRAMIDAL
TRACTS
•RETICULOSPINAL: LATERAL AND ANTERIOR
FUNICULI; SOME LATERAL CROSS, ANTERIOR
UNCROSSED; CONTROL MUSCLE TONE AND
SWEAT GLANDS; EXTRAPYRAMIDAL TRACTS
•RUBROSPINAL: LATERAL FUNICULI; CROSS;
MUSCLE COORDINATION AND MAINTENANCE OF
POSTURE; EXTRAPYRAMIDAL TRACTS
•FUNCTIONS??
•OVERSEES FUNCTIONS OF ENTIRE BODY
•MEMORY; SENSES/PERCEPTION; HIGHER
THINKING
•PERSONALITY; EMOTIONS; YOU!!
•CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM
•LARGETS; 2 HEMISPHERES;
•CORPUS COLLOSUM
•GYRI; SULCHI/FISSURES: DIFFERENT IN
PEOPLE
DIFFERENT
•LONGITUDINAL FISSURE
•TRANSVERSE FISSURE
•LOBES: SAME AS SKULL BONES
•FRONTAL: ANTERIOR PORTION; INFRONT OF
CENTRAL
SULCHUS; ABOVE LATERAL SULCHUS
•PARIETAL: BEHIND CENTRAL SULCHUS
•TEMPORAL: BELOW LATERAL SULCHUS
•OCCIPITAL: POSTERIOR; NO DISTINCT BOUNDARY IN
FRONT; TENTORIUM CEREBELLI: DURA MATER BETWEEN
CEREBELLUM
INSULA: DEEP UNDER LATERAL SULCHUS; SEPARATED BY
CIRCULAR SULCHUS
•CEREBRAL CORTEX: THIN LAYER OF GRAY
MATTER ; OUTERMOST LAYER OF CORTEX??
•75%
OF ALL CELL BODIES
•REST: WHITE MATTER: MYELINATED NEURONS;
SENSORY/MOTOR/INTERNEURON: PASSING
BETWEEN HEMISPHERES OR AREAS OF
CEREBRUM
•HIGHER BRAIN FUNCTIONS: INTERPRETING SENSORY
STIMULI; INITIATING VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT;
MEMORY; REASONING (USING MEMORY);
INTELLIGENCE; PERSONALITY
•FUNCTIONAL REGIONS:
•SENSORY: INTERPRET SENSORY INFO PRODUCING
FELLINGS
•ASSOCIATION AREAS: ANALYZE AND INTERPRET
SENSORY INFO AND PROVIDE MEMORY,
REASONING, VERBALIZING, JUDGEMENT AND
EMOTIONS
•MOTOR: CARRY INFO TO EFFECTORS FOR PROPER
RESPONSE TO SENSORY INFO
•POSTCENTRAL GYRI OF ANTERIOR PORTION OF
PARIETAL LOBE ALONG CENTRAL SULCHUS:
TEMPERATURE; TOUCH; PRESSURE; PAIN;
•POSTERIOR PORTION OF OCCIPITAL: VISION
•BASE OF CENTRAL AND LATERAL SULCHI: TASTE
•DEEP: SMELL
•INFO CROSSES SO???
•SIGHT AND HEARING GO TO BOTH SIDES ????
•WENICKE’S AREA/SENSORY SPEECH AREA IN
PARIETAL LOBE BEHIND LATERAL SULCHUS USUALLY
IN LEFT HEMISPHERE: FROM VISUAL AND AUDITORY
CORTEX FOR UNDERSTANDING WRITTEN AND
SPOKEN LANGUAGE
•FRONTAL LOBES: HIGHER INTELLECTUAL PROCESSES:
CONCENTRATING, PLANNING, COMPLEX PROBLEM SOLVING
•PREFRONTAL AREAS: EMOTIONAL BEHAVIOR, AWARENESS OF
CONSEQUENCES
•PARIETAL LOBES: HELP INTERPRET SENSORY INFO,
UNDERSTANDING SPEECH, CHOOSING WORDS OF THOUGHT
AND FEELING EXPRESSION, AWARENESS OF THE FORM OF
OBJECTS
•TEMPORAL LOBES: COMPLEX SENSORY EXPERIENCES TO
UNDERSTAND SPEECH AND FOR READING, STORE MEMORIES OF
VISUAL SCENES, MUSIC, OTHER COMPLEX PATTERNS
•OCCIPITAL LOBES: ANALYZING VISUAL PATTERNS,
RECOGNIZING THINGS (PEOPLE)
•GENERAL INTERPRETIVE AREA: (WHERE TEMPORAL, PARIETAL
AND OCCIPITAL MEET) PROCESSES SENSOPRY INFO FROM ALL 3
ASSOCIATION AREAS, INTEGRATING VISUAL, AUDITORY AND
OTHER SENSES FOR INTREPRETATION
•FRONTAL LOBES: PRIMARY MOTOR AREAS IN
THE CORTEX WITH MANY LARGE PYRAMIDAL
CELLS CONTROL MOST OF MOTOR ACTIVITY,
•BROCA’S AREA: USUALLY LEFT HEMISPHERE,
COMPLEX MUSCLE ACTION FOR SPEECH,
•FRONTAL EYE FIELD: VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT OF
EYES AND EYELIDS
•SEND IMPULSES TO DESCENDING TRACTS
•BOTH INVOLVED IN BASIC FUNCTIONS: RECEIVING
AND ANALYZING SENSORY INFO, CONTROLING
MUSCLE MOVEMENT ON OPPOSITE SIDE, STORING
MEMORIES
•ONE SIDE (IN MOST: LEFT) DOMINANT FOR: SPEECH,
WRITING, READING, COMPLEX INTELLECTUAL
FUNCTIONS: VERBAL, ANALYTICAL, COMPUTATIONAL
•NON-DOMINANT: NONVERBAL FUNCTIONS:
ORIENTATION OF BODY SPACIALLY, UNDERSTANDING
MUSICAL PATTERNS, VISUAL EXPERIENCES,
EMOTIONAL AND INTUITIVE THOUGHT PROCESSES,
•PERSISTENCE OF LEARNING
•WORKING/SHORT TERM MEMORY: ELECTRICAL,
ONLY THERE AS LONG AS NEURONS ARE
CONNECTED
•LONG TERM: CHANGES STRUCTURE OR
FUNCTION OF NEURONS TO ENHANCE
TRANSMISSION, CAN MAKE LIMITLESS SYNATIC
CONNECTIONS, SOME OF WHICH REMAIN
UNCHANGED FOR YEARS
•TURNING SHORT TERM INTO LONG TERM
•LONG TERM SYNAPTIC POTENTIATION:
REPEATED STIMULATION STRENGTHENS
CONNECTION
•HIPPOCAMPUS
•AMYGDALA: ASSIGNS VALUE TO MEMORY
•MASSES OF GREY MATTER DEEP IN CEREBRUM
•CAUDATE NUCLEUS, PUTAMEN, GLOBUS
PALLIDUS
•PRODUCE DOPAMINE: INHIBITORY
NEUROTRANSMITTER
•FACILITATE VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT BY
INTERACTING WITH MOTOR CORTEX,
THALAMUS AND CEREBELLUM
•BETWEEN HEMISPHERES ABOVE BRAINSTEM
•GREY MATTER
•THALAMUS, HYPOTHALAMUS, OPTIC TRACTS
AND CHIASMA, INFUNDIBULUM, POSTERIOR
PITUITARY GLAND, MAMMILARY BODIES, PINEAL
GLAND
•SELECTIVE GATEWAY FOR SENSORY IMPULSES
(ALL BUT SMELL) TO APPROPRIATE AREAS OF
CORTEX
•CAN RECEIVE INFO FROM ANY PART OF CORTEX
•SELECTS WHICH INFO TO SEND BASED ON
SYNCHRONIZED ACTION POTENTIALS
•CONNECTED TO CEREBRAL CORTEX, THALAMUS, AND
BRAINSTEM
•MAINTAINS HOMEOSTASIS BY LINKING NERVOUS AND
ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS:
•HEART RATE
•ATERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE
•BODY TEMPERATURE
•WATER & ELECTROLYTE BALANCE
•HUNGER
•BODY WEIGHT
•MOVEMENTS AND SECRETIONS OF STOMACH & INTESTINES
•PRODUCTION OF NUEROSECRETORY SUBSTANCES TO TELL
PITUITARY GLAND TO REGULATE GROWTH, GLANDS AND
REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY
•SLEEP AND WAKEFULNESS
•CEREBRAL CORTEX, HYPOTHALAMUS,
THALAMUS, BASAL NUCLEI, DEEP NUCLEI=
LIMBIC SYSTEM
•CONTROLS EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCE AND
EXPRESSION
•CAUSING PLEASANT OR UNPLEASANT FEELINGS
ABOUT EXPERIENCES AND GUIDES BEHAVIOR
FOR SURVIVAL
•ALSO INTERPRETS SMELL: WHICH IS WHY SMELL
INFLUENCES EMOTIONS
•CONNECTS BRAIN TO SPINAL CORD
•HAS MANY NERVE TRACTS AND NUCLEI (GREY
MATTER)
•PARTS:
•MIDBRAIN
•PONS
•MEDULAR OBLONGATA
•RETICULAR FORMATION*
•BETWEEN DIENCEPHALON AND BRAINSTEM
•MYELINATED NERVE FIBERS AND GREY MATTER
FOR REFLEX CENTER
•CEREBRAL PENDUNCLES: NOTOR PATHWAYS
•SENSORY BUNDLES TO THALAMUS
•CORPORA QUADRIGEMINA: 4 NUCLEI: REFLEX
CENTERS FOR VISUAL REFLEXES (SUPERIOR) AND
AUDITORY REFLEXES (INFERIOR)
•RED NUCLEUS: COMMUNICATES WITH
CEREBELLUM & SPINAL CORD CENTERS:
REFLEXES FOR POSTURE
•BETWEEN MIDBRAIN AND PONS
•DORSAL: NERVES TO AND FROM MEDULA AND
CEREBRUM
•VENTRAL: MESSAGES FROM CEREBRUM TO
CEREBELLUM
•CENTER WHICH WORKS WITH MEDULLA FOR
BASIC RHYTHM OF BREATHING
•BETWEEN PONS AND MAGNUM FORAMEN
•FLOOR OF FOURTH VENTRICLE
•NERVES TO CEREBELLUM
•ALL ASCENDING AND DESCENDING NERVE FIBERS PASS
THROUGH
•WHITE MATTER ON OUTSIDE; GREY MATTER IN CENTER
FORMING NUCLEI: PASS SENSORY INFO, CROSSOVER
•CARDIAC CENTER: INCREASE/DECREASE HEART RATE
•VASOMOTOR CENTER: VASOCONSTRICTION: INCREASE
BLOOD PRESSURE OR OPPOSITE ACTION
•RESPIRATORY CENTER: ADJUSTS RATE AND DEPTH OF
BREATHING, WITH PONS CONTROLS BASIC RHYTHM
•COUGHING, SNEEZING, SWALLOWING AND VOMITTING
INJURIES TO MEDULLA: ??
•FATAL
•IN MEDULLA, PONS AND MIDBRAIN: NETWORK
CONNECTS HYPOTHALAMUS, BASAL NUCLEI,
CEREBELLUM AND CEREBRUM
•WHEN STIMULATED WAKES UP CEREBRAL CORTEX
•DECREASED ACTIVITY= SLEEP
•INJURY= COMA
•FILTERS SENSORY INFO: KEEPS CORTEX FROM
DEALING WITH UNIMPORTANT
STIMULATIONREGULATE MOTOR ACTIVITIES SO
MUSCLES MOVE EVENLY
•INHIBITS/ENHANCES SOME SPINAL REFLEXES
•INTENSE CEREBRAL CORTEX ACTIVITY KEEPS
PERSON AWAKE
•SLOW-WAVE: NON-REM: DECREASING ACTIVITY
OF RETICULAR FORMATION
•RESTFUL, DREAMLESS, REDUCED BLOOD
PRESSURE AND RESPIRATORY RATE; LIGHT TO
HEAVY: 4 STAGES: 70-90 MINUTES
•REM: PARADOXICAL SLEEP: SOME BRAIN AREAS
ARE ACTIVE; DREAM SLEEP; 5-15 MINUTES; HEART
AND RESPIRATORY RATES VARY
•BELOW OCCIPITAL LOBES
•TWO LATERAL HEMISPHERES: SEPARATED BY FALX
CEREBELLI CONNECTED BY VERMIS
•WHITE MATTER: ARBOR VITAE WITH GREY MATTER ON
OUTSIDE
•CEREBELLAR PENDUNCLES: NERVE TRACTS
•INFERIOR: SENSORY INFO ABOUT POSITION OF BODY PARTS
•MIDDLE: FROM CEREBRAL CORTEX ABOUT DESIRED
POSITION OF BODY PARTS
•SUPERIOR: MOTOR IMPULSES TO MOVE BODY TO
APPROPRIATE POSITION: INCORPORATES OTHER BRAIN
AREAS
•FOR COORDINATION AND BALANCE, EQUILIBRIUM
(SEMICIRCULAR CANALS)
•NERVES THAT BRANCH FROM CNS
•CRANIAL NERVES
•SPINAL NERVES
•2 PARTS:
•SOMATIC:
•CNS
TO SKIN, & SKELETAL MUSCLES: CONCIOUS
•AUTONOMIC:
•CNS
TO VISCERA: SUBCONCIOUS
•FASCIA
•EPINEURIUM:
•AROUND
WHOLE NERVE; DENSE; COLLAGENOUS
FIBERS
•PERINEURIUM:
•SURROUNDS
FASCICLE; LOOSER CONNECTIVE TISSUE
•ENDONEURIUM:
•LOOSER
CONNECTIVE TISSUE; INDIVIDUAL NEURON
•BLOOD VESSELS IN EPINEURIUM AND
PERINEURIUM BECOME CAPPILLARIES IN
ENDONEURIUM ??
•SENSORY
•MOTOR
•MIXED
•CRANIAL NERVES
•SPINAL NERVES
•IN BRAIN OR SPINAL NERVES:
•GENERAL SOMATIC EFFERENT FIBERS:
•MOTOR
IMPULSES TO SKELETAL MUSCLES
•GENERAL VISCERAL EFFERENT FIBERS
•TO
SMOOTH MUSCLES OR GLANDS
•GENERAL SOMATIC AFFERENT FIBERS
•FROM
SKIN OR SKELETAL MUSCLES TO CNS
•GENERAL VISCERAL AFFERENT FIBERS
•FROM
CNS
BLOOD VESSELS AND INTERNAL ORGANS TO
•SPECIAL SOMATIC EFFERENT FIBERS:
•MOTOR IMPULSES TO MUSCLES FOR CHEWING,
SWALLOWING AND SPEAKING
•SPECIAL VISCERAL AFFERENT FIBERS:
•SENSORY FROM OLFACTORY AND TASTE
•SPECIAL SOMATIC AFFERENT FIBERS:
•SENSORY FROM SIGHT, HEARING, AND
EQUILIBRIUM
•HOW MANY?
•12 PAIRS
•ALL BUT FIRST 2 FROM BRAINSTEM
•SEE HANDOUT
http://hicheeky.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/cranial_nerves_netter.jpg?w=527
HOW MANY:
31 PAIRS
ALL BUT FIRST ARE MIXED
8 PAIRS OF CERVICAL NERVES: C1-C8
12 PAIRS OF THORACIC NERVES: TI-T12
5 PAIRS OF LUMBAR NERVES: L1-L5
5 PAIRS OF SACRAL NERVES: S1-S5
1 PAIR OF COCCYGEAL NERVES C0
•ADULT SPINAL CORD ENDS????
•L2
•LUMBAR, SACRAL, AND COCYGEAL NERVES
DESCEND TO THEIR EXITS BEYOND THE END
•EACH NERVE HAS 2 ROOTS
•DORSAL ROOT
•POSTERIOR:
SENSORY
•DORSAL ROOT GANGLION:
•CELL BODIES
•DIRECTION????
•DERMATOME: AREA OF SKIN INNERVATED BY SPINAL
NERVE
•VENTRAL ROOT
•ANTERIOR:MOTOR
ROOT
•CELL BODIES IN GREY MATTER
•BOTH
ROOTS UNITE TO FORM NERVE
•4 BRANCHES
•MENINGEAL BRANCH:
•BACK INTO VENTRAL CANAL TO MENINGES, BLOOD
VESSELS AND INTERVERTEBRAL LIGAMENTS
•DORSAL BRANCH:
•POSTERIORLY: INNERVATES SKIN AND MUSCLES OF
BACK
•VENTRAL BRANCH:
• MAIN BRANCH, MUSCLE AND SKIN ON FRONT,
SIDES AND LIMBS
•VISCERAL BRANCH:
•ONLY IN THORACIC AND LUMBAR REGIONS, TO
ORGANS, PART OF AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
•IN ALL REGIONS BUT THORACIC AREAS
•NEURONS ARE RECOMBINED SO THAT ALL NEURONS
GOING TO A PARTICULAR AREA TRAVEL THROUGH THE
SAME NERVES EVEN IF THEY COME FROM DIFFERENT
SPINAL NERVES
•TYPES:
•CERVICAL:
•IN
NECK, BRANCHES FROM C1-C4; TO MUSCLES AND
SKIN OF NECK
•BRACHIAL:
• C5-8 AND T1; TO SHOULDER AREA; 10 DIFFERENT
MUSCLES
•LUMBOSACRAL:
•T12 TO C0; 5 NERVES; LOWER ABDOMEN TO FEET
(SCIATIC NERVES: LARGEST/LONGEST)
•VENTRAL BRANCHES DON’T FORM PLEXUSES;
BECOME INTERCOSTAL NERVES
•PART OF PNS
•AUTONOMOUS??
•CONTROLS SMOOTH MUSCLE, CARDIAC MUSCLE
AND GLANDS
•HEART RATE, BLOOD PRESSURE, BREATHING
RATE, BODY TEMPERATURE AND OTHER
HOMEOSTASIC MECHANISMS
•REFLEXES: START WITH RECEPTORS IN VISCERA
AND SKIN THROUGH AFFERENT FIBERS TO NERVE
CENTERS IN BRAIN OR SPINAL CORD, TRANSLATED
AND INTEGRATED TO CRANIAL AND PERIPHERAL
NERVES TO GANGLIA OUTSIDE CNS WHERE
MESSAGE IS INTEGRATED; TO EFFERENT FIBERS TO
MUSCLE AND BONE
•SOME INDEPENDENCE FROM REST OF BRAIN AND
SPINAL CORD
•EFFERENT/MOTOR
•UNLIKE SOMATIC NERVOUS SYSTEM HAS 2
NEURONS:
•PREGANGLIONIC:
CELL BODY IN CNS
•POSTGANGLIONIC: CELL BODY IN AUTONOMIC
GANGLION; TO EFFECTOR
•SYMPATHETIC
•PARASYMPATHETIC
•T1-L2
•PREGANGLIONIC FIBERS ENTER THE
SYMPATHETIC GANGLIA
•SYMPATHETIC CHAIN GANGLIA/PARAVERTEBRAL
GANGLIA: BOTH SIDES OF SPINAL CORD; UNDER
PARIETAL PLEURA & PERITONEUM
•SYMPATHETIC TRUNKS: SYMPATHETIC GANGLIA
PLUS FIBERS OF CONNECTION
•COLLATERAL GANGLIA: GANGLIA CLOSER TO
VISCERA
•FOUND IN T1-L2
•PREGANGLIONIC FIBERS EXIT VENTRAL ROOT
AND SYNAPSE WITH POSTGANGLIONIC FIBER IN
SYMPATHETIC GANGLION NEAR SPINAL CORD, OR
TRAVELS ALONG SYMPATHETIC TRUNK TO
ANOTHER GANGLION OR TRAVELS TO
COLLATERAL GANGLION NEARER THE ORGAN OR
GLAND
•MAY SYNAPSE IN PARAVERTEBRAL GANLIA, PASS
THROUGH GANGLIA ALONG SYMPATHETIC
TRUNKS & SYNAPSE IN OTHER GANGLIA OF
TRUNK, OR TO COLLATERAL GANGLIA TO SYNAPSE
•SYMPATHETIC CHAIN
GANGLION/PARAVERTEBRAL
GANGLION: 2 GROUPS OF GANGLIA IN
CHAINS ALONG SPINAL CORD
•SYMPATHETIC TRUNKS: GANGLIA AND
FIBERS OF CONNECTION
•COLLATERAL GANGLIA: SYMPATHETIC
GANGLIA NEARER VISCERA
http://home.comcast.net/~wnor/sympatheticchain.jpg
•PREGANGLIONIC FIBERS OF BOTH DIVISIONS SECRETE
ACETYLCHOLINE: CHOLINERGIC FIBERS
•POSTGANGLIONIC OF PARASYMPATHETIC: CHOLINERGIC
•POSTGANGLIONIC OF SYMPATHETIC: RELEASE
NOREPINEPHRINE: ADRENERGIC
•TO SWEAT GLANDS AND SOME BLOOD VESSELS ARE
CHOLINERGIC
•MOST ORGANS ARE INNNERVATED BY BOTH WITH OPOSING
ACTIONS
•SYMPATHETIC TONE: BLOOD VESSELS ONLY INNERVATED BY
SYMPATHETIC ; DECREASING STIMULATION: VASODILATION;
INCREASING: VASOCONSTRICTION
•BIND
TO PROTEIN RECEPTOR: ALTERS MEMBRANE: CAUSING
SMOOTH MUSCLE TO CONTRACT AND GLAND TO SECRETE
•ACETYLCHOLINE BINDS TO 2 RECEPTORS:
•MUSCARINIC:
IN EFFECTOR CELL MEMBRANES OF ALL
POSTGANGLIONIC PARASYMPATHETIC NERVE FIBERS AND ALL
CHOLINERGIC SYMPATHETIC FIBERS;
•RESPONSES ARE EXCITATORY BUT SLOW
•NICOTINIC: BETWEEN PREGANGLIONIC AND
POSTGANGLIONIC OF BOTH; RESPONSES ARE EXCITATORY
AND FAST
•NOREPINEPHRINE
RECEPTORS
FROM SYMPATHETIC TO ADRENERGIC
•ALPHA
•BETA
•STIMULATION
OF EACH IS EXCITATORY BUT DIFFERENT IN
DIFFERENT ORGANS, THE OVERALL EFFECT IS DETERMINED BY
HOW MANY OF EACH RECEPTOR TYPE ARE IN THE CELL
MEMBRANE
•ACETYLCHOLINE: ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE:
RELEASED QUICKLY SO ACETYLCHOLINE USUALLY
HAS A SHORT STIMULATION
•NOREPINEPHRINE: RE-UPTAKE: ACTIVE
TRANSPORT AND INACTIVATED BY
MONOAMINEOXIDASE OF MITHOCHONDRIA;
TAKES LONGER SO SOME MAY DIFFUSE INTO
BLOODSTREAM COULD WORK UP TO 30 SECONDS
•MOSTLY BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD: LIKE
MEDULLA, HYPOTHALAMUS
•LIMBIC SYSTEM, CEREBRAL CORTEX: CONTROL
DURING STRESS
•GANGLIA PROVIDE SOME INDEPENDENCE
•ALSO AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM CAN
AFFECT EMOTIONAL EXPRESSION AND BEHAVIOR
•APOPTOSIS: PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH; BEGINS
BEFORE BIRTH; CONTINUES THROUGH LIFE; WHEN IT
STOPS DISEASE OCCURS
•30:
APOPTOSIS INCREASES (SOME STEM CELLS STILL)
•RESULTS IN 10% BRAIN SHRINKAGE OVER LIFE; AT
DIFFERENT SPEEDS IN DIFFERENT AREAS: MORE IN
CEREBRAL CORTEX
•DENDRITIC BRANCHES OF CEREBRAL CORTEX
DECREASE; SLOWING TRANSMISSION; DECREASING
NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND ENZYMES TO MAKE THEM;
MAY DECREASE 5-10%; DISEASES: STROKE, DEPRESSION,
ALZEIMER’S, PARKINSON’S, DEMETIA
•FADING MEMORIES
•SLOWING REFLEXES AND RESPONSES
•DECREASING BLOOD PRESSURE
•70: ANKLE NERVES CAN’T PICK UP VIBRATIONS
AS WELL: LOSS OF BALANCE; POOR EYESIGHT;
ANEMIA; INNER EAR MALFUNCTION: POOR
BALANCE: MORE FALLS
•RETICULAR ACTIVATING CENTER AFFECTED:
SLEEP LESS; HARDER TO FALL ASLEEP AND STAY
ASLEEP; MOVE MORE; SLOW WAVE AND REM
SLEEP DECREASES: NAP MORE

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