Chapter 24 World War II

Report
Chapter 24
World War II
?? - 1945
Chapter 24
Section 1
I can list the events
that led to the
outbreak of World
War II
Bullet
795
BulletPoints
Points:p.Pg.829
•
Read
pgs.Pgs.
770 -802
775- 807
Reading:
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Events
• 1918 – World War I Armistice was not a
world wide treaty
oGermans punished and suffer from
WWI
• 1921 – World suffers post war recession
oAdolf Hitler becomes the leader of the
German Nazi Party
Different Countries With
Similar Problems and
Results
• Russia
• Italy
• Germany
• Japan
Italy
• Economic and Social Problems cause
unrest
• 1922 – Benito Mussolini threatens to
overthrow government
How does the Italian government respond?
Italy
• Mussolini named “Prime Minister”
oCreates World’s First Fascist
Government
Fascism
• A political system based on militarism,
extreme nationalism, and loyalty to the
state and its leader.
oThe boss is always right
oSuperior nations must conquer and
control weaker nations
Mussolini
• Italy is superior to other countries
oReturn to the Roman Empire
• Banned
oFreedom of the Press
oOther Political Parties
oJailed or Murdered Critics
Italy
Problems
Government
Changes
Russia
Joseph Stalin and the Communist Party
Russia
• Communism created a totalitarian
government in Russia
oTotalitarian - Single Party System
• Government controls farms, land,
animals, and buisnesses
• 4 million critics were executed or sent to
prison camps (GULAGS)
GULAGS
Russia
Problems
Government
Society
Germany
• Economic struggles caused by WWI led
to the rise of the Nazi Party and Adolf
Hitler
• Harsh treatment from WWI
left many Germans unhappy
with the World
Nazism
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Form of Fascism
Anti-Semitic
Germans are the Master Race
Believed WWI was lost because Jews and
inferior people like Gypsies
• Hitler uses this belief to his advantage
Adolf Hitler
• Elected Chancellor
in 1933
• Political Parties
Outlawed
• Secret Police
Enforce His Will
Jewish Community in
Germany
• Blamed for social and economic issues
oScapegoat
• Banned from professions
• Community was attacked
• Sent to slave labor camps
Germany
Government
Society
Japan
• Japan’s economy struggles following
WWI
• Japan felt that they need space
• 1936 – Militarists take control
Japan’s Military
Aggression
• Believed they were superior
oRacist
• Aggression – Warlike actions against
another nation without cause
• 1931 – Japan Seizes Manchuria and
China
• 1937 – Attacks Nanjing China, 250,000
Civilians and POW’s killed
Japan
Government
Society
Japan’s Control of Asia
Consequences
• Japan suspended from League of Nations
for one year
Four New Powers
Italy
Government
Leaders
Russia
Japan
Germany
Military Aggression
• 1935 – Italy Invades Ethiopia
oHaile Selassie appeals
to the League of Nations
oWeak response
oEthiopia Falls
German Aggression
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Hitler rebuilds German Army
1936 – Troops sent into Rhineland
1938 – Hitler takes over Austria
World’s Response?
oNothing
German Aggression
• 1938 – Germany tries to take over
Czechoslovakia
• Britain & France Object
• Munich Pact
oFrance agrees to let Germany take part
of Czech in return for no further
aggression
oNo one asked the Czechs
Appeasement
• A policy of giving into
aggression to avoid war
• Neville Chamberlain
o“Peace in our time”
• Did it work?
• 1939 – Hitler takes the
rest of Czech
America’s Response
• Neutrality Act 1935
oNo assistance to those in war
• Good Neighbor Policy
oUS removes troops from South
America
• What did the United States hope to gain
from this?
War Begins in Europe
• 1939 – Germany invades Poland
o Hitler and Stalin agree to non-aggression
deal
o Secretly agree to divide Poland
• Russia invades Finland
• September 3rd 1939
oFrance and England declare war on
Germany
Germany Invades Poland
Germany’s March
• 1940
oDenmark, Norway, Netherlands,
Luxemburg, and Belgium Fall
• France under attack
Fight for France
• English and French put on the defensive
• Pushed back to Dunkirk
• English Evacuate
June 22, 1940
France
Surrenders
Battle for Britain
• Hitler launches an air attack
oTens of thousands killed
• Attacks ravaged the land, but Britain did
not break
• Britain Stands Alone
Winston Churchill
June
nd
22 ,
1941
Germany
Attacks
Russia
Hitler’s March
1940
1938
1939
1941
Chapter 24
Section 2
The United States
at War
Read
pgs. 776
- 781
Reading:
808-813
Bullet
p.829
795
BulletPoints
Points:
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Ch. 24 Sec. 2
I understand how the United
states moved from neutrality
to full involvement in the
war.
FDR’s Pledge
• “Your boys are not going to be sent into
any foreign wars”
• Easily reelected for
third term
Lend-Lease Act
• Sold supplies to Britain
• Allowed for US to lend or lease supplies
to the British
• Act extended to Russia and China
• Most Americans agreed
United States Prepares
• Build up of Army and Navy
• Peace Time Draft
started
• Created Tuskegee
Airmen
Atlantic Charter
• US and Britain lay out future goals
oWould seek no territorial gains
oEvery nation has the right to choose
their own government
oNew peacekeeping organization
Why?
Japan and the Pacific
• 1941 – Japan invades Indochina
oRoosevelt bans sale of iron and scrap
metal to Japan
oLimits sale of oil to Japan
December
th
7 ,
1941
Japan Attacks the
United States at
Pearl Harbor
Why did the Japanese
attack?
Why did the Japanese
attack?
• The Japanese attacked because they
feared the Americans would become
involved, and they needed time to secure
supplies.
The Damage
• 200 Airplanes Destroyed
• 2 Battleships Destroyed
• 6 Battleships Damaged
• 2,400 Dead
United States Enters The
War
• December 8th, 1941
oCongress Declares War on Japan
Total War
• December 11, 1941
oGermany and Italy declare war on the
United States
Divisions
Allies
Axis
United States
Germany
Britain
Japan
France
Italy
Soviet Union
China
Two Fronts
• ETO
oEurope and Africa
• Pacific
oPacific Ocean, Australia, Indochina,
and Japan
Europe and North Africa
1942
• Germany controlled most of Western
Europe
• Germany had advanced deep into Russia
• Millions of Russians dead
Russian Winter
• December 1941
oRussians stopped German advance
outside of Moscow
• 1942
oGermany tries again at Stalingrad
oRussians stop them once again
Eastern Front
North Africa
• Erwin Rommel defeated in North Africa
• British attack from the East
• United States under Gen. Eisenhower
attack from the West
• Germans retreat
North Africa
Axis POW’s
Japan 1942
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Hong Kong
Malaysia
Thailand
Burma
Guam
Wake Islands
Dutch East Indies
Solomon Islands
Philippines
• Attacked hours after Pearl Harbor
Philippines
• 2 weeks later Japan invades at Luzon
• American forces retreat to Bataan
• MacArthur ordered to leave
Bushido
• frugality, loyalty, mastery of martial
arts, and honor to the death. Under
the bushidō ideal, if a samurai failed
to uphold his honor he could regain
it by performing seppuku (ritual
suicide).
The Tide Turns
•Coral Sea &
Midway
Battle of Coral Sea – May
1942
• Japan to invade
Port Moresby
• U.S. learns from
radio intercept
• Send fleet to stop
• 2 carriers,
Lexington and
Yorktown
Outcome
• Lexington lost
• Japan loses fewer ships
• Cancels invasion of Port
Moresby
• First naval fight where ships
never shoot at each other
Battle of Midway – June
1942
• Japan to wipe out American Fleet
• Tries to trap American carriers
• Americans learn of plan by radio
• Sets own trap
• Sinks 4 Japanese carriers
• Loses 1 of own
Chapter 24, Section 3
THE
HOME
FRONT
Bullet Points p. 795
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Read pgs. 770 - 775
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I can understand
how the home front
responded to
American
participation in the
war
Building the Military
• Draft changed to
keep men in for
the entire war
• 15 Million men
drafted or
volunteered
Women in the Military
• Nurses
• WAC’s
• WAVE’s
• WASP’s –
Ferry Pilots
A Wartime Economy
• Industry converted from consumer to
military products
• War Production Board supervised
everything
• Military output doubled
• Unemployment shrank
• Minorities found jobs
• Depression ended
Supporting the War
• Victory Gardens
• Rationing
• War Bonds
Four Groups Affected By
the War
Women
African Americans
Japanese Americans
Mexican Americans
Women in Industry
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Factories
Shipyards
Crane operators
Bus drivers
Police Officers
Gas station attendants
Women in Industry
• Better pay – Equal pay
• Better working conditions
• Sense of freedom
• Sense of confidence
“Rosie the Riveter”
Keeping up the boys
spirits
Japanese Americans
• At start of war, 300,000 Japanese
Americans lived in U.S.
• Americans afraid that they may be spies
• Feb. 1942, 110,000 locked in internment
camps far inland
• Forced to sell property
WHAT WOULD YOU HAVE DONE?
Japanese Americans
• Not one case of disloyalty
• 17,000 served in ETO
• 442nd Neisi combat Regimental
Team most decorated unit in history
• 1990, each survivor given $20,000
21
52
560
8
4,000
9.486
Other Tensions
• 11,000 foreign born German and
several hundred Italian Americans
interned
• Had not yet gained citizenship
• Naturalized citizens faced
curfews and travel limits
African Americans
• Segregated military units
• Discrimination in private industry
• Roosevelt pressured into ordering
equality in hiring
• Set up the Fair Employment
Practices Committee
African Americans
• As African Americans moved to cities,
competition over housing
• 1943 race riots in Detroit and New York
Mexican Americans
• ½ million served in armed forces in WW
II
• 1942 treaty with Mexico allowed U.S.
companies to hire Mexican laborers
WHERE DID THEY WORK?
• Faced prejudice and violence
Mexican Americans
• 1943 – Zoot suit riots in L.A.
• Newspapers blamed Mexican
Americans
• Eleanor Roosevelt blamed
discrimination.
Chapter 24, Section 4
Toward Victory
Bullet Points pg. 829
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Read pgs. 821-827
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•I can understand
how the Allies
won World War II
and the results
LEADERS
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Roosevelt – U.S.
Churchill – England
Stalin – Russia
Hitler – Germany
Mussolini – Italy
Eisenhower – U.S.
Rommell - Germany
Victory in Europe
• Stalin wants 2nd front
• 1943 – Roosevelt and Churchill did
not think Allies ready
WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
The Plan
• Invade Italy, 1943 – Draw Italian
and German forces south
• Invade France in 2 places, 1944 –
Catch Germany off guard when
France invaded
• Russia pushes west
The Result
• Sicily captured then Italy invaded
• Mussolini out
• Italy surrenders, but
• Germans take over parts of Italy
and resist
The result
• Hitler tries to save Mussolini but captured
and killed
The result
Allies continue the fight in Italy
Monte Cassino- Before
Monte Cassino - After
D-DAY
• June 1944
• Invasion of France
WHERE WOULD YOU
INVADE?
Differing opinions
Hitler
• Pas de Calais
Rommell
• Normandy
Coast
Where do majority of
German troops go?
Where do Allies land ?
Bocage
• Troops fought way inland
• Caught in the Bocage (Hedgerow) area
• Earth and hedge 15 feet high
Paris
• By August 1944,
allies had
retaken Paris
France
nd
2
invasion of France
• August 1944, Southern France invaded
Battle of the Bulge
• Dec. 1944 German push against
allies
• Attacked through Argonne Forest
• Lightly defended by Allies
Bastogne Surrounded
• Germans surround town of
Bastogne
• Held by 101st Airborne
• Germans ask for surrender
• American General gives a 1 word
reply
NUTS!
Germany Invaded
• Jan 1945 Russia reaches
Germany, pushes west
• U.S. reaches Germany and
pushes east
• Germany caught in a vise
Germany Invaded
• U.S. stops just east of Elbe River
• Allows Russia to take Berlin
WHY?
Germany
Invaded
• U.S. and Britain bomb Germany
non-stop
Roosevelt Dies
oAp. 12, 1945, President Roosevelt
dies
oV.P. Harry Truman takes over
Germany Collapses
• German troops retreat
• Last stand in Berlin
Hitler Dead
oCommits suicide Ap. 30, 1945
oMay 8, 1945 – Germany surrenders
Commanders
MacArthur
Nimitz
Strategy
• Move across Pacific, closer to
Japan then bomb until
surrender
Strategy
• Midway
• 78 different attacks
• Guadalcanal – Solomon Island – Aug
1942
• New Georgia & New Guinea – 1943
• Bouganville – 1943
• Tarawa – Gilbert Islands 1943
Strategy
• Take back Aleutians – 1943
• Kwajalein, 1944
• Saipan, Tinian, and Guam – Summer
1944
• Back to Phillippines – Oct 1944 – Aug
15, 1945
• Iwo Jima – Feb 1945
• Okinowa – Ap 1945
Results
But at What Cost?
Guadalcanal – Solomon
Islands
• 1004 Dead
New Georgia – New
Guinea
• 170 Dead
Bouganville
• 1,243 Dead
Tarawa – Bloody Tarawa
• 1,711 Dead
Aleutians
• 180 Dead
Kwajalein
• 372 Dead
Saipan
• 2,949 Dead
Japanese Suicides Saipan
Tinian
• 328 Dead
Guam
• 7,100 Dead
Philippines
• 4,438 Dead
Iwo Jima
• 2,093 Dead
Okinawa
• 7, 272 Dead
What did we want?
• Airfields
WHY?
• To bomb Japan
Then
Before Atomic Bomb
• Japan fights back - Kamikaze
• I can list the events that led to
the outbreak of World War II
Answer – Ch. 24 Sec. 1
1.Totalitarian dictators gained power after
WW I.
2. Germany, Italy, and Japan started on a path
of military conquest
3.The United States tried to remain neutral in
world affairs
4.Germany and Russia agree not to hurt one
another then divide Poland when Germany
invades Poland
• I understand how the United
States moved from neutrality to
full involvement in the war.
Answers Ch. 24 Sec 2
1. The U.S. increased military production,
created a peace time draft and agreed to help
its allies.
2.The U.S. finally entered the war when the
Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, Dec. 7,
1941.
3.After the loss of the Philippines and most of
the South Pacific islands, the U.S. finally
beat the Japanese at the Battle of the Coral
Sea and the Germans in North Africa
I understand how the
home front responded
to American
participation in the war
Answers Ch. 24 Sec. 3
1.The U.S. asked for volunteers and drafted
men totaling 15 million
2.The U.S. created the War Production board
which controlled all factory products
3.American women took over the jobs left by
men, served in the military, grew victory
gardens, rationed consumer goods and did
everything necessary to win.
4.Even U.S. citizens of Japanese ancestry
were locked up.
I can understand how
the Allies won World
War II and the results
Answers Ch. 24 Sec. 4
1. More tanks, more men, more supplies,
etc. and NO HITLER telling the U.S.
Generals what to do.
2. The development and dropping of the Abomb on Japan convinced them to
surrender.
3. 6 million Jews and countless millions of
other were murdered by the Nazis.
4. What happened to war criminals

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