high speed rail corridor (delhi-agra-lucknow-varanasi

Report
DELHI-AGRA-LUCKNOW-VARANASI-PATNA
International Seminar
on
"High Speed Trains in India - Issues & Options“
1st & 2nd February 2013
New Delhi.
General
 Vision 2020 identified 6 HSR corridors for pre-feasibility
study (PFS)
 Delhi-Agra-Lucknow-Varanasi-Patna is the longest
Corridor
 1000+ km long corridor passes through densely populated,
Northern India’s fertile Gangetic Planes
 Connects Delhi with all major cities of UP and Bihar’s
capital Patna;
 These cities are also important historical and religious
tourist destinations
 Kanpur, Allahabad and Mathura are other major cities on
the corridor
GENERAL
 Mott Macdonald selected for PFS; Submitted report in
2011
 JICA submitted a report on HSR between Delhi-Agra-
Kanpur in 1987; Speed in the range of 250 kmph
 Project dropped in 2001 perhaps because of high cost
and financial unviability
Existing Transport Infrastructure
 The corridor generally lies on the densely saturated Delhi-
Kolkata IR trunk route
 A separate Eastern DFC is being constructed which is
expected to free additional capacities for running of
passenger trains in the existing IR route
 All these cities are also well connected by road (NH-2 and
other Highways) as well as airports
 Yamuna Expressway ( 6 lane road) between Delhi – Agra
opened in 2012
Noida-Agra Yamuna Expressway
Access Controlled, 6-lane, upgradable to 8 lane
Noida-Agra Yamuna Expressway
 165 KM ; Total Cost Rs 13300 Crores ( @ Rs 80
Cr/KM)
100 mts wide right of way
Noida-Agra Yamuna Expressway
A Greenfield airport proposed along the expressway
Noida-Agra Yamuna Expressway
Liberal property development rights to promoter Jaypee group
A number of residential and commercial real estate projects
coming up
Conditions for suitability of HSR Corridor
 Existence of populous cities in the mid distance range of
200-800 km, having high and concentrated demand for
travel
 High disposable income and paying capacity of the
travelling public
 Existing transport infrastructure are saturated
 High GDP growth rate
Other Factors
 Non availability of cheap, local source of oil in plenty
 Airports are located far from city centres
 Increasing environmental and sustainability concerns
Why HSR
International historical experience - as economy
develops conventional rail (speed 110-130 kmph)
unable to hold its market share
Negative effects of overdependence on Roads
and airways
• congestion
• environmental degradation,
• depleting oil reserves
• road accidents
Why HSR
More energy efficient, land efficient and environmental
friendly than Roads and Airways
CO2 per passenger-kilometer - HSR 30-70 grams,
automobiles 150 gms and 170 grams for airplanes.
A double track HSR equivalent to twice the capacity of a six
lane Highway
Energy efficiency – Fuel consumption of HSR – about 1/3rd
of that of aircraft and 1/5th of that of private car.
HSR provides more frequent, convenient, reliable service
Suitability of HSR in Indian Context
India has emerged as one of the fastest growing
developing country during last decade;
Growing middle class with disposable income
Rapid urbanization
Growth in demand for intercity transport specially
between metropolitan areas and 2nd/3rd tier cities
Inter-city car and air traffic is increasing at about
15-20% per annum in many corridors;
Suitability of HSR in Indian Context
Increasing congestion on roads, Delhi airports, increasing
road accidents
Metros like Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore and Chennai getting
choked; Need to develop 2nd /3rd tier cities
Need for modal shift to energy/land efficient and
environment friendly HSR/conventional Rail mode
As engine of economic growth; creating jobs and
facilitating other services and industries
Suitability of HSR in Indian Context
 High population density
 Relatively young age profile
 Population growth expected to continue
 Maximum population in working age group (Low
Dependency Ratio)
 A number of urban conglomerates within suitable
distance range of 200-800 Km
 Land becoming a scarce commodity; increasing
difficulty in land acquisition
 Increasing oil import bills to meet the growing
demands from roads/airways; This is affecting India’s
trade deficit and exchange rate stability.
Delhi-Lucknow-Patna HSR Corridor :
Favourable factor
• Connects
major cities of UP and Bihar with Delhi;
Heavy travel demand in the corridor
•The cities on the corridor are important historical and
religious tourist places
•Very high population density within the cities as well
as catchment area
•Population growth rate is higher than India average
Delhi-Lucknow-Patna HSR Corridor :
Favourable factor
• Except
for Varanasi all other cities are growing at very
fast rate
•Existing IR corridor, NH-2 and Delhi airport is
saturated
•The region is fertile plain land and people are
generally well off
•Plain land – so civil cost of HSR will be less
•Land is a scarce commodity; resistance to land
acquisition
Delhi-Lucknow-Patna HSR Corridor :
Unfavourable factor
•Many stretch along corridor are low lying and flood
prone – elevated corridor required
•Except Delhi, IT and other high end service and
manufacturing industries not well developed
•River crossings at many locations (major rivers
Ganga, Yamuna, Sone)
• Eastern DFC
Options for HSR in the Delhi-Agra-LucknowVaranasi-Patna Corridor
 Two options
1) Upgrade the existing rail corridor upto speed of 160-200
kmph, after segregation of DFC
2) To lay dedicated HSR corridor speed 300-350 KMPH
 Study shows that though upgrading the existing rail
corridor will meet the short/medium term requirement of
5-10 years, considering overall economical rate of return, a
dedicated HSR in the corridor is desirable in long term
 Both conventional and HSR corridor will be required to
serve to different segment of customers
 Existing Railway stations are saturated and congested
Population of major cities(2011)
Population
(District)
Population City
Delhi
16.8
16.8
Agra
4.4
1.3
Lucknow
4.6
2.2
Varanasi
3.7
1.2
Patna
5.8
1.7
Kanpur
5.4
Allahabad
5.96
2.7
Daily Traffic Volume (AC/premium class only)
(2011)
Delhi
Agra
Lucknow Varanasi
Patna
Total
Car
-
3700
550
480
360
17300
Rail(AC)
-
560
2200
850
1500
11000
Air
-
10
1800
500
750
7000
Bus(AC)
-
400
200
Total
37500
2200
37500
2010-11
2019-20
2044-45
Daily
Annual
Daily
Annual
Daily
Annual
Car
17350
6.3
37200
13.6
157800
57.6
Rail(AC)
11000
4
31800
11.6
242400
7.188.5
Air
7000
2.6
19300
7.1
131700
48.1
Bus(AC)
2200
0.8
4800
1.7
20300
7.4
Total
37500
13.7
93100
34
552200
201.6
Forecast HSR daily passenger demand in 2020 (Trips per day)
Forcast HSR daily paasenger demand in 2045(Trips per day)
Route Alignment
Delhi to Agra
Option 1 - Follows the existing rail corridor to Mathura and Agra.
Option 2 - Initially follows the existing rail corridor to Faridabad
before using a direct (straight line) route to Agra.
Option 3 - Follows the newly constructed Yamuna Express Way
from Greater Noida to Agra
Option 4– Starting at Indira Ghandi Airport, follows a corridor to the
west of Dehli
Option 5– Follows the existing rail corridor via Aligarh.
Route Alignment
Agra to Lucknow
Option 1 - Follows the existing rail corridor via Kanpur
to Lucknow and connects to an intermediate station
at Kanpur
Option 2 – Follows a direct (straight line) route between
Agra and Lucknow (avoiding Kanpur)
Option 3 – Follows a direct route to Kanpur and continues on a
direct route from Kanpur to Lucknow.
Route Alignment
Lucknow to Varanasi
Option 1 - Follows the existing rail corridor via Sultanpur
Option 2 – Follows a direct (straight line) route
between Lucknow and Varanasi
Option 3 – Follows a direct route to Allahabad and also
a direct route between Allahabad to Varanasi.
Route Alignment
Varanasi to Patna
Option 1 - Follows the existing rail corridor via Arrah
Option 2 – Follows a direct route between Varanasi and Patna
but uses the existing rail corridor east of Varanasi
and also uses the existing rail corridor for the
approach to Patna.
Corridor Map: Distance and Time
• 500 Km
• 2 Hrs
• 7 Hrs
Delhi
Agra
• 190 Km
• 50 minutes
• 2 Hrs
• 1000 Km
• 4 hrs
• 12 Hrs
Lucknow
Kanpur
HSR time Ex Delhi
Fastest conventional
Rail Time
Allahabad
Varanasi
• 780 Km
• 3 hrs
• 10 Hrs
Patna
Features of proposed HSR
•No interoperability with existing IR network
•Standard Gauge
•HSR station of Delhi – At Pragati Maidan or close
to Nizamuddin
•Station at other locations at city outskirts
Features of proposed HSR
 Indian market is very price sensitive; so it will become




essential to keep the fares of HSR about 10-15% less
than airfare
HSR fare would have to kept in the range of Rs 4-5 per
KM
Train frequency – every 10 minutes
Station dwell time 5 minutes at intermediate stations
10-30 minutes at terminating stations
Technologies
Civil Structure and Track
•On 6 m high embankment wherever possible, at low
lying and congested areas on elevated viaduct
•Standard Guage Ballastless or Slab track track
•Track seperation 5.3 mts
•UIC 60 (CEN 60) rail
•swing nose crossings turnouts that can be operated at
230km/h on the diverted track.
•Horizontal Curves Radius > 6000 mts
Technologies
Rolling Stock
 Max operating speed 300 kmph (Design Speed – 350)
 8/16 car distributed trainset, (energy efficient, reduced






energy and weight/passenger, light axle load 12-16 T,
HOG, regenerative braking
Train length 200/400 mts
Passenger Capacity – 650/1300 persons
Power requirement – 8.5/17 MW per train
( 20-23 kW per Tonne or about 13-15 kW per seat)
Acceleration from 0-300 Kmph – 4-5 minutes, 14-16 KM
Braking from 300 – 0 Kmph - 3 Minutes, 7-8 KM
Articulated/Non articulated bogie
Technologies
Power Supply
•2 x 25kV 50hz AC auto transformer feed
• TSS - Every 50km (approx), Fed from HV supplies
at 220kV, 2 x 80MVA transformers at each supply
point.
•Autotransformer system (25-0-25kV),
Autotransformers located every 10km (approx)
•SCADA system provided for control
Technologies
 Signalling and communications
 CBTC, In cab signalling, ETCS 2 or ETCS 3
(Moving block, high capacity; 3 to 5 min headways)
 Automatic train control / protection
• Train detection (Axle counters)
Communication – GSM-R
•TETRA (Voice Communication)
•Fibre Optic Transmission Network
Operation
• Year 2020 –
Nineteen 8 car units out of which 15 in operation
Train frequency every 10 minutes
• Year 2045 –
Forty Eight 16 car units out of which forty four in
service
Train frequency every 5 minutes
• Depot Location at Lucknow
•The terminal station in Delhi will be at Pragati Maidan. A 6platform station is recommended with additional passive
provision to extend this to 8 platforms when passenger demand
justifies it. The station platforms are elevated at approximately
8m above ground level and arranged as 2 island platforms and 2
side platforms.
•Agra station will be at grade and located on the left of the NH-2
(Agra - Kanpur), on the right side of the Yamuna Expressway at
the intersection of the YEW and NH2. A 2-platform arrangement
is provided at Agra that incorporates a turn back siding.
•Lucknow station will be at grade and located in proximity to
Lucknow Airport along the east part of the National Highway 25
(Lucknow - Kanpur). A 4-platform arrangement is provided
which also incorporates a turn back facility.
•Allahabad station will be at grade and located adjacent to the
existing Phaphamau railway station just east of the NH93. A 2platform station is recommended at Phapaphamu.
•Varanasi station will be at grade and located in the southern
outskirts of the city in proximity to Delhi Public School along
State Highway98 near its intersection with SH 74. A 2-platform
station arrangement is recommended at Varanasi, incorporating a
turn back siding.
•Patna station will be at grade and located at the site of the
Airport (which will be vacated) in close proximity of Phulwari
Sharif railway station. A 4 platform terminal station is
recommended.
Finance
Cost – Rs 100 to 110 Crs per Route KM with land acquisition
- Rs 80-85 Crs per route Km without land acquisition
Unit Cost
•Embankment
•Elevated Viaduct
•Bridge
•Tunnel
•Trainset ( 8 car)
– Rs 10 Cr/Km
- Rs 50/KM
- Rs 500/Km
- Rs 600/Km
– Rs 220 Cr
O&M Cost Rs 0.5 per passenger KM (other than rolling stock)
Economic Rate of Return
– 18-21%
Financial Rate of Return
- 10-12%
Conclusion
•Upgrading of existing IR Delhi-Kolkata line may work for
short/medium term of 10 yrs
•In long term dedicated HSR is essential for the corridor
•The HSR should be on standard gauge
•Mobilizing huge initial capital investment will be a big
challenge. PPP route is suggested. Still Govt will have to provide
for VGF and counter guarantee for Loan
•To attract private players PPP framework should allocate risk
judiciously.
Conclusion
•Adequate provision for non farebox revenue by way of property
development and rentals to keep the ticket price competitive
•HSR should come up as part of overall development package
including land-use, integrated transport. State government
would have to play active part.
•Associated benefits of HSR along with increased tax revenue to
Govt would pay off for the initial capital investment.
Thank You
The TGV at 574 km/h in 2007
 France has over 1500 km
of HSR route serving 9
major cities
 Germany has 4 HSR
routes covering almost
900 km with 3 further
routes planned
TGV,
France
ICE,
Germany
Overseas HSR
 Spain has several HSR
routes open or under
construction totalling
over 1000 km
Alaris,
Spain
 Japan opened the world’s
first HSR in 1964, the
Tokyo to Osaka
Shinkansen, which has
since been expanded
(now over 2400 km)
ShinkansenJ
apan
Case study of Japan HSR System
Rolling Stock: Shinkansen N700
Dedicated route, Standard UIC track gauge (1,435mm)
Structure: mainly elevated
Broad car body gauge (# 3.38m, 3+2 seats), non articulated
Configuration: 16-car unit, 402m long, 970 t
Capacity: 1,323 seats
Power: AC 25kV, 17.08 MW, distributed traction
Operation speed: 300km/h
Case study of French HSR System
Rolling Stock: TGV Duplex
Dedicated/conventional routes, Standard UIC track gauge
Structure: mainly at grade, elevated
UIC car body gauge (# 2.90m, 2+2 seats), articulated
Configuration: 8-car unit, 200m long, 380 t
Capacity: 545 seats (with one bar coach),
Power: AC 25kV, 9.8 MW, 2 power cars
Operation speed: 300km/h
Case study of Chinese HSR System
Rolling Stock: CRH 380BL
Dedicated/conventional routes, Standard UIC track gauge
Broad car body gauge (# 3.27m, 3+2 seats), non articulated
Configuration: 16-car unit, 400m long, # 920 t
Capacity: 1,043 seats
Power: AC 25kV, 18.4 MW, distributed traction
Operation speed: 350km/h recently reduced to 300km/h or less
Based on German technology (Siemens Velaro)
Technologies
 Track, Civils and Power
 Continuously welded rail
 Resilient trackform (quieter)
 Viaducts, tunnels common
 Substantially straight
 Fairly large gradients
 Dedicated – no mixed train types, little or no freight
 50kV autotransformer OLE
 Nuclear powered….in France.
 World Bank Study: High-Speed Rail: The FastTrack to Economic
Development?, Paul Amos, Dick Bullock, and Jitendra Sondhi,
July 2010
 Most lines at least recover their operating and maintenance costs
 Difficult to recover capital costs from passenger revenues alone,
but there are strong socio-economic effects:
Technologies

similar documents