Becoming “Distinguished” with High Expectations

Becoming “Distinguished” with
High Expectations
Joyce B. Gardner, M.Ed., MSA.
Professional Development Consultant
Western Region (8)
[email protected]
Becoming “Distinguished”
with High Expectations
Presentation and resources for this session are posted here:
Joyce Gardner
Professional Development Consultant
Western Region(8)
[email protected]
Norms for Participation
• Silence mobile devices.
• Agree to consider and explore the
perspectives of others.
• Participate and engage with others in the
session to maximize learning.
• Share your ideas.
Whether you think you
can or whether you
think you can't,
you're right."
-Henry Ford
Business, Norms, Evaluations
• Please complete evaluations at the end of
each session using the QR code in the
conference booklet or go to
• We do have a few paper evaluation forms
that must be collected at the end of the
• Identify the impact of the beliefs about who can
• Describe the impact of high expectations for
student learning.
• Explore 21st century strategies to create a culture
of high expectations.
• Identify expectations for teachers meeting
students’ needs in the NC Professional Educator
Affinity Diagram
• Consider the challenges/issues with
teaching the Common Core and Essential
Standards to all students.
• Write one thought that comes to mind per
sticky note.
Affinity Diagram
• Combine all sticky notes on the table
• Organize similar ideas.
• Label the categories.
• Identify two/three major ideas that emerged.
The Power of What We Think
Running alongside
our visible and
expressed values is
a competing set of
values we’re
unaware of.
Robert Kegan
I can only
change how I
act if I stay
aware of my
beliefs and
assumptions. Margaret Wheatley
• How do we arrive at our expectations for
students or colleagues, teachers,
What are your beliefs?
• All students can learn.
• All students can learn if…?
The Power of What We Think
Running alongside
our visible and
expressed values is
a competing set of
values we’re
unaware of.
Robert Kegan
I can only
change how I
act if I stay
aware of my
beliefs and
assumptions. Margaret Wheatley
The Five Whys: The Root Cause
Ross, 2001
The Five Whys: The Root Cause
Five Whys: Try it.
What do you see?
If someone meets or exceeds our
How do we feel? How do we react?
If someone does not meet our
How do we feel? How do we react?
Rick Wormeli on Differentiation
“Differentiated instruction does not mean we
make learning easier for students. Instead it
provides appropriate challenge that enables
students to thrive.
Because we know our students so well, we
know what buttons to push”.
Rick Wormeli on Differentiation
“We teach in a responsive manner.
When we teach in a way a student’s mind
best processes information and skills, he or
she finds the lessons compelling”.
Rick Wormeli, Fair Isn’t Always Equal
Effects of Feedback
“Success-oriented students tend to be
encouraged by challenges because they
anticipate the positive feelings that accompany
Failure-avoidant students tend to be discouraged
by challenges because they anticipate the
negative feelings that accompany failure”.
Robert Marzano, Classroom Assessment and Grading that Work, p.7,
Self-fulfilling Prophecy
• Robert Rosenthal
• 18 classrooms
• 20% of students were labeled “intellectual
bloomers” after an “IQ” test.
• Expectations were set that these students
would main significant gains in this one
Pygmalion Effect
• Irish author George Bernard Shaw, wrote
the play in 1913.
• "My Fair Lady“, the musical (1956) and film
(1964) made share a basic storyline, in
which poor flower girl Eliza Doolittle is
transformed into a lady at the hands of
phonetics professor Henry Higgins.
Pygmalion Effect applied to
Teaching and Learning
Low and high expectations are communicated
– Teacher-student interaction
– Levels of and frequency of questioning
– Quality of verbal and written feedback
– Cues and sustained support to guide students
to develop their thinking and responses to
Perceptions and Assumptions
make an impact
Teachers who were confident that their
students could grow, improve, and learn and
were confident that they had the skills to
teach them with success saw their students
respond accordingly.
On the hand, teachers who were not confident
in their students’ potential to thrive and learn
or in their abilities to teach them well had
negative results.
Updated and Confirmed
• Wood, Kaplan and McLloyd confirmed this
deferential treatment can result in an
increase in IQ (2007)
• The expectations teachers reflected on their
students resulted in matching early
expectations to a growing reality.
ALL students achieving at high levels
Why We Can’t
How We Can
Goals Setting
If students are involved in setting goals and
short- or medium-term targets for success
criteria that they believe will help them reach
their goals, then their predictions and
achievement is very likely to be higher.
John Hattie, Visible Learning,
Carol Dweck’s work on Fostering a
Growth Mindset
“...many students see their intelligence – and
consequently their future achievement – as a fixed
entity (Fixed Mindset), rather than something that
can grow and develop (Growth Mindset).
John Hattie, Visible Learning,
Growth Mindset
If teachers and students work together to
adopt a Growth Mindset, then the selffulfilling low expectations of students (and
teachers) can be raised, sometimes
John Hattie, Visible Learning,
Understanding by Design
How do teachers communicate
• Seating, grouping
• Attention, feedback
• Questioning, fewer cues, sustained
• Criticism, lack of positive reinforcement
• Quality & Rigor of tasks assigned
Importance of Relationships
• A relationship that conveys high
expectations to students can internalize
these beliefs in students and by doing so,
develop the self-esteem and self-efficacy
that Rutter found in the successful schools
in his study.
MetLife Survey of the
American Teacher
Interviews conducted October 4 –November 11, 2010
•1000 public school teachers, grades 6‐12 (Telephone interviews)
•2002 public school students, grades 6‐12 (Online interviews)
•580 parents of public school students in grades 6‐12 (Online
•21 public school teacher leaders and public education thought
•301 business executives from Fortune 1000 companies in online
MetLife Survey of the
American Teacher: Results
Impacts on Student Achievement
Teachers Principals
High expectations for all
Core reading, writing and math skills
Real world connections with all content
We have the knowledge and skills
needed for students to succeed.
Common Core?
• Comparatively fewer educators,
however, are confident that the
Common Core will improve student
achievement and better prepare
students for college and the workforce.
Knowledge = Confidence
• Among educators overall who are more
knowledgeable of the Common Core,
and in schools where teachers are
reporting using the standards a great
deal in their teaching, there is a greater
level of confidence that the standards
will improve student achievement.
MetLife Survey of the
American Teacher –
from Learning Forward
• Core skills and high expectations are seen as
critical to improving student achievement. (2009)
• Gaps exist between the beliefs of teachers in the
important role of high expectations in academic
achievement and the extent to which they are
communicated and demonstrated in practice for all
students. (2009)
Learning Forward
• Answers the question of how effective a
schooling experience is for learners
• Produces reports that
– Predict student success
– Show the effects of schooling at particular schools
– Reveal patterns in subgroup performance
What is EVAAS?
End of Grade
End of Course
Value Added &
Planning for
Students’ Needs:
Projections to
Future Tests
Benefits and Considerations for
• Understand academic
preparedness of students before
they enter the classroom.
• Monitor student progress,
ensuring growth opportunities
for all students.
• Modify curriculum, student
support, and instructional
strategies to address the needs
of all students.
Development is
the Key
• Data Conversations / True PLCs
• Culture of School
• Sensitivity of Data
• Finger Pointing and Blame Game
• Window vs. Mirror
How do you
explain the
concept of
Achievement vs.
Student Achievement
End of
School Year
Student Growth
Not Proficient
Start of
School Year
End of
School Year
Achievement vs. Growth
Student Achievement: Where are we?
• Highly correlated with demographic factors
Student Growth: How far have we come?
• Highly dependent on what happens as a result
of schooling rather than on demographic factors
The EVAAS Philosophy
• All students deserve opportunities to make
appropriate academic progress every year.
• There is no “one size fits all” way of
educating students who enter a class at
different levels of academic achievement.
The EVAAS Philosophy
• Adjustments to instruction should be based
on the students’ academic needs, not on
socio-economic factors.
• "What teachers know and can do is the
most important influence on what students
learn." (National Commission on Teaching
and America's Future, 1996)
Achievement and Poverty
How is this fair?
Academic Growth and Poverty
No one is doomed to failure.
High-Achieving Students and Progress
All schools in Tennessee in 2011 - Math students in grades 4 through 8.
Districts, schools, and teachers that serve high achieving students can make excellent progress, just as easily as those that serve low achieving
Proficiency vs. Growth
5th grader begins the year
reading at a 1st grade level.
Ends the year reading at a 4th
grade level.
grader begins the year
reading at a 7th grade level.
Ends the year reading at the 7th
grade level.
Table Talk
• How could you use the concept of
achievement vs. growth to discuss high
expectations with teachers?
• How does the achievement vs. growth
conversation guide PLCs?
How can EVAAS help me?
Looking Back
Past Program
Looking Ahead
Student Needs
Knowledge &
Academic at Risk Reports
Be Proactive
Use these reports for discussing,
developing and implementing
targeted intervention and support to
students who are at risk for not
meeting future academic milestones.
Making Data Driven Decisions
What Are Projections Anyway?
Given a specific set
of circumstances…
…what’s the most
likely outcome?
What Are Projections Anyway?
Given this student’s testing history, across subjects…
…what is the student likely to score on an upcoming test,
assuming the student has the average schooling
EVAAS Projections
What are they based on?
Expectations based on what we know
• About this student and other students who
have already taken this test
• Prior test scores (EOC/EOG), across
• Their scores on the test we’re projecting to
What’s the Value of the
Projections are NOT about
predicting the future.
They ARE
about assessing
students’ academic
needs TODAY.
Assessing Students’ Needs
• What are this student’s chances for success?
• What goals should we have for this student this
• What goals should we have for this student in
future years?
What can I do to help this student get there?
Using Projections to
Take Action
• Identify students
• Assess the level of risk
• Plan schedules
• Identify high-achievers
• Assess the
• Inform
Reflect on Past Effectiveness to
Plan for Differentiating Student Instruction
Past Effectiveness
Entering Achievement
Academic Preparedness Report
Achievement vs. Progress
Student Progress – How far have I come?
• Highly dependent on what happens as a
result of schooling rather than on
demographic factors.
Achievement vs. Progress
• Focus on progress
• Educators can influence this
• Minimum expectation = one year of
academic gain
EVAAS can tell you WHAT happened. It’s
up to YOU to determine WHY it happened
and what you want to do about it.
& Expertise
Thinking about Expectations
•Using implicit attitude assessments to
identify "inflexible perceptions" about
student ability.
•Teach pre-service teachers about the "risks
of inequitable expectations" and offering
training to amend negative perceptions.
•Track teachers' interactions with students
and provide PD for improvement
Thinking about Expectations
•Adopt teacher evaluation systems that
measure expectations and perceptions of
•Ensure PD around the Common Core State
Standards that emphasizes the need for high
expectations paired with the high standards.
Expert Teachers- John Hattie
Differ from experienced teachers –
-the way they represent their classrooms,
-the degree of challenges that they present
to students, and most critically,
-in the depth of processing that their
students attain.
Expert Teachers with High
• Students who are taught by expert teachers
exhibit an understanding of the concepts
targeted in instruction that is more
integrated, more coherent, and at a higher
level of abstraction than the understanding
achieved by other students.
Difference between
and Expert Teachers
• Challenge
• Deep Representation
• Monitoring and Feedback
John Hattie
Ron Edmonds, “Effective Schools” research
We can whenever, and wherever we choose,
successfully teach all children whose
schooling is of interest to us. We already
know more than we need, in order to do this.
Whether we do it must finally depend on
how we feel about the fact that we haven’t
so far.”
“Some Schools Work and more Can” speech, 1978
Effective Schools Beliefs
1. All children can learn & come to school
motivated to do so
2. Schools control enough of the variables to
assure that virtually all students do learn
3. Schools should be held accountable for
measured student achievement
Effective Schools Belief #4
Schools should disaggregate measured
student achievement to be certain
that students, regardless of gender,
race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic
status, are successfully learning the
intended school curriculum.
Effective Schools Belief #5
The internal & external stakeholders are the
most qualified & capable people to plan &
implement the changes necessary to
fulfill the “learning for all” mission.
How are high and low
expectations revealed in the
Educator Evaluation Standards
• Scavenger Hunt: Search
for elements related to
high expectations for
student learning and
how this might be
• Enter examples at
NC Professional Teaching Standards
Standard I: Teachers demonstrate leadership.
Take responsibility for the progress of all students
Use data to organize, plan, and set goals
Use a variety of assessment data throughout the year to evaluate
Analyze data
Standard IV: Teachers facilitate learning for their students.
Use data for short and long range planning
Standard V: Teachers are reflective on their practice.
Collect and analyze student performance data to improve effectiveness
Force Field Analysis
Climate of High Expectations
• believe & demonstrate that all students can
obtain mastery of the school’s essential
• believe that they, the staff, have the
capability to help all students obtain that
Climate of High Expectations
• High Standards are set for all students to
• Expectations are the internal belief systems
of the adults in the schools
• All teachers believe that kids can and will
meet those higher standards.
Rate Your School/District
• Do teachers and principals demonstrate
high expectations for themselves and
• What are some observable and measurable
indicators of schools having high
Force Field Analysis
Strategies to Raise Expectations
and Hope for all Students
Do you Believe in Me?
“I can do anything…
be anything …
create anything …
dream anything …
become anything …
because you believe
in me.”
From a speech delivered by
Dalton Sherman, age 10
The Power of What We Think
Begin challenging your own
Your assumptions are your
windows on the world.
Scrub them off
every once in awhile,
or the light won't come in. –
Alan Alda
• Please complete evaluations at the end of
each session using the QR code in the
conference booklet or go to
• There are a few paper evaluation forms
available and these must be collected at the
end of the session.
• Hattie, J. A. (1992a). Towards a model of
schooling: A synthesis of meta-analyses.
Australian Journal of Education, 36, 5–13.
• Hattie, J. A. (1993a). Measuring the effects
of schooling. SET, 2, 1–4.

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