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The Respiratory
System
Systems of Gas Exchange
Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
Breathing
Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
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The Respiratory System > Systems of Gas Exchange
Systems of Gas Exchange
• Introduction and Direct Diffusion
• Skin and Gills and Tracheal Systems
• Mammalian Systems and Protective Mechanisms
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The Respiratory System > Systems of Gas Exchange
Introduction and Direct Diffusion
• Respiration ensures that cells, tissues, and major organs of the body receive an
adequate supply of oxygen and that the carbon dioxide, a waste product, is
efficiently removed; the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide occurs via
diffusion across cell membranes.
• The mechanisms, processes, and structures used for respiration are dictated by
the type, size, and complexity of the organism.
• Direct diffusion of gases through the outer membranes can be used by organisms
such as flatworms as a means of respiration due to their small size and simplicity.
Direct diffusion
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The Respiratory System > Systems of Gas Exchange
Skin and Gills and Tracheal Systems
• Some animals, such as amphibians and earthworms, can use their skin
(integument) to exchange gases between the external environment and the
circulatory system due to the network of capillaries that lie below the skin.
• Fish and other aquatic organisms use gills to take up oxygen dissolved in the
water and diffuse carbon dioxide out of the bloodstream.
• Some insects utilize a tracheal system that transports oxygen from the external
environment through openings called spiracles.
Common carp
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The Respiratory System > Systems of Gas Exchange
Mammalian Systems and Protective Mechanisms
• The air that moves from the external environment into the body must pass
through the nasal cavity where it is warmed, humidified, and surveyed for
particulates.
• As air moves out of the nasal cavity, it moves into the pharynx, larynx, trachea,
the primary bronchi (right and left lung), secondary and tertiary bronchi,
bronchioles, terminal then respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts then alveolar
sacs where gas exchange occurs with the capillaries.
• Components in the respiratory system allow for protection from foreign material;
these include mucus production in the lungs and cilia in the bronchi and
bronchioles to move matter out of the system.
Trachea and bronchi structure
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• Components in the respiratory system that allow for protection from foreign
material and include mucus production in the lungs and cilia in the bronchi and
bronchioles.
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The Respiratory System > Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
• Basic Principles of Gas Exchange
• Lung Volumes and Capacities
• Gas Pressure and Respiration
• Gas Exchange across the Alveoli
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The Respiratory System > Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
Basic Principles of Gas Exchange
• Gas is exchanged between the alveoli and the pulmonary capillaries via diffusion:
gas molecules will move from an area of high concentration to an area of low
concentration.
• The partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) is lower in the alveoli in comparison to the
external environment, which allows for diffusion of oxygen into the alveoli.
• The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) is higher in the capillaries than in
the alveoli, which allows for diffusion into the alveoli where it is exhaled during
expiration.
• The ventilation/perfusion ratio (V/Q) ensures that the ideal amount of blood and
gas is received by the alveoli for efficient gas exchange.
Gas exchange
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The Respiratory System > Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
Lung Volumes and Capacities
• The lung volumes that can be measured using a spirometer include tidal volume
(TV), expiratory reserve volume (ERV), and inspiratory reserve volume (IRV).
• Residual volume (RV) is a lung volume representing the amount of air left in the
lungs after a forced exhalation; this volume cannot be measured, only calculated.
• The lung capacities that can be calculated include vital capacity (ERV+TV+IRV),
inspiratory capacity (TV+IRV), functional residual capacity (ERV+RV), and total
lung capacity (RV+ERV+TV+IRV).
Human lung volumes and capacities
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The Respiratory System > Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
Gas Pressure and Respiration
• Atmospheric pressure is the sum of all the partial pressures of the gases in the
atmosphere, including oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water vapor.
• In the atmosphere, the partial pressure of oxygen is much greater than the partial
pressure of carbon dioxide.
• The partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere is much greater in comparison
to the lungs, creating a pressure gradient; this allows oxygen to flow from the
atmosphere into the lungs during inhalation.
Atmospheric pressure vs altitude
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The Respiratory System > Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces
Gas Exchange across the Alveoli
• The change in partial pressure from the alveoli (high concentration) to the
capillaries (low concentration) drives the oxygen into the tissue and the carbon
dioxide into the blood (high concentration) from the tissues (low concentration),
which is then returned to the lungs and exhaled.
• Once in the blood of the capillaries, the O2 binds to the hemoglobin in red blood
cells which carry it to the tissues where it dissociates to enter the cells of the
tissues.
• The lungs never fully deflate, so air that is inhaled mixes with the residual air left
from the previous respiration, resulting in a lower partial pressure of oxygen within
the alveoli.
Partial pressures
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The Respiratory System > Breathing
Breathing
• Types of Breathing
• The Mechanics of Human Breathing
• The Work of Breathing
• Dead Space: V/Q Mismatch
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The Respiratory System > Breathing
Types of Breathing
• Eupnea is normal quiet breathing that requires contraction of the diaphragm and
external intercostal muscles.
• Diaphragmatic breathing requires contraction of the diaphragm and is also called
deep breathing.
• Costal breathing requires contraction of the intercostal muscles and is also called
shallow breathing.
• Hyperpnea is forced breathing and requires muscle contractions during both
inspiration and expiration such as contraction of the diaphragm, intercostal
muscles, and accessory muscles.
• Amphibians utilize gills for breathing early in life and later develop primitive lungs
Diaphragmatic breathing
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in their adult life; additionally, they are able to breathe through their skin.
• Birds have evolved a directional respiratory system that allows them to obtain
oxygen at high altitudes: air flows in one direction while blood flows in another,
allowing efficient gas exchange.
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The Respiratory System > Breathing
The Mechanics of Human Breathing
• The mechanics of breathing follow Boyle's Law which states that pressure and
volume have an inverse relationship.
• The process of inhalation occurs due to an increase in the lung volume
(diaphragm contraction and chest wall expansion) which results in a decrease in
lung pressure in comparison to the atmosphere; thus, air rushes in the airway.
• The process of exhalation occurs due to an elastic recoil of the lung tissue which
causes a decrease in volume, resulting in increased pressure in comparison to
the atmosphere; thus, air rushes out of the airway.
• There is no contraction of muscles during exhalation; it is considered a passive
Boyles law
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process.
• The lung is protected by layers of tissue referred to as the visceral pleura and
parietal pleura; the intrapleural space contains a small amount of fluid that
protects the tissue by reducing friction.
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The Respiratory System > Breathing
The Work of Breathing
• Both flow-resistive and elastic work are conducted during the act of respiration;
flow-resistive work involves the alveoli and tissues, while elastic work involves the
intercostal muscles, chest wall, and diaphragm.
• These types of work function in an inverse relationship; for example, increasing
the rate of respiration results in an increase in the flow-resistive work and a
decrease in the elastic work.
• Surfactant is a phospholipid and lipoprotein substance produced in the lungs that
functions similarly to a detergent: it reduces the surface tension between alveoli
tissue and air within the alveoli, thereby reducing the work needed for airway
inflation.
FEV1/FVC ratio
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• Lung resistance plays a key role in the ability to efficiently exchange gases; if
there is obstruction (resistance) within the airways, the result will be decreased
gas exchange.
• Lung compliance plays a key role in the ability to efficiently exchange gases; if
there is too much of an increase or decrease in elasticity of the lung, the result will
be disruption of gas exchange, which will cause obstructive or restrictive
diseases.
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The Respiratory System > Breathing
Dead Space: V/Q Mismatch
• At times, there is a mismatch between the amount of air (ventilation, V) and the
amount of blood (perfusion, Q) in the lungs, referred to as ventilation/perfusion
(V/Q) mismatch.
• The two major types of V/Q mismatch that result in dead space include:
anatomical dead space (caused by an anatomical issue) and physiological dead
space (caused by a functional issue with the lung or arteries).
• Anatomical dead space can occur due to changes in gravity (i.e. posture
positions: sitting, standing, lying); it will affect both ventilation (V) and perfusion
(Q).
Pulmonary edema
• Physiological dead space can occur due to changes in function, such as in cases
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of infection of the lung; it will typically affect ventilation if the infection is in the lung
and will affect perfusion if the functional impairment is in the arteries.
• In a normal, healthy individual, changes in either ventilation or perfusion will result
in correction of the other factor to ensure an appropriate V/Q ratio.
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The Respiratory System > Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
• Transport of Oxygen in the Blood
• Transport of Carbon Dioxide in the Blood
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The Respiratory System > Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
Transport of Oxygen in the Blood
• Hemoglobin is made up of four subunits and can bind up to four oxygen
molecules.
• Carbon dioxide levels, blood pH, body temperature, environmental factors, and
diseases can all affect oxygen's carrying capacity and delivery.
• A decrease in the oxygen-carrying ability of hemoglobin is observed with an
increase in carbon dioxide and temperature, as well as a decrease in pH within
the body.
• Sickle cell anemia and thalassemia are two hereditary diseases that decrease the
blood's oxygen-carrying capacity.
Hemoglobin
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The Respiratory System > Transport of Gases in Human Bodily Fluids
Transport of Carbon Dioxide in the Blood
• Carbon dioxide is more soluble in blood than is oxygen; about 5 to 7 percent of all
carbon dioxide is dissolved in the plasma.
• Carbon dioxide has the ability to attach to hemoglobin molecules; it will be
removed from the body once they become dissociated from one another.
• In the bicarbonate buffer system, the most common form of carbon dioxide
transportation in the blood, carbon dioxide is finally expelled from the body
through the lungs during exhalation.
• Importantly, the bicarbonate buffer system allows little change to the pH of the
body system; it allows for people to travel and live at high altitudes because the
Carbon monoxide poisoning
system can adjust itself to regulate carbon dioxide while maintaining the correct
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pH in the body.
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Appendix
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The Respiratory System
Key terms
• aerobic living or occurring only in the presence of oxygen
• alveolus a small air sac in the lungs, where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged with the blood
• atmospheric pressure the pressure caused by the weight of the atmosphere above an area
• bifurcate to divide or fork into two channels or branches
• bronchus either of two airways, which are primary branches of the trachea, leading directly into the lungs
• carbaminohemoglobin a compound made up of hemoglobin and carbon dioxide; one of the forms in which carbon dioxide exists
in the blood
• carbon monoxide a colorless, odourless, flammable, highly toxic gas
• carbonic anhydrase a family of enzymes that catalyze the rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and water to bicarbonate and
protons
• coelom a fluid-filled cavity within the body of an animal; the digestive system is suspended within the cavity, which is lined by a
tissue called the peritoneum
• dead space air that is inhaled by the body in breathing, but does not partake in gas exchange
• deoxygenated having removed the oxygen atoms from a molecule
• diffusion The passive movement of a solute across a permeable membrane
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The Respiratory System
• eupnea normal, relaxed breathing; healthy condition of inhalation and exhalation
• gill a breathing organ of fish and other aquatic animals
• heme the component of hemoglobin responsible for binding oxygen; consists of an iron ion that binds oxygen and a porphyrin
ring that binds the globin molecules; one molecule binds one molecule of oxygen
• hemoglobin iron-containing substance in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body; it consists
of a protein (globulin) and heme (a porphyrin ring with iron at its center)
• hemoglobin iron-containing substance in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body; it consists
of a protein (globulin) and heme (a porphyrin ring with iron at its center)
• hydrostatic of or relating to fluids, especially to the pressure that they exert or transmit
• hyperpnea deep and rapid respiration that occurs normally after exercise or abnormally with fever or various disorders
• intercostal between the ribs of an animal or person
• mole in the International System of Units, the base unit of amount of substance
• oxyhaemoglobin the form of hemoglobin, loosely combined with oxygen, present in arterial and capillary blood
• parietal pleura the portion of the protective tissue that lines the inner surface of the chest wall and covers the diaphragm
• partial pressure the pressure one component of a mixture of gases would contribute to the total pressure
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The Respiratory System
• partial pressure the pressure one component of a mixture of gases would contribute to the total pressure
• perfuse to force a fluid to flow over or through something, especially through an organ of the body
• pulmonary circulation the part of blood circulation which carries oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and
returns oxygenated blood back to the heart
• residual volume the volume of unexpended air that remains in the lungs following maximum expiration
• sickle cell anemia a hereditary blood disorder, characterized by red blood cells that assume an abnormal, rigid, sickle shape
• spiracle a pore or opening used (especially by spiders and some fish) for breathing
• spirometry the measurement of the volume of air that a person can move into and out of the lungs
• surfactant a lipoprotein in the tissues of the lung that reduces surface tension and permits more efficient gas transport
• systemic circulation the part of blood circulation which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart, to the body, and returns
deoxygenated blood back to the heart
• thalassemia an inherited disorder in which the person produces a high number of red blood cells, but the cells have lower levels
of hemoglobin
• tidal volume the amount of air breathed in or out during normal respiration
• tidal volume the amount of air breathed in or out during normal respiration
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The Respiratory System
• visceral pleura the portion of protective tissue that is attached directly to the lungs
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The Respiratory System
Direct diffusion
This flatworm's process of respiration works by diffusion across the outer membrane.
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The Respiratory System
Insect respiration
Insects perform respiration via a tracheal system, in which openings called spiracles allow oxygen to pass into the body.
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The Respiratory System
Oxygen transport and gills
As water flows over the gills, oxygen is transferred to blood via the veins.
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The Respiratory System
Common carp
This common carp, like many other aquatic organisms, has gills that allow it to obtain oxygen from water.
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The Respiratory System
Electron microscope image of cilia
The bronchi and bronchioles contain cilia that help move mucus and other particles out of the lungs.
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The Respiratory System
Trachea and bronchi structure
The trachea and bronchi are made of incomplete rings of cartilage.
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The Respiratory System
Route of inhalation
Air enters the respiratory system through the nasal cavity and pharynx.It then passes through the trachea and into the bronchi, which bring air into the
lungs.
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The Respiratory System
Alveolar structure
Terminal bronchioles are connected by respiratory bronchioles to alveolar ducts and alveolar sacs.Each alveolar sac contains 20 to 30 spherical alveoli
and has the appearance of a bunch of grapes.Air flows into the atrium of the alveolar sac, then circulates into alveoli where gas exchange occurs with
the capillaries.Mucus glands secrete mucus into the airways, keeping them moist and flexible.
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The Respiratory System
Lung structure
The trachea bifurcates into the right and left bronchi in the lungs.The larger right lung is made of three lobes.To accommodate the heart, the left lung is
smaller, having only two lobes.
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The Respiratory System
Gas exchange
This schematic demonstrates how gas is exchanged in humans between a capillary and an alveolus.
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The Respiratory System
Human lung volumes and capacities
The total lung capacity of the adult male is six liters.Tidal volume is the volume of air inhaled in a single, normal breath.Inspiratory capacity is the amount
of air taken in during a deep breath, while residual volume is the amount of air left in the lungs after forceful respiration.
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The Respiratory System
Atmospheric pressure vs altitude
At high altitudes, there is a decrease in Patm, causing the partial pressures to decrease as well.
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The Respiratory System
Partial pressures
The partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide change as blood moves through the body.
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The Respiratory System
Avian respiratory system
(a) Birds have a flow-through respiratory system in which air flows unidirectionally from the posterior sacs into the lungs, then into the anterior air
sacs.The air sacs connect to openings in hollow bones.(b) Dinosaurs, from which birds descended, have similar hollow bones and are believed to have
had a similar respiratory system.
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The Respiratory System
Diaphragmatic breathing
Animation of a diaphragm exhaling and inhaling, demonstrating diaphragmatic breathing.During inhalation, the diaphragm is contracted which increases
the volume of the lung cavity.During exhalation, the diaphragm is relaxed which decreases the volume of the lung cavity.
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The Respiratory System
Visceral pleura
A tissue layer called pleura surrounds the lung and interior of the thoracic cavity.
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The Respiratory System
Inhalation and exhalation
The lungs, chest wall, and diaphragm are all involved in respiration, both (a) inhalation and (b) expiration.
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The Respiratory System
Boyles law
This graph of data from Boyle's original 1662 experiment shows that pressure and volume are inversely related.No units are given as Boyle used
arbitrary units in his experiments.
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The Respiratory System
FEV1/FVC ratio
The ratio of FEV1 (the amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled in one second after taking a deep breath) to FVC (the total amount of air that can be
forcibly exhaled) can be used to diagnose whether a person has restrictive or obstructive lung disease.
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The Respiratory System
Pulmonary edema
A physiological shunt can develop if there is infection or edema in the lung which decreases ventilation, but does not affect perfusion; thus, the
ventilation/perfusion ratio is affected.Pulmonary edema with small pleural effusions on both sides (as shown) can cause changes in the V/Q ratio.
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The Respiratory System
Hemoglobin
The protein inside red blood cells (a) that carries oxygen to cells and carbon dioxide to the lungs is hemoglobin (b).Hemoglobin is made up of four
symmetrical subunits and four heme groups.Iron associated with the heme binds oxygen.It is the iron in hemoglobin that gives blood its red color.
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The Respiratory System
Oxygen dissociation curve
The oxygen dissociation curve demonstrates that as the partial pressure of oxygen increases, more oxygen binds hemoglobin.However, the affinity of
hemoglobin for oxygen may shift to the left or the right depending on environmental conditions.
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The Respiratory System
Sickle cell anemia
Individuals with sickle cell anemia have crescent-shaped red blood cells.Diseases such as this one cause a decreased ability in oxygen delivery
throughout the body.
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The Respiratory System
Carbon monoxide poisoning
When carbon monoxide (CO) in the body increases, the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin decreases since hemoglobin will bind more readily to CO than
to oxygen.Therefore, CO exposure leads to death due to a decreased transportation of oxygen in the body.
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following statements best describes the major
function of the respiratory system?
A) The respiratory system allows CO2 to enter the bloodstream.
B) The respiratory system allows O2 to enter the bloodstream.
C) The respiratory system allows O2 to enter the bloodstream and CO2
waste to be exhaled.
D) The respiratory center allows CO2 to exit the body during exhalation.
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following statements best describes the major
function of the respiratory system?
A) The respiratory system allows CO2 to enter the bloodstream.
B) The respiratory system allows O2 to enter the bloodstream.
C) The respiratory system allows O2 to enter the bloodstream and CO2
waste to be exhaled.
D) The respiratory center allows CO2 to exit the body during exhalation.
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) Cell size is a negligible factor in the process of diffusion.
B) The size of an animal does not play a role in the ability to diffuse and
undergo gas exchange.
C) The more complex an organism, the more complex the respiratory
system.
D) Direct diffusion is the only process used for respiration.
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) Cell size is a negligible factor in the process of diffusion.
B) The size of an animal does not play a role in the ability to diffuse and
undergo gas exchange.
C) The more complex an organism, the more complex the respiratory
system.
D) Direct diffusion is the only process used for respiration.
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following animals would utilize direct diffusion as a
means for respiration?
A) Insects
B) Cnidarians
C) Fish
D) All animals use direct diffusion as a means for respiration.
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following animals would utilize direct diffusion as a
means for respiration?
A) Insects
B) Cnidarians
C) Fish
D) All animals use direct diffusion as a means for respiration.
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the process
of respiration?
A) The tracheal system uses trachea for diffusion of O2 into the body and
CO2 out of the body.
B) The tracheal system uses spiracles to allow for entrance of O2 only
into the body.
C) The tracheal system does not participate in gas exchange.
D) The tracheal system uses spiracles for diffusion of O2 into the body
and CO2 out of the body.
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the process
of respiration?
A) The tracheal system uses trachea for diffusion of O2 into the body and
CO2 out of the body.
B) The tracheal system uses spiracles to allow for entrance of O2 only
into the body.
C) The tracheal system does not participate in gas exchange.
D) The tracheal system uses spiracles for diffusion of O2 into the body
and CO2 out of the body.
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following statements best describes the process of
gas exchange with gills as the major respiratory organ?
A) The gills allow oxygen in water to diffuse in the bloodstream.
B) The gills allow oxygen in water to diffuse into the bloodstream and
CO2 to diffuse into the water.
C) The gills allow the CO2 in the bloodstream to diffuse into the water.
D) The gills do not participate in gas exchange and only transport oxygen
from the water.
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following statements best describes the process of
gas exchange with gills as the major respiratory organ?
A) The gills allow oxygen in water to diffuse in the bloodstream.
B) The gills allow oxygen in water to diffuse into the bloodstream and
CO2 to diffuse into the water.
C) The gills allow the CO2 in the bloodstream to diffuse into the water.
D) The gills do not participate in gas exchange and only transport oxygen
from the water.
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following is considered to be a protective mechanism
utilized by the respiratory system?
A) presence of cilia on the bronchioles
B) presence of cilia on the lungs
C) production of mucus by the larynx
D) production of mucus by the bronchioles
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following is considered to be a protective mechanism
utilized by the respiratory system?
A) presence of cilia on the bronchioles
B) presence of cilia on the lungs
C) production of mucus by the larynx
D) production of mucus by the bronchioles
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following represents the correct order for the
movement of air into the mammalian respiratory system after it
has left the nasal cavity?
A) larynx, pharynx, trachea, bronchus, secondary and tertiary bronchus,
bronchioles, alveolar duct
B) pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, secondary bronchus, bronchioles,
alveolar duct
C) pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, secondary and tertiary bronchus,
bronchioles, alveolar duct
D) pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, bronchioles, alveolar duct
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following represents the correct order for the
movement of air into the mammalian respiratory system after it
has left the nasal cavity?
A) larynx, pharynx, trachea, bronchus, secondary and tertiary bronchus,
bronchioles, alveolar duct
B) pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, secondary bronchus, bronchioles,
alveolar duct
C) pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, secondary and tertiary bronchus,
bronchioles, alveolar duct
D) pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchus, bronchioles, alveolar duct
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following statements regarding gas exchange is
CORRECT?
A) Gas exchange between the avleoli and the pulmonary capillaries is
dependent on PO2.
B) Gas exchange between the avleoli and the pulmonary capillaries is
dependent on both PO2 and PCO2.
C) Gas exchange between the avleoli and the pulmonary capillaries is
dependent on PCO2.
D) Gas exchange between the avleoli and the pulmonary capillaries is
dependent on bicarbonate ions.
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following statements regarding gas exchange is
CORRECT?
A) Gas exchange between the avleoli and the pulmonary capillaries is
dependent on PO2.
B) Gas exchange between the avleoli and the pulmonary capillaries is
dependent on both PO2 and PCO2.
C) Gas exchange between the avleoli and the pulmonary capillaries is
dependent on PCO2.
D) Gas exchange between the avleoli and the pulmonary capillaries is
dependent on bicarbonate ions.
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following lung volumes is correctly matched with its
description?
A) expiratory reserve volume: the total amount of air that is exhaled
during a normal exhalation
B) inspiratory reserve volume: the additional amount of air that is inhaled
after normal inhalation
C) tidal volume: the amount of additional air that can be exhaled after a
normal exhalation
D) residual volume: the total amount of air that can be inhaled and
exhaled during a respiratory cycle
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following lung volumes is correctly matched with its
description?
A) expiratory reserve volume: the total amount of air that is exhaled
during a normal exhalation
B) inspiratory reserve volume: the additional amount of air that is inhaled
after normal inhalation
C) tidal volume: the amount of additional air that can be exhaled after a
normal exhalation
D) residual volume: the total amount of air that can be inhaled and
exhaled during a respiratory cycle
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following is a method employed by health
professionals to ensure proper lung function?
A) measurement of the residual volume by a spirometer
B) measurement of the total lung capacity by a spirometer
C) measurement of the forced expiratory volume by a spirometer
D) measurement of the functional residual capacity by a spirometer
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following is a method employed by health
professionals to ensure proper lung function?
A) measurement of the residual volume by a spirometer
B) measurement of the total lung capacity by a spirometer
C) measurement of the forced expiratory volume by a spirometer
D) measurement of the functional residual capacity by a spirometer
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The Respiratory System
The partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere in comparison
to the lung is:
A) equal, which allows for even exchange of oxygen into the lung and
carbon dioxide out
B) higher, which allows for the movement of oxygen into the lungs via a
pressure gradient
C) lower, which allows for the movement of oxygen into the lungs via a
pressure gradient
D) higher, which allows for the movement of carbon dioxide into the lungs
via a pressure gradient
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The Respiratory System
The partial pressure of oxygen in the atmosphere in comparison
to the lung is:
A) equal, which allows for even exchange of oxygen into the lung and
carbon dioxide out
B) higher, which allows for the movement of oxygen into the lungs via a
pressure gradient
C) lower, which allows for the movement of oxygen into the lungs via a
pressure gradient
D) higher, which allows for the movement of carbon dioxide into the lungs
via a pressure gradient
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following would promote exchange of oxgyen out of
the alveoli into the capillaries to bind with hemoglobin?
A) PALVO2=90mmHg and blood PO2=90mmHg
B) PALVO2=90mmHg and blood PO2=35mmHg
C) PALVO2=90mmHGg and blood PO2=100mmHg
D) PALVO2=90mmHg and PALV CO2=40mmHg
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following would promote exchange of oxgyen out of
the alveoli into the capillaries to bind with hemoglobin?
A) PALVO2=90mmHg and blood PO2=90mmHg
B) PALVO2=90mmHg and blood PO2=35mmHg
C) PALVO2=90mmHGg and blood PO2=100mmHg
D) PALVO2=90mmHg and PALV CO2=40mmHg
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following explains the reason for a lower
concentration of oxygen in the lungs compared to the oxygen
concentration in the air?
A) the lung completely deflates, lowering the partial pressure of oxygen
within the alveoli
B) the respiratory quotient is equivalent to 1 because fats and proteins
are used for fuel sources
C) inspired air mixes with residual air, lowering the partial pressure of
oxygen within the avleoli
D) the concentration gradient between blood and alveoli causes O2
diffusion into the alveoli
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following explains the reason for a lower
concentration of oxygen in the lungs compared to the oxygen
concentration in the air?
A) the lung completely deflates, lowering the partial pressure of oxygen
within the alveoli
B) the respiratory quotient is equivalent to 1 because fats and proteins
are used for fuel sources
C) inspired air mixes with residual air, lowering the partial pressure of
oxygen within the avleoli
D) the concentration gradient between blood and alveoli causes O2
diffusion into the alveoli
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following types of breathing is CORRECTLY
matched with its description?
A) costal: requires forced contraction of the diaphragm and costal
muscles during expiration
B) eupnea: requires forced contraction of the intercostal muscles during
expiration
C) hyperpnea: in expiration, accessory muscles contract, forcing
abdominal organs against the diaphragm
D) diaphragmatic: requires relaxation of the accessory muscles during
forced expiration
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following types of breathing is CORRECTLY
matched with its description?
A) costal: requires forced contraction of the diaphragm and costal
muscles during expiration
B) eupnea: requires forced contraction of the intercostal muscles during
expiration
C) hyperpnea: in expiration, accessory muscles contract, forcing
abdominal organs against the diaphragm
D) diaphragmatic: requires relaxation of the accessory muscles during
forced expiration
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following animals have air sacs attached to the
lungs?
A) amphibians
B) mammals
C) birds
D) reptiles
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The Respiratory System
Which of the following animals have air sacs attached to the
lungs?
A) amphibians
B) mammals
C) birds
D) reptiles
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The Respiratory System
The process of inhalation is dependent upon:
A) a pressure gradient between the lungs and atmosphere where the
pressure is higher in the atmosphere
B) a pressure gradient between the lungs and atmosphere where the
pressure is higher in the lungs
C) a pressure gradient between the lungs and atmosphere where the
pressure is equivalent
D) pressure has nothing to do with inhalation, it is solely based on
contraction of muscles
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The Respiratory System
The process of inhalation is dependent upon:
A) a pressure gradient between the lungs and atmosphere where the
pressure is higher in the atmosphere
B) a pressure gradient between the lungs and atmosphere where the
pressure is higher in the lungs
C) a pressure gradient between the lungs and atmosphere where the
pressure is equivalent
D) pressure has nothing to do with inhalation, it is solely based on
contraction of muscles
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The Respiratory System
The process of exhalation is classified as a passive event.
Exhalation occurs due to:
A) the force of muscular contraction
B) the elastic recoil of thoracic mucles
C) greater atmospheric pressure outside the lungs than inside
D) the elastic recoil of thoracic muscles and lack of muscle contraction
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The Respiratory System
The process of exhalation is classified as a passive event.
Exhalation occurs due to:
A) the force of muscular contraction
B) the elastic recoil of thoracic mucles
C) greater atmospheric pressure outside the lungs than inside
D) the elastic recoil of thoracic muscles and lack of muscle contraction
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The Respiratory System
An individual suffering from pulmonary edema is experiencing:
A) an overall increase in compliance due to an increase in elastic fibers
B) an overall increase in compliance due to a decrease in lung elastic
recoil
C) an overall decrease in compliance due to fibroids
D) an overall decrease in compliance due to edema and decreases
mucus secretion
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The Respiratory System
An individual suffering from pulmonary edema is experiencing:
A) an overall increase in compliance due to an increase in elastic fibers
B) an overall increase in compliance due to a decrease in lung elastic
recoil
C) an overall decrease in compliance due to fibroids
D) an overall decrease in compliance due to edema and decreases
mucus secretion
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The Respiratory System
An individual is experiencing a decrease in respiration rate. How
does this effect the types of work conducted during respiration?
A) There will be an increase in elastic work and a decrease in flowresistive work
B) There will be an increase in both elastic work and flow-resistive work
C) There will be a decrease in elastic work and an increase in flowresistive work
D) There will be a decrease in both elastic work and flow-resistive work
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The Respiratory System
An individual is experiencing a decrease in respiration rate. How
does this effect the types of work conducted during respiration?
A) There will be an increase in elastic work and a decrease in flowresistive work
B) There will be an increase in both elastic work and flow-resistive work
C) There will be a decrease in elastic work and an increase in flowresistive work
D) There will be a decrease in both elastic work and flow-resistive work
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The Respiratory System
Premature babies tend to have a difficult time breathing
unassisted due to the lack of surfactant. This lack of surfactant is
causing:
A) respiratory distress syndrome because there is more effort needed to
inflate the lungs
B) respiratory distress syndrome because there is a decrease in
resistance
C) respiratory distress syndrome because the smaller alveoli are unable
to collapse relative to the large alveoli
D) respiratory distress syndrome because there is an increase in flowresistive work
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The Respiratory System
Premature babies tend to have a difficult time breathing
unassisted due to the lack of surfactant. This lack of surfactant is
causing:
A) respiratory distress syndrome because there is more effort needed to
inflate the lungs
B) respiratory distress syndrome because there is a decrease in
resistance
C) respiratory distress syndrome because the smaller alveoli are unable
to collapse relative to the large alveoli
D) respiratory distress syndrome because there is an increase in flowresistive work
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The Respiratory System
A healthy individual quickly moves from a prone to standing
position. How does this type of movement immediately affect
ventilation and perfusion?
A) ventilation is increased while perfusion is decreased
B) both ventilation and perfusion are increased
C) ventilation is decreased while perfusion is increased
D) ventilation is decreased while perfusion is decreased
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The Respiratory System
A healthy individual quickly moves from a prone to standing
position. How does this type of movement immediately affect
ventilation and perfusion?
A) ventilation is increased while perfusion is decreased
B) both ventilation and perfusion are increased
C) ventilation is decreased while perfusion is increased
D) ventilation is decreased while perfusion is decreased
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The Respiratory System
Edema in the lung can contribute to which of the following?
A) physiological dead space, which decreases perfusion
B) physiological dead space, which decreases ventilation
C) physiological dead space, which increases ventilation
D) physiological dead space, which increases perfusion
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The Respiratory System
Edema in the lung can contribute to which of the following?
A) physiological dead space, which decreases perfusion
B) physiological dead space, which decreases ventilation
C) physiological dead space, which increases ventilation
D) physiological dead space, which increases perfusion
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The Respiratory System
The majority of oxygen in the blood is transported by ________.
A) binding to hemoglobin
B) dissolution in the blood
C) being carried as bicarbonate ions
D) binding to blood plasma
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The Respiratory System
The majority of oxygen in the blood is transported by ________.
A) binding to hemoglobin
B) dissolution in the blood
C) being carried as bicarbonate ions
D) binding to blood plasma
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The Respiratory System
Normal hemoglobin can bind a total of:
A) 3 molecules of oxygen
B) 2 molecule of oxygen
C) 1 molecule of oxygen
D) 4 molecules of oxygen
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The Respiratory System
Normal hemoglobin can bind a total of:
A) 3 molecules of oxygen
B) 2 molecule of oxygen
C) 1 molecule of oxygen
D) 4 molecules of oxygen
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The Respiratory System
The majority of carbon dioxide in the blood is transported by
________.
A) binding to hemoglobin
B) dissolution in the blood
C) conversion to bicarbonate
D) binding to plasma proteins
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The Respiratory System
The majority of carbon dioxide in the blood is transported by
________.
A) binding to hemoglobin
B) dissolution in the blood
C) conversion to bicarbonate
D) binding to plasma proteins
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The Respiratory System
Attribution
• Connexions. "Introduction." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44790/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Connexions. "Systems of Gas Exchange." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44792/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "aerobic." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/aerobic
• Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/deoxygenated
• Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/diffusion
• Connexions. "Systems of Gas Exchange." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44792/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Connexions. "Systems of Gas Exchange." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44792/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "spiracle." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/spiracle
• Wiktionary. "gill." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/gill
• Wiktionary. "coelom." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/coelom
• Connexions. "Systems of Gas Exchange." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44792/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Connexions. "Systems of Gas Exchange." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44792/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "bronchus." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/bronchus
• Wiktionary. "alveolus." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/alveolus
• Wiktionary. "bifurcate." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/bifurcate
• Connexions. "Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m44795/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• WikiVet. "Error." CC BY http://en.wikivet.net/Gas_Exchange_-_Anatomy_%2526_Physiology
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The Respiratory System
• Wiktionary. "oxyhaemoglobin." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/oxyhaemoglobin
• Wiktionary. "hemoglobin." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hemoglobin
• Wiktionary. "partial pressure." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/partial+pressure
• Connexions. "Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m44795/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "spirometry." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/spirometry
• Wiktionary. "residual volume." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/residual+volume
• Wiktionary. "tidal volume." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/tidal+volume
• Connexions. "Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m44795/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "atmospheric pressure." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/atmospheric+pressure
• Wiktionary. "partial pressure." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/partial+pressure
• Connexions. "Gas Exchange across Respiratory Surfaces." CC BY 3.0
http://cnx.org/content/m44795/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
• Wiktionary. "mole." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/mole
• Wiktionary. "hemoglobin." CC BY-SA 3.0 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hemoglobin
• Connexions. "Breathing." CC BY 3.0 http://cnx.org/content/m44797/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
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The Respiratory System
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http://cnx.org/content/m44799/latest/?collection=col11448/latest
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