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Report
Layered Intelligence for
Machine Monitoring
Sensors Expo 2014
Michael Stanley
Mark Pedley
Maureen Helm
Freescale Semiconductor
TM
External Use
•
Employed at Motorola / Freescale Semiconductor
from June 1980 to the present, where I’ve had
multiple careers. Most recently:
− SoC Integration / MCU Architecture
− Sensors Architecture / Algorithms / Product
Definition
− basically, solving systems level problems
• I blog on sensor related topics at
http://www.freescale.com/blogs/mikestanley and
http://memsblog.wordpress.com/
• [email protected]
•
Mike Stanley
TM
Download the Xtrinsic Sensor Fusion Library for
Kinetis MCUs from
http://www.freescale.com/sensorfusion
2
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Semiconductor
Sensors Solutions Division - Market Focus
Safe & Efficient
Automobiles
Automotive
Safe driving, front/side impact
• Standalone sensing systems
• Ruggedized packages
• Wide sensing ranges
Tire information system
Active driver assistance
Passenger occupancy detection
Industrial Sensor
Networks
Connected intelligence
Fault monitoring/prognostication
Consumer
High precision modules
• Accelerometer
• Gyroscope
• Pressure
• Magnetometer
• MCU integrated sensors
Extreme Portable
Electronics
Low profile packages
Low power consumption
Submersible sensors
TM
3
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
A
common
Predictive
thread
for all
maintenance
these scenarios
is a must
is that
when youis
downtime
cannot
very,
veryafford
downtime.
expensive.
Courtesy of Volvo Construction Equipment
(mages.volvoce.com)
Credit: IBM Research (http://www03.ibm.com/press/uk/en/photo/43250.wss)
TM
4
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
•
Condition-Based Maintenance (CBM)
•
Condition-Based Monitoring
•
Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) systems
•
Machine Monitoring
•
Predictive Maintenance
In this talk, we will focus on vibration monitoring for CBM
Lowered costs in sensors and communications imply that
CBM techniques may be poised to extend into new areas – IF
we can simplify the software side of things.
TM
5
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
There are lots of players in this field.
Many are service companies.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
General Electric
Techenomics International
Vibrotech reliability services
Condition Monitoring Services
Inc.
Vikon
STI Vibration Monitoring
ALS Limited
Fluke
GeoSonics / Vibra-Tech
Timken
Vipac Engineers and Scientists
Ltd.
Wagner Equipment Co.
KIM Gruppen
Allied Reliability Group
Tezzco Inc.
Sterling SIHI BmbH
TM
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
6
Bentley Nevada Services
Monition Limited
ROZH
GasTOPS Ltd.
Critical Software
Azima DLI
Balmac Inc.
Diagnostic Solutions
Siemens
Prosig
Condition Analyzing Corporation
Metso Corporation
Dresser-Rand
dB Prűftechnik
KCF technologies
Schenck USA
Machine Monitoring Systems
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
This machine includes:
• rotating motor
• centrifugal pump
• linkage between the
two
figure source; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Centrifugal_Pump-mod.jpg
TM
7
Each is subject to its
own array of problems.
These might include:
• Bearing failures
• load imbalance
• shaft misalignment
• looseness
• gearbox faults
• drive belts
• resonance
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Shaft Misalignment
Aligned
Angular misalignment
causes axial vibration at
1X running frequency
Radial
Parallel misalignment
causes radial vibration at
2X running frequency
Tangential
Axial
TM
8
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Bearing faults have
specific frequency
signatures
Pd
For ball defects:
BSF
= ½ (Pd/Bd) x S x [1 – (Bd/Pd x
Bd
cos)2]
For outer trace defects:
BPFO = ½ Nb x S x [1 – (Bd/Pd x cos)]
For inner trace defects:
BPFI
= ½ Nb x S x [1 + (Bd/Pd x cos)]
Pd
= pitch diameter
Bd
= ball diameter
Nb
= number of balls
S
= speed (revolutions/sec)

= contact angle
BSF = Ball Spin Frequency
BPFO = Ball Pass Frequency of Outer Trace
BPFI = Ball Pass Frequency of Inner Trace
TM
Defect signals may be swamped by
other noise in the system, in which case
enveloping or wavelet techniques may
be used to extract the signature.
9
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Gears also have specific frequency signatures
gear mesh speed = shaft speed
X # of teeth
So = Si X Ti/To
where:
Ti = number of input teeth
To = number of output teeth
Si = input speed
So = output speed
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:NonSynchronousGearBoxSF.jpg
TM
10
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
10
Condition based
maintenance
what went wrong?
includes estimation for
remaining useful life
diagnostics
prognostics
more mature
than
prognostics
require sufficient samples that were run
to failure
data
driven
statistical
We should differentiate between:
• rotating vs linear motion
• constant rotation versus step
oriented
machine
learning
must understand the physics of
expected failure progression and how to
get parameters required for the model
physicsbased
TM
11
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Fault Detection
Unscheduled Maintenance
Down Time
maintenance
preparation
actual
maintenance
Down Time
Managed Maintenance
continuous RUL
estimation
maintenance
preparation
scheduled
maintenance
Preventive maintenance can be scheduled when downtime is cheapest.
Notice that in the 2nd scenario, we can minimize inventory and do prep
work while still “line-up”
From “Major Challenges in Prognostics: Study on Benchmarking Prognostics Datasets” by Eker, Camci and Jennions
TM
12
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
DA
Basically a “server of calibrated
digitized sensor data records”.
Outputs include digitized data,
timestamps, data quality indicators
DM
Extracts features from digitized
sensor data. Examples: FFT, wavelet,
virtual sensor, filtered data,
normalized data, etc.
SD
Compares DA & DM outputs against
expected baselines / operational limits
to determine health indicators.
Outputs might include enumerated
state values, threshold alerts, rate of
change alerts, deviation severities,
etc.
HA
Determine the current health of the
system and diagnose fault conditions
PA
Estimate remaining useful life
Predict faults / failures
Generate recommendations
AG
Integrate outputs from all other blocks
and provide optimized
recommendations, courses of action,
advisories, prioritized operational &
maintenance actions, etc.
Sensor / Transducer / Manual Entry
Data Acquisition (DA)
Data Manipulation (DM)
External
systems, data
archiving and
block
configuration
State Detection (SD)
Health Assessment (HA)
Technical
displays and
information
presentation
Prognostic Assessment
(PA)
Advisory Generation
(AG)
TM
13
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
and REPEAT
samples at
400Hz rate
Accelerometer
Sensor Board
Laptop with
interface
program and
Matlab
1ms to 2ms
pulse every
20ms
Motor Control
Electronics
accelerometer readings over time
TM
14
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
These spots are where the motor does the wide swing back to its original position
Z acceleration vs time
6000
4000
2000
0
-2000
-4000
-6000
340
2000
350
360
370
380
390
400
410
420
rms of accZ moving window of size 89
motor is stationary for 1 second between
movements of ~15 degrees at each step
1800
1600
1400
rms
1200
1000
800
TM
15
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Z acceleration vs time
6000
4000
2000
0
-2000
-4000
Good
-6000
340
350
360
370
4
1.5
380
390
400
410
420
Z acceleration vs time
x 10
1
rms of accZ moving window of size 89
2000
0.5
1800
1600
0
1400
rms
1200
-0.5
1000
800-1
Marginal
600
-1.5
40020
40
60
80
200
0
340
16
TM
350
360
370
380
time (seconds)
100
120
140
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Motor sometimes “chatters”
390
400
410
420
accZ FFT
25
20
Steps are:
15
1. Sample data
10
2. Filter
5
3. Extract features
4. 0Segment
stream 60
20 data 40
5. Extract states
FFT(accZ)
Possible features include:
• FFT
• PSD
• AutoCorrelation
• Wavelet
80
100
140
• RMS
value 120
Frequency
• Peak
to RMS
accZ PSD
• Mean
• Crossing Rate
• Standard Deviation
• Variance
• Skew Factor
• Kurtosis
• Shape Factor
PSD(accZ)
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
20
TM
40
60
80
17
100
Frequency
120
140
160
160
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
A Good Motor
6
4
A Marginal Motor
7
variance of accZ moving window of size 89
x 10
2.5
red line = threshold used
to break continuous data
stream up into “frames”
3.5
3
2
2.5
1.5
variance
variance
variance of accZ moving window of size 89
x 10
2
1
1.5
1
0.5
0.5
0
340
350
360
370
380
390
time (seconds)
TM
400
410
0
20
420
18
40
60
80
time (seconds)
100
120
140
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
A Good Motor
A Marginal Motor
std of accZ moving window of size 89
5000
1800
4500
1600
4000
1400
3500
1200
3000
std
std
std of accZ moving window of size 89
2000
1000
2500
800
2000
600
1500
400
1000
200
500
0
340
350
360
370
380
390
time (seconds)
TM
400
410
420
0
20
40
60
80
time (seconds)
100
120
red line = threshold used to break continuous data
stream within frames
into a sequence of “symbols”
19
140
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
A Good Motor
A Marginal Motor
accZ FFT
accZ FFT
25
20
FFT(accZ)
FFT(accZ)
20
15
10
10
5
5
0
20
40
60
80
100 120
Frequency
accZ PSD
140
160
180
200
600
0
20
40
60
80
100 120
Frequency
accZ PSD
140
160
180
200
0
20
40
60
80
100 120
Frequency
140
160
180
200
400
500
PSD(accZ)
PSD(accZ)
15
400
300
200
300
200
100
100
0
20
40
60
80
100 120
Frequency
140
160
180
200
These motors are made by two different manufacturers – the difference is clear
when viewing the spectrum
TM
20
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
A Marginal Motor
1.2
1.2
1
1
0.8
0.8
autocorrelation ofaccZ
autocorrelation ofaccZ
A Good Motor
0.6
0.4
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.2
0
0
-0.2
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
lag
20
40
60
80
-0.2
-150
-100
-50
0
lag
50
100
150
It makes sense the that device on the left would show better autocorrelation, as it has significantly less “chatter”.
TM
21
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
A Good Motor
A Marginal Motor
4
Z Acceleration vs Time
Z Acceleration vs Time
x 10
5000
1
accZ
accZ
0.5
0
0
-0.5
-1
350
360
370
380
390
time (seconds)
Computed States
400
410
2
1
0
-1
-2
350
360
370
380
Time
TM
390
400
410
1=high noise, 0=unknown, -1=low noise
1=high noise, 0=unknown, -1=low noise
-5000
30
40
50
60
30
40
50
60
70 80
90
time (seconds)
Computed States
100
110
120
130
100
110
120
130
2
1
0
-1
-2
For lower plots:
1 = high noise or start of frame
0 = not computed (partial frames)
22
-1 = low noise
70
80
Time
90
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
We could also use “# of recognized symbols/frame” as a figure of merit
4
Z Acceleration vs Time
x 10
1
accZ
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
30
40
50
60
70
80
time (seconds)
90
100
110
120
130
Computed States
2
1=high noise, 0=unknown, -1=low noise
1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
30
40
50
TM
60
70
80
Time
23
90logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior,
100
110 the Energy Efficient Solutions
120logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
130
Freescale, the Freescale
ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
We are consulting with our in-house wafer fab
to use these techniques to provide early
warning indicators of “maintenance required” for
wafer handling equipment (shown to the right).
•
Initial results are promising. Primary limitation
is getting production engineers to take time out
of their day for data collection.
4
Lift
Spinoff
Rinse
Spin
2000
PLT
2
Hotentry
PLT
PLT1
FG10PLT-CP6 GLACIER-FXOSAccY-1
0
-2000
120
150
180
210
Time (s)
FG10PLT-CP6 GLACIER-FXOSAccY-1
TM
4
90
240
Lift
Spinoff
Rinse
Spin
300
60
PLT
(Hz)
400
30
2
0
Hotentry
PLT
PLT1
Sensor Output (ADC Counts)
•
270
24
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Use Freescale
supplied GUIs and
embedded apps to
experiment with data
capture and feature
selection, then utilize
Matlab machine
learning algorithms to
develop higher level
ISO 13374 functions.
Sensor / Transducer / Manual Entry
Choices include:
• Sensor Type
• Axis (X, Y, Z, temp, etc)
• Sample Rate
Feature Extraction
choices include:
• FFT
• Wavelets
• Entropy
• RMS noise
• peak value
• etc.
TM
Data Acquisition (DA)
Health Assessment (HA)
Data Manipulation (DM)
Prognostic Assessment (PA)
State Detection (SD)
Advisory Generation (AG)
Development
Board
Matlab
25
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Freescale Xtrinsic Vibration Monitoring
In real time, the user
can change:
• Sensor
• Axis
• Window
• Filter
All FFT computations
are done on the
sensor board.
Data can be logged,
replayed, and
transferred to Matlab.
TM
26
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
TM
27
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
•
•
•
•
Useful vibration analysis work can be done with consumer grade
MEMS given the right enablement tools and libraries.
Some problems will require wider dynamic range and bandwidth
sensors.
We don’t have to re-invent the wheel. There is a mature industry
doing machine monitoring. Re-use of existing techniques can
bootstrap new applications.
Freescale Semiconductor is actively working to bring hardware and
software components together to make adoption of these techniques
easier.
TM
28
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.
Organizations:
• Open Operations &
Maintenance Initiative
(http://www.openoandm.org)
• Machinery Information
Management Open System
Alliance
(http://www.mimosa.org)
• International Organization for
Standardization
(http://www.iso.org)
• Center for Intelligent
Maintenance Systems
(http://www.imscenter.net)
TM
References:
1.
“Commercialization of Prognostics
Systems Leveraging Commercial
Off-The Shelf Instrumentation,
Analysis and Data Base
Technologies”, Preston Johnson
2.
“Vibration Diagnostic Guide”, SKF
Reliability Systems
3.
“Harris Shock and Vibration
Handbook”, 6th edition, Allan G.
Piersol & Thomas L. Paez, McGraw
Hill
4.
“A Review of PHM System’s
Architectural Frameworks”, Surya
Kunch, Chaochao Chen & Michael
Pecht.
5.
“Review of Vibration Analysis
Methods for Gearbox Diagnostics
and Prognostics”, Mitchell Lebold,
et. al.
29
Freescale, the Freescale logo, AltiVec, C-5, CodeTEST, CodeWarrior, ColdFire, ColdFire+, C-Ware, the Energy Efficient Solutions logo, Kinetis, mobileGT, PEG, PowerQUICC,
Processor Expert, QorIQ, Qorivva, StarCore, Symphony and VortiQa are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off. Airfast, BeeKit, BeeStack, CoreNet,
Flexis, Layerscape, MagniV, MXC, Platform in a Package, QorIQ Qonverge, QUICC Engine, Ready Play, SafeAssure, the SafeAssure logo, SMARTMOS, Tower, TurboLink, Vybrid and
Xtrinsic are trademarks of Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. All other product or service names are the property of their respective owners. © 2013 Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.

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