ORDERS Powerpoint

Learning Objectives
•Apply Army operations, doctrine and methodology in order to
produce doctrinally sound plans that are conveyed to subordinates in a
clear, concise, logical and understandable sequence.
•Prepare a Platoon / Squad operations order.
•FM 7-8 Chapter 2
•FM 7-10 Chapter 2 & G
•FM 71-1 Chapter 2
•FM 34-130 Chapter 2
•FM 3-0
•SH 21-76
•An operation order (OPORD) is a directive issued by the leader
to his subordinate leaders in order to effect the coordinated
execution of a specific operation.
•A five-paragraph format is used to organize the briefing, to
ensure completeness, and to help subordinate leaders understand
and follow the order.
• Use a terrain model or sketch along with a map to explain the
order. When possible, such as in the defense, give the order
while observing the objective.
•The leader briefs his OPORD orally from notes that follow the
five-paragraph format.
Operations Order (Cont.)
• Relays necessary info to subordinates to carry out an
• Common 5 paragraph format
• Common tactical language -FM 101-5-1
• Oral and / or written
FM 7-10, p. G2
Fragmentary Order
“No plan survives first contact with the enemy” - VON
• Provides timely changes to existing orders
• Only what is changed is normally sent
• Follows the five paragraph OPORD format
• Used to issue supplemental instructions or changes to a
current OPORD while the operation is in progress
FM 7-10, pg G-4
Supplements to OPORDs
• Should amplify or clarify the OPORD
• Overlays -- Friendly and Enemy
– Fire Support, R&S, OP’s, Movement
– Intel, Event
• Concept Sketch
• Terrain Model
• Execution Matrix
• Fire Support Matrix
• Annexes, etc.
FM 7-10, pg G4
OPERATION ORDER ____#______ (code name)
Plans and orders normally contain a code name and are numbered
consecutively within a calendar year.
References: The heading of the plan or order includes a list of maps,
charts, datum, or other related documents the unit will need to
understand the plan or order. The user does not need to reference the
SOP, but may refer to it in the body of the plan or order. The user
references a map using the map series number (and country or
geographic area, if required), sheet number and name, edition, and scale,
if required. Datum is the mathematical model of the earth used to
calculate the coordinate on any map. Different nations use different
datum for printing coordinates on their maps. The datum is usually
referenced in the marginal information of each map.
Time Zone Used Throughout the Order: The time zone used
throughout the order (including annexes and appendixes) is the time
zone applicable to the operation. Operations across several time
zones use ZULU time.
Task Organization: Describe the allocation of forces to support the
commander's concept. Task organization may be shown in one of two
places: preceding paragraph one, or in an annex, if the task
organization is long and complicated.
1. Weather and Light Data and General Forecast:
Wind Speed
Wind Direction
% Illumination
2. Terrain: OCOKA or (OACOK)
Observations and fields of fire
Cover and concealment
Key terrain
Avenues of approach
NOTE: Describe the effects on enemy and friendly forces for lines (1)
and (2).
Paragraph 1a. Enemy Situation (cont.)
(2) Recent Activities: Detail what the enemy has been doing
lately and/or any perceived “trends” in the enemy’s actions. For
example: “the enemy has been conducting squad sized ambushes at
night, along this particular road.” Do not limit yourself to
activities/trends inside your AO,example, if the enemy uses chemical
wpn’s in another theater of operations, this may signify that release
authority has been given to all local Cmdr’s
(3) Capabilities: Examine and describe all of the systems, assets
and units that the enemy could possibly employ within your units’
battlespace. Include significant capabilities even if they are only
possible but not most likely. A technique is to analyze the enemy by
battlefield operating system (BOS). This ensures that no significant
part of the enemy’s arsenal is overlooked. Includes significant
weapons/systems capabilities pertinent to the situation (i.e.
size/location/use of reserve forces, amphibious capabilities, stand off,
maximum effective ranges, etc.).
Paragraph 1. SITUATION
a. Enemy forces. Failing all else, this paragraph must answer
three essential questions: “What does he look like?,” (enemy
order of battle), “What can he do to me ?,“ (capabilities and
courses of action), and “ What can I do to him ?” (enemy
(1) Composition, Disposition, and Strength (Enemy Order
of Battle)
(a) Composition: What organic, supporting, and
reinforcing assets are available to the enemy? Describe his
composition in terms of 1) the enemy’s doctrinal organization for
combat (how units are manned and equipped doctrinally), 2) his
task organization (attachments/ reinforcements/combat support
assets he has for this particular fight) and, 3) his weaponry (major
systems he can employ). A helpful technique is to structure this
paragraph in terms of the enemy’s echelonment (i.e. enemy recon
elements, advance guard, then advance guard main body, etc)
Paragraph 1a. SITUATION (cont.)
(b) Disposition: What you currently know about how the
enemy is arrayed on the ground and what it says about his general
intent, timings and capabilities. State in the greatest detail
known to you and down to a level important to your subordinates (at
least one level down; two down, if practical). Any confirmed
intelligence is disposition and not most probable COA or
(c) Strength: How will the numbers of vehicles, troops,
and systems stated above be impacted by battle loss or enemy
adjustment to the situation at the time you will fight him? State this
in meaningful terms (E.g.: numbers, not percentages and squads
vs. individual soldiers).
Paragraph 1a. Enemy Situation(cont)
(4) Most Probable Course of Action: Includes those actions that
the enemy will likely take in sequence-to include key reactions to
friendly actions. The commander should strive to paint a visual
picture of the enemy’s fight to his subordinates. Consider using the
technique of stating the perceived/deduced task and purpose of each
major enemy element. Discussion may include but is not limited to the
following: enemy reconnaissance, use of air assault, airborne, NBC by
type and location, enemy formations, objectives, likely changes to
formations, reactions, counteractions, reinforcement of success,
dismount, use of indirect fires, supporting attacks, and reserves.
(5) Most Dangerous Course of Action: Actions that the enemy
can reasonably take (but may not be as likely) that will have the most
negative impact on your operation. This enemy course of action would
cause you to depart significantly from your COA. Normally requires a
contingency plan to counter.
Paragraph 1b Friendly Situation
b. Friendly forces
(1) Higher unit. Verbatim statement of the commander’s
mission, intent and concept of operations one and two levels up.
Should be two levels up (if or when available).
(2) Left unit. Mission essential task and purpose of the unit to
the immediate left and any other unit to the left during the operation
whose task and purpose will have a direct planned impact on your
(3) Right unit. Same as for (2) above for unit(s) to the right.
(4) Forward unit. Same as above for unit(s) to your front.
(5) Unit in Reserve/to the rear. Same as above for unit(s) in
reserve and (or) to your rear.
Paragraph 1b Friendly Situation (cont)
(6) Units in Support/Reinforcing. List the CS units, which are in
support or are reinforcing the higher headquarters. This can be listed like
task organization and is found primarily in the higher unit’s task organization
under the higher headquarters control. This para is a means of accounting
for the many units on the battlefield, which may impact on you, or your
subordinates may see that are not otherwise addressed in the order.
c. Attachments and detachments. Do not repeat information available
in task organization. May state, “see Task Organization”. State effective
time of task organization if different from effective time of the operations
Paragraph 2. MISSION
This is a clear, concise statement of the mission essential task(s) to be
accomplished by the unit and the purpose to be achieved. The mission
statement will state WHO, WHAT (the task), WHEN (the critical time),
WHERE (usually a grid coordinate), and WHY (the purpose the unit must
achieve). Some examples of restated missions follow:
Paragraph 2. MISSION (examples)
Offensive - C Company (who) assaults at, 190400 (L) OCT 03
(when), to seize OBJECTIVE HOGAN (what – task), ND52504205
(Craig Hill) (where), in order to establish a foothold for the battalion
main effort on OBJ BOB (why – purpose).
Defensive - Team A (who) defends from Battle Position 1 (BP1)
(where) NLT 200400 (L) OCT 03 (when) to destroy a motorized rifle
battalion in EA HAMMER (what – task) in order to prevent the
envelopment of Team B, the Task Force (TF) main effort, from the
north (why – purpose).
Paragraph 3. EXECUTION
Intent: Intent is the “bridge” between the unit’s purpose and the
specific course of action (concept), which the commander has
selected. Specifically, the intent statement consists of purpose, key
tasks stated in relation to terrain, enemy and desired endstate for
the operation, and is generally written in three to five sentences max. A
commander may elect to include a broader operational purpose, if he
feels it will assist his subordinates in understanding the unit’s mission.
The intent statement is mandatory for all OPORDs.
Paragraph 3.
EXECUTION (Intent cont.)
Key tasks are tasks that must be performed by the force, or conditions that
must be met in order for the unit to achieve the stated purpose. Key tasks
are not tied to a specific course of action; rather they identify the things
that are fundamental to the unit’s success. Key tasks keep subordinates
focused on the unit’s purpose when significant opportunities present
themselves, or when a selected course of action is no longer applicable.
Paragraph 3.
EXECUTION (Intent cont.)
 Examples of key tasks include: terrain that must be controlled, effects
on the enemy, and operational tempo.
 The desired endstate is a statement of the commander’s vision of
how the unit will look with respect to the enemy and terrain at the end
of the mission. This statement is written in general terms – i.e. it is not
course of action specific.
 The intent statement does not: restate the unit’s purpose, describe
the method(s) the unit will employ to be successful nor does it address
“acceptable risks.”
Intent (examples)
- Control Craig Hill (OBJ HOGAN).
- Destroy enemy platoon at the point of penetration.
- Facilitate passage of follow-on forces.
- The battalion main effort passed through to OBJ BOB, and
the company postured to defeat counter attack forces from
the south.
- Control the high-speed avenues of approach through sector
- Stop the lead enemy MRB in EA HAMMER.
- Retain the highground Vic BP1
- Enemy forces stopped in EA HAMMER and the Team
prepared to conduct offensive operations.
Paragraph 3a
a. Concept of the operation.
Annex C (Operation Overlay), or Appendix (Concept Sketch) to Annex. C.
Explains in general terms how the unit as a whole will accomplish the
mission. The concept should describe the employment of maneuver
The concept statement includes the following:
- The form of maneuver or defensive technique
- The decisive point/effects to be achieved at the decisive point
- Task and Purpose for each player
- A description of how the force as a whole will accomplish the mission.
(This is written in the form of specific purposes and tasks for each
maneuver element. Start with the main effort, and then each supporting effort,
including security forces and reserves. Do not designate specific units.)
Paragraph 3a
Concept of the Operation (cont)
- A brief description of the plan/concept of fire support.
- Brief descriptions of the integration of any other combat support
systems that the commander considers appropriate to clarify the
concept and ensure unity of effort. These can include reconnaissance
and security elements, intelligence assets, engineering assets and/or
air defense.
-Articulate the concept-specific end-state for the operation. (Your
positioning relative to the terrain and enemy as it relates to your
NOTE: A concept sketch, including the actions of
subordinate elements at the decisive point is an excellent way of
helping subordinates visualize your concept. This can be
included in the OPORD as an Appendix to Annex C (Operation
Concept Statement
(example 1 - Offense)
We will accomplish this by conducting an envelopment of
enemy forces on OBJ HOGAN. Decisive to this operation is the
seizure of OBJ HOGAN-1 (Craig Hill), which will force the enemy
armored vehicles to reposition. One platoon, the main effort, seizes
OBJ HOGAN-1 in order to establish a foothold for the battalion main
effort on OBJ BOB. One platoon, supporting effort 1 (SE1),
breaches enemy protective obstacles on OBJ HOGAN in order to
facilitate the assault of the company main effort. One Platoon
establishes ambush positions to block enemy forces in order to
isolate the objective during the main effort’s assault.
Concept Statement
(example 1- Offense)
Fires will be used to suppress enemy armored vehicles and
obscure the point of breach. The engineering effort will be
focused on providing mobility support for the company main
effort. One squad will be used as a company reconnaissance
element and will conduct an area recon of OBJ HOGAN in order
to determine the point of breach. Endstate of this operation I
expect to have destroyed or forced the withdrawal of enemy
forces on OBJ HOGAN, SBF positions occupied on the North
side of the Objective and the battalion main effort passed through
Concept Statement
(example 2 - Defense)
We will accomplish this by defending from platoon battle
positions. The decisive point is the northern half of EA HAMMER
where we will destroy the forward security element (FSE) of the
lead battalion. An armor platoon, the team main effort, destroys
enemy tanks in EA HAMMER in order to prevent the envelopment
of Team B, the TF main effort, from the north. One Mech. PLT
(SE1) destroys enemy BMPs in EA Hammer south in order to
prevent the enemy from placing effective direct fires on the main
effort platoon.
Concept Statement
(example 2 - Defense)
Another Mech. PLT, SE2, blocks enemy dismounted forces in
order to prevent the envelopment of the main effort platoon from
the north. Another tank platoon is designated the Team reserve
with priority of planning to attacking by fire to destroy enemy
second echelon MRCs from ABF 1 and then ABF2. Fires will be
used to suppress enemy AT systems, and to force the enemy to
button-up. Our engineering effort will focus on the preparation of
survivability positions and the emplacement of disrupting
obstacles in EA HAMMER. Endstate: enemy lead battalion
destroyed in EA HAMMER, the Team retains control of PLT BPs,
and is prepared to conduct a counter attack to the west.
Paragraph 3a(1) (cont)
(1) Maneuver: The maneuver paragraph addresses, in
detail, the mechanics of the operations. Specifically address all
subordinate units (SQD’s) and attachments by name, giving each its
mission in the form of a task and purpose. The main effort must be
designated and all other subordinates’ missions must relate to the
main effort. Actions on the objective will comprise the majority of this
paragraph and therefore could address the plan for actions on the
objective, engagement / disengagement criteria, an alternate plan in
the event of compromise or unplanned movement of enemy forces,
and a withdrawal plan.
a. Addresses all major subordinate maneuver units by name.
b. Includes the mission essential task and purpose (mission
statement) for each maneuver unit to achieve.
c. Designates the main effort.
d. Is consistent with the maneuver graphics. Refers to location
and actions of units using the maneuver graphics.
Paragraph 3a(1) (cont)
The Maneuver Sub-Paragraph (cont):
The maneuver sub-paragraph may be expanded to provide a clear,
concise narrative of the scheme of maneuver from the beginning to the
successful end of the operation. Possible techniques: for offensive
operations you could use the sequence of the attack or focus on the
critical events of the operation; for defensive operations you could use
the framework of the defense or critical events of the operation.
However, the maneuver paragraph should not become a “travelogue”
or attempt to capture an entire five-paragraph order in a single
paragraph. Many details of execution are best included later in the
order, (particularly for grids and detailed graphic control measure
references). A properly briefed or written maneuver paragraph can be
backbriefed immediately and accurately on a map or terrain model
without the need for subordinates to take notes or read it more than
once all the way through.
Technique #1 (offense):
1) Maneuver. 1st platoon, the company main effort, seizes
OBJ HOGAN-1 in order to establish a foothold for the battalion main
effort on OBJ BOB. 2nd platoon, supporting effort 1 (SE1), breaches
enemy protective obstacles on OBJ HOGAN in order to facilitate the
assault of the company main effort. 3rd platoon establishes ambush
positions to block enemy forces in order to isolate the objective during
the main effort’s assault
NOTE: The example above describes only the mission essential
tasks and purposes of the major subordinate maneuver elements
and identifies the main effort.
Technique #2 (offense):
1) A Company moves from AA Dog to the Attack position
along RTE Mouse, moves through the Attack Position along Axis
Stealth to an ORP Southeast of OBJ HOGAN. We will conduct a
leaders recon, assess the Intel gained, and disseminate necessary
information in the ORP. 3rd Plt moves out first and establishes
ambush points 1,2 and 3 to block enemy forces in order to isolate
the objective during the main effort’s assault. Preparatory indirect
fires will be called to suppress enemy forces on OBJ HOGAN while
the Company(-) moves along DOA Betty to the assault position.
Prep fires will shift to the western part of the OBJ to suppress enemy
forces preventing them from bringing direct fires against the Main
Attack as it enters the OBJ.
Technique #2 - Offense
2nd Plt (+) then assaults to breach enemy protective
obstacles on OBJ HOGAN in order to facilitate the assault of the
company main effort. 2nd Plt will then establish internal isolation of
the OBJ by occupying SBF 3 oriented on enemy forces on the
South side of the OBJ. Indirect fires will shift off of the OBJ and 1st
Plt (ME) will pass through 2nd Platoon, move north along DOA Lucy,
and seize OBJ HOGAN-1 in order to establish a foothold for the BN
main effort on OBJ BOB. 3rd Plt will clear only to the degree
necessary to ensure force protection, leaving isolated enemy
positions to 1Plt, C Co.
NOTE: The example above reflects the significant maneuver
elements and includes the critical indirect fire events which
directly facilitate/allow maneuver actions (i.e. the indirect fire
events which provide the fire portion of fire and maneuver).
Paragraph 3a(2)
(2). Fires. Annex D (Fire Support) Use Essential Fire Support Tasks
Clarify scheme of fires to support the overall concept. This paragraph
should state which maneuver unit is the main effort and has priority of
fires, to include stating purpose of, priorities for, allocation of, and
restrictions for fire support. A target list worksheet and overlay are
referenced here, if applicable. Specific targets are discussed and pointed
out on the terrain model.
(a) Task: Describes targeting objectives. What does the
commander want to accomplish with his fires? This includes all fire
support systems: artillery, mortars, close air support, and naval gunfire.
What is the Task (destroy, delay, disrupt, limit)?
(b) Purpose: Describes why the task will contribute to maneuver.
(c) Method: Describes how the task will be accomplished (priority,
allocation, & restrictions)
(d) Effects: Used to quantify successful accomplishment of the
Paragraph 3b
b. Tasks to maneuver units. Clearly state the missions or tasks for
each maneuver unit that reports directly to the headquarters issuing the
order. List units in the same sequence as in the task organization,
including reserves. Use a separate subparagraph for each maneuver
unit. Only state tasks that are necessary for comprehension, clarity, and
emphasis. Place tactical tasks that affect two or more units in
subparagraph 3d. Platoon leaders task their subordinate squads.
Those squads may be tasked to provide any of the following special
teams: reconnaissance and security, assault, support, aid and litter,
EPW and search, clearing, and demolitions. Detailed instructions may
also be given to platoon sergeant, RTO’s, compassman, and paceman.
Paragraph 3c
c. Tasks to combat support units. Use these subparagraphs only as
necessary. List CS units in subparagraphs in the same order as they
appear in the task organization. Use CS subparagraphs to list only
those specific tasks that CS units must accomplish and that are not
specified or implied elsewhere. Include organization for combat, if not
clear from task organization.
Examples tasks:
(a) Positioning, attachment instructions for CS units not attached to a
subordinate maneuver unit
(b) Engineers:
-Number of survivability positions by type, system, orientation, level
of preparation and/or unit or position
-C2 responsibility of engineer assets, engineer allocation by time
and system, link-up and hangover instructions
-Obstacle emplacement priorities
Paragraph 3d
d. Coordinating instructions.
e. List only instructions applicable to two or more units and not
routinely covered in unit SOPs. This is always the last
subparagraph in paragraph 3. Complex instructions should be
referred to in an annex. Subparagraph d(1)-d(5) below are
(1) Time Schedule (rehearsals, backbriefs, inspections and
Paragraph 3d
Coordinating Instructions (cont)
(2) Commander's critical information requirements (CCIR)
(a) Priority intelligence requirements (PIR) – Intelligence
required by the commander needed for planning and decision
(b) Essential elements of friendly information (EEFI). –
Critical aspects of friendly operations that, if known by the enemy,
would compromise, lead to failure, or limit success of the operation.
(c) Friendly force information requirements (FFIR). –
Information the commander needs about friendly forces available for
the operation. May include personnel status, ammunition status, and
leadership capabilities.
(3) Risk reduction control measures. These are measures
unique to this operation and not included in unit SOPs and can
include mission-oriented protective posture, operational exposure
guidance, vehicle recognition signals, and fratricide prevention
Paragraph 3d
Coordinating Instructions (cont)
(4) Rules of engagement (ROE)
(5) Environmental considerations
(6) Force Protection
(7) Movement Plan
Use terrain model and/or sketch. State azimuths, directions, and grid
a. Order of Movement, formation, and movement technique
b. Actions at halts (long and short).
c. Routes.
d. Departure and Re-entry of friendly lines.
e. Rally points and actions at rally points (plan must include IRP,
ORP, and RRP and all other planned rally points to include grid location
and terrain reference).
f. Actions at danger areas (general plan for unknown linear, small
open areas and large open areas; specific plan for all known danger
areas that unit will encounter along the route.
Paragraph 4.
Address service support in the areas shown below as needed to
clarify the service support concept. Subparagraphs can include:
a. General: Reference the SOP’s that govern the sustainment
operations of the unit. Provide current and proposed company trains
locations, casualty, and damaged equipment collection points and
routes to and from.
b. Materiel and Services.
(1) Supply
a. Class I – Rations Plan (cycle): M-M-A
b. Class V – Ammunition
c. Class VII – Major end items (weapons)
d. Class VIII – Medical
e. Class IX – Repair parts
f. Distribution Methods
Paragraph 4b.
b. Materiel and Services. (cont)
(2) Transportation: Location of main, alternate, and dirty supply
routes. Location of supply points. Instructions on use and priorities of
routes and transportation assets.
(3) Services. Location of GREGG. Instructions on evacuation of
deceased. Any other services (decon, clothing exchange and bath,
(4) Maintenance: Location of assets. Recovery/repair plan and
priorities. DX/CX/PMCS, requisition, BDAR instructions etc.
(5) Medical Evacuation and Hospitalization. Location of
CCP’s, aid stations, medics. Evacuation plan from point of injury to
battalion. Marking of casualties. NBC casualties.
d. Personnel. Plan for processing of EPWs. Replacement plan.
Personnel reporting requirements.
e. Miscellaneous. Instructions on use and destruction of
equipment. Any CSS item not included already.
Paragraph 5
Command & Signal
. This paragraph states where command and control facilities and key
leaders are located during the operation.
a. Command.
(1) Location of the higher unit commander and CP.
(2) Location of key personnel and CP during each phase of the
(3) Succession of Command (if different from SOP).
b. Signal.
(1) SOI index in effect.
(2) Methods of communication in priority.
(3) Pyrotechnics and Visual signals, to include arm and hand
(4) Code words, Special Reports.
(5) Challenge and password (used when behind friendly lines).
(6) Number Combination (used when forward of friendly lines).
(7) Running Password.
(8) Recognition signals (near/far and day/night).
c. Special Instructions to RTOs.

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