engineering computing center linux seminar

Report
ENGINEERING
COMPUTING CENTER
LINUX WORKSHOP
WHAT WILL BE
COVERED
1.
UNIX/Linux Overview
2.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux
3.
How to Login
4.
Password Reset
5.
Applications
6.
Command Line
7.
Change Password
8.
Shell Commands and Create Text Files
9.
Linux File-system Hierarchy
10. File Permissions
11. Remote Access & File Transfer
12. Security & ECC Policies
UNIX OVERVIEW
• UNIX was developed in 1969 at Bell Labs. Originally used
as a workbench for programmers to develop new software
for testing.
Main Functions of UNIX:
- High performance
- Resource Sharing
- Multi-User Access
- Programming and Software Development
FLAVORS OF UNIX
UNIX DISTRIBUTIONS
Open Source:
•
Linux, Minix, FreeBSD, OpenSolaris
Open & Closed Source:
• Android
Closed Source:
• MacOS X, Solaris, AIX, HP-UX
LINUX
•
Linus Torvalds developed
the Linux kernel in 1991.
•
Collaborated with the GNU
Project in 1992, to create the
first free operating system
for the public.
•
Many distrubutions of Linux
include Debian, Fedora,
Mandriva, SUSE, Slackware,
and Android
•
Most distributions are free
for use, some are NOT
ADVANTAGES OF A
LINUX OS?
I.
Hardware/Software

High Compatibility

Resource Allocation/Sharing

Flexibility
I.
Security

Very few Viruses

Encryption

Dynamic Firewall
I.
Choice

Complete Control

Open Source Software

Scripting and Automation

Experimentation
RED HAT ENTERPRISE
LINUX 6
• Originally
Released in 2003
• Mainly used as
enterprise level
server OS
• Trademark and
Support are NOT
free
• CentOS and
Scientific Linux
are free rebuilds
CENTOS 6
• http://www.centos.org/
• A free, community supported enterprise OS.
• Exact replica of RedHat Enterprise Linux
HOW TO LOGIN

OPEN X-WIN 32 FROM START MENU

CONFIGURE X-WIN 32:
- New Connection “Manual”
- Choose ‘XDMCP’
- ‘General’ tab
Connection Name: tuxedo
XDMCP mode: Query
HOST:
tuxedo.egr.uh.edu
Hit ‘Save’
Hit ‘Launch’

USE ECC UNIX ACCOUNT TO LOGIN
RESET PASSWORD
(ONLINE)
GO TO: http://www.uh.edu/infotech/
Click “Password Reset”
Choose the box “I need to reset a password that is
not listed here”
Enter security information
Click “Reset”
NAGIVATE THE GUI
(GRAPHICAL USER
INTERFACE)
• Applications
- accessories
- word processing
- system tools
- command line (terminal)
•
Places
- Home folder
- subdirectories
- search for files
•
System
- Preferences
- Administration Utilities
- System Documentation
APPLICATIONS
•
Firefox
- web browser
•
Libre Office
- Open source version of
Microsoft Word, Excel, Powerpoint
•
Terminal
- command line shell prompt
- faster than GUI
•
Text Editors
- EMACS
- VI/ VIM/ NANO (command line)
CLASS SOFTWARE
LOCATION
Located:
/usr/local
MATLAB, Abacus,
Fluent, Cadence,
Comsol, etc…
ACCESS THE COMMAND
LINE PROMPT
Applications  System tools 
Terminal
Fully text based command prompt
Shell prompt
[ username@<hostname>
<current working directory>] $
USING SIMPLE SHELL
COMMANDS
Navigation:
Copying, Moving, and Deleting
ls – list directory contents
cp – copy files and directories
ls –l
- view files and permissions
cp <file source> <file destination>
mv – move or rename file
pwd – print, current working directory
mv <file source> <file destination>
touch – make basic text files
cd – change directory
cd <directory path>
touch <file name>
mkdir – create a directory
mkdir <directory file path>
Ex.
cd /home/user
rm – delete file or directory (can be
destructive)
rm <file path>
rmdir – delete directory (empty directory)
rmdir <file path>
SHELL COMMANDS
(CONTINUED)
Search commands:
System commands:
find – search for files
top – shows current processes that
are running
Find <sourse directory> -name <name of file or
directory> -print
Documentation:
man – manual pages
man <command or application>
Change File Permissions:
chown – change file owner and group
chown owner:group <file path>
chgrp <groupname> <file path>
chmod – change file mode and
permissions
chmod <permission number> <filepath>
Read = 4
Write =2
Execute = 1
df –h: show the file system disk
space usage
w – shows who is logged on to the
system
uptime – see date, load average, and
# of users
uname –a : to see current OS
version and computer hostname
Network Statistics
Ifconfig – network card information
netstat –rn: see IP routing
information
CHANGE PASSWORD
(COMMAND LINE)
New password
format: mmddyy<last
initial>!
Password Rules:
Minimum 8 characters.
Type command in prompt to
reset:
yppasswd
Will prompt for old
password
At lease one Capital
Letter
At least one Special
char @#&%!
CREATE & EDITING
TEXT FILES
VIM
vim <edit file name or new file
create>
NANO
Nano <file>
EMACS
GUI text editor
LINUX FILE-SYSTEM
HIERARCHY
FILE PERMISSIONS
drwxrwxrwx
First character:
d = directory (blue)
l = symbolic link (cyan)
‘-’ = a file (white)
rwx permissions:
R = read
W = write
X = execute
First set: owner
Second set: group
Third set: everyone
REMOTE ACCESS
Ssh – Secure Shell client
•
A program used for “shell” access to a remote system.
• Login using UNIX/Linux terminal (shell), or through
“PUTTY”
• Use ECC UNIX account info to login
• PUTTY (for Windows Use)
- free application
- allows shell logins from a windows desktop
REMOTE ACCESS
(CONT)
SSH from PUTTY:
-
Open PUTTY app from Windows
-
Type the hostname or IP of destination
-
Port is always 22
-
Enter ECC-UNIX user ID, and password
-
If successful, user command prompt will be shown
SSH from another terminal (shell):
Type command: ssh <username>@<hostname>
FILE TRANSFER
WinSCP:
- Transfer files from Windows to
Linux and vice versa
- Installation located
in “software download” on Access UH
Login:
- Open WinSCP program
- Enter user credentials, click login
SECURTIY & ECC
POLICIES
ECC website
http://ecc.egr.uh.edu/engineeringcomputing-center-policies
ECC Usage Policy
http://ecc.egr.uh.edu/sites/ecc.egr.uh.e
du/files/files/cce_policy_computing.pdf
SECURITY
DO NOT, give anyone your password
DO NOT, let anyone use your ECC-UNIX account
All activity is being tracked and logged, including command
history.
Report any suspicious activity to either Kiet Luong or Zain
Marvi
Kiet Luong
Zain Marvi
Engineering IT Director
System Administrator 1
Information Security Officer
Email: [email protected]
Email: [email protected]

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