What is MapleSim? - Professor Global

Report
Modeling and Simulation of
HEV and EV Power Electronics
Dr. Sam Dao
Applications Engineer
Paul Goossens
Vice President,
Applications Engineering
© 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc.
The HEV/EV Modeling Problem
HEV and EV modeling presents
new problems
•
Complex, multi-domain models
•
Difficult to run in realtime for HiL
applications
•
Coupling between domains can cause
unexpected responses
•
Batteries and power electronics are
very complex
•
Costly prototypes must be built to
reveal system-level problems
© 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc.
The Need for Fast and Accurate Models
Accurate system-level models require accurate battery and power
electronics models
•
Electro-chemical battery models are very complicated physical systems with
complicated mathematical descriptions
•
Interaction of battery with power electronics and vehicle dynamics reveals higherorder effects can be mitigated
•
Access to system-level equations provides further insight
© 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc.
HEV Components
HEV Powertrain



IC Engine

Simple: controlled torque driver (ideal or lookup map)

Mean Value: physical equations for overall power output and fuel consumption

Cycle-by-cycle: detailed four-stroke model
Engine/transmission coupling

Controllable Friction Clutch (built into MapleSim library)

Torque Converter (lookup tables for torque ratio and load capacity)
Transmissions


Basic components

Decomposed planetary (planet-planet, planet-ring)

Dual ratio planetary: co-rotating/counter-rotating planets

Manual 5-speed

Automatic 4-Speed (ZF 4HP22: 3 planetary gears, 12 clutches)

6-speed Dual-clutch

Ravigneaux 4-speed

Lepelletier 4-Speed

CR-CR 4-speed

Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT)

Ideal or Lossy (Lookup tables for meshing friction, torque friction, slip)
Differentials

Passive/Active

Ideal/Lossy
Energy Storage/Conversion
•Batteries/Fuel Cells
•Motors
•Generation/Regeneration
•Power Conversion
•State-of-charge control
Vehicle Dynamics
•Multibody components for 3D Chassis Modeling
•Chassis/Suspension/Steering
•Stability Analysis and Control
Example: Hybrid-Electric Vehicle
FTP Drive Cycle: Simulation Results
Power Split: Torque/Speed
Video
© 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc.
Battery Modeling
in MapleSim
Sam Dao, PhD, Maplesoft
Batteries
Details Physics and Equivalent Circuit:
•
Lead-Acid
•
Ni-MH
•
Li-Ion for the following chemistries:

LiNiO2, LiCoO2, LiV2O5, LiFePO4 (Lithiumiron/iron phosphate), LiMn2O4, LiMn2O4
low plateau, LiTiS2, LiWO3, NaCoO2.
© 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc.
Approaches to Battery Modeling
Circuit-based models:
•
represents battery behaviour as electrical circuit
•
conceptually simple
•
hides the battery physics
Chemistry-based models
•
more accurate modeling of all battery characteristics
•
many configuration parameters
•
complicated model
© 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc.
Circuitry Battery Model
Relate SOC to component
values based on
experimental data
Battery capacity
Short and long time
response, charge
depletion and recovery

Pros:
 Simple and easy to
understand
 Accurate model and fast
to simulate

Cons:
 Does not include
temperature effects
 New model has to be
developed when battery
parameters are
changed
Open-circuit voltage
© 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc.
Circuitry Battery Model
•
Comparison with actual battery discharge:
© 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc.
Physics-Based Battery Models
•
Lithium-Ion battery modeling using porous electrode theory:


 Cathode: Li1 y CoO2  yLi  ye  LiCoO2
 Anode:
LiyC6  C6  yLi   ye
Porous negative electrode
contains graphite
Porous separator
Porous positive electrode
contains metal oxides
© 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc.
Physics-Based Battery Models

Distribution of liquid-phase concentration over x:
© 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc.
Physics-Based Battery Models

Discharge voltage with pulse current (30 A)

Battery voltage with different cathode
chemistries
© 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc.
Power Electrical Components
and Circuits in MapleSim
Paul Goossens, Maplesoft
Basic Components


Semiconductors

BJT (NPN, PNP)

MOSFET (N, P)

Diodes
Triggered components


Thyristor, GTO
Multi-phase components
Motors/Generators


DC

Permanent Magnet, Excited Armatures

Equivalent Circuit
AC

Synchronous and Asynchronous

Multi-phase

Stepper

Brushless DC
Power electrical subsystems
IGBT
© 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc.
IGBT Single-stage Driver
© 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc.
Three-phase IGBT Drive
Asynchronous Induction Motor Speed
© 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc.
What is MapleSim?
MapleSim is a truly unique physical
modeling tool:
•
Built on a foundation of symbolic
computation technology
•
Handles all of the complex mathematics
involved in the development of engineering
models
•
Multi-domain systems, plant modeling,
control design
•
Leverages the power of Maple to take
advantage of extensive analytical tools
•
Reduces model development time from
months to days while producing highfidelity, high-performance models
© 2011 Maplesoft, a division of Waterloo Maple Inc.
Summary

Complex physical modeling is becoming increasingly important
– and increasingly complex – particularly in EV and HEV
systems design, testing and integration

MapleSim is the ideal tool for rapid development of complex
multi-domain physical models of EV and HEV systems for fullpowertrain simulation and testing

Extensive range of battery and power-electronic models is
available to give you the fidelity you need
Thank You
Questions?
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