Mean monthly temperature (C)

Report
Chapter 5
Climate and Terrestrial
Biodiversity
BIOMES:
CLIMATE AND LIFE ON LAND
 Different
climates lead to different
communities of organisms, especially
vegetation.
Convection Cells
 Heat
and moisture
are distributed over
the earth’s surface by
vertical currents,
which form six giant
convection cells at
different latitudes.
Figure 5-6
Ocean Currents:
Distributing Heat and Nutrients
 Ocean
currents influence climate by
distributing heat from place to place and
mixing and distributing nutrients.
Figure 5-7
Topography and Local Climate:
Land Matters
 Interactions
between land and oceans and
disruptions of airflows by mountains and
cities affect local climates.
Figure 5-8
Figure 3-9
BIOMES:
CLIMATE AND LIFE ON LAND


Biomes – large terrestrial regions
characterized by similar climate, soil,
plants, and animals.
Each biome contains many ecosystems
whose communities have adapted to
differences in climate, soil, and other
environmental factors.
BIOMES:
CLIMATE AND LIFE ON LAND
Figure 5-9
Tropic of
Cancer
Equator
High mountains
Polar ice
Polar grassland (arctic
tundra)
Temperate grassland
Tropical grassland
(savanna)
Chaparral
Coniferous forest
Temperate deciduous forest
Tropical forest
Desert
Tropic of
Capricorn
Fig. 5-9, p. 106
BIOMES:
CLIMATE AND LIFE ON LAND
 Biome
type is determined by precipitation,
temperature and soil type
Figure 5-10
Polar
Tundra
Subpolar
Temperate
Coniferous
forest
Desert
Deciduous
Forest
Grassland
Chaparral
Tropical
Desert
Rain forest
Savanna
Tropical
seasonal
forest
Scrubland
Fig. 5-10, p. 107
BIOMES:
CLIMATE AND LIFE ON LAND
 Parallel
changes occur in vegetation type
occur when we travel from the equator to the
poles or from lowlands to mountaintops.
Figure 5-11
Elevation Mountain
ice and snow
Tundra
(herbs,
lichens,
mosses)
Coniferous
Forest
Latitude
Deciduous
Forest
Tropical
Forest
Tropical
Forest
Deciduous Coniferous Tundra
(herbs,
Forest
Forest
lichens,
mosses)
Polar
ice
and
snow
Fig. 5-11, p. 108
DESERT BIOMES
 Deserts
are areas where evaporation
exceeds precipitation.
 Deserts have little precipitation and little
vegetation.

Found in tropical, temperate and polar regions.
 Desert
plants have adaptations that help
them stay cool and get enough water.
DESERT BIOMES
 Variations
in
annual
temperature (red)
and precipitation
(blue) in tropical,
temperate and
cold deserts.
Figure 5-12
Freezing point
Month
Mean monthly precipitation (mm)
Mean monthly temperature (C)
Tropical Desert
Fig. 5-12a, p. 109
Freezing point
Month
Mean monthly precipitation (mm)
Mean monthly temperature (C)
Temperate Desert
Fig. 5-12b, p. 109
Freezing point
Month
Mean monthly precipitation (mm)
Mean monthly temperature (°C)
Polar Desert
Fig. 5-12c, p. 109
DESERT BIOMES
 The
flora and
fauna in desert
ecosystems
adapt to their
environment
through their
behavior and
physiology.
Figure 5-13
Red-tailed hawk
Gambel's
Quail
Yucca
Jack
rabbit
Agave
Collared
lizard
Prickly
pear
cactus
Roadrunner
Darkling
Beetle
Bacteria
Diamondback
rattlesnake
Producer
to primary
consumer
Fungi
Kangaroo rat
Primary
to
secondary
consumer
Secondary
to
higher-level
consumer
All producers and
consumers to
decomposers Fig. 5-13, p. 110
GRASSLANDS AND CHAPARRAL
BIOMES
 Variations
in
annual
temperature
(red) and
precipitation
(blue).
Figure 5-14
Freezing point
Month
Mean monthly precipitation (mm)
Mean monthly temperature (C)
Tropical grassland (savanna)
Fig. 5-14a, p. 112
Freezing point
Month
Mean monthly precipitation (mm)
Mean monthly temperature (C)
Temperate grassland
Fig. 5-14b, p. 112
Freezing point
Month
Mean monthly precipitation (mm)
Mean monthly temperature (C)
Polar grassland (arctic tundra)
Fig. 5-14c, p. 112
GRASSLANDS AND CHAPARRAL
BIOMES
 Grasslands
(prairies) occur in areas too moist
for desert and too dry for forests.
 Savannas
are tropical grasslands with
scattered tree and herds of hoofed animals.
Temperate Grasslands: Prairies
 The
cold winters and
hot dry summers
have deep and fertile
soil that make them
ideal for growing
crops and grazing
cattle.
Figure 5-15
Temperate Grasslands
 Temperate
tallgrass prairie
ecosystem in
North America.
 Accumulated
organic matter
create deep,
fertile
Figure 5-16
Polar Grasslands
 Polar
grasslands are
covered with
ice and snow
except during a
brief summer.
 Very fragile,
recovers slowly
from damage
Tundra (polar grasslands)
 Covers
10% of earth’s land. Most of the
year, these treeless plains are bitterly cold
with ice & snow. It has a 6 to 8 week
summer w/ sunlight nearly 24 hours a day.
Chaparral (temperate grassland)
 These
are coastal areas. Winters are
mild & wet, w/ summers being long,
hot, & dry.
Chaparral
 Chaparral
has a
moderate climate
but its dense
thickets of spiny
shrubs are subject
to periodic fires.

Higher rainfall in winter
season creates greater
risk of fire in dry summer
season …more biomass.
Ex: CA fires
FOREST BIOMES
 Variations
in annual
temperature (red)
and precipitation
(blue) in tropical,
temperate, and
polar forests.
Figure 5-19
Freezing point
Month
Mean monthly precipitation (mm)
Mean monthly temperature (C)
Tropical rain forest
Fig. 5-19a, p. 116
Freezing point
Month
Mean monthly precipitation (mm)
Mean monthly temperature (C)
Temperate deciduous forest
Fig. 5-19b, p. 116
Freezing point
Month
Mean monthly precipitation (mm)
Mean monthly temperature (C)
Polar evergreen coniferous forest
(boreal forest, taiga)
Fig. 5-19c, p. 116
FOREST BIOMES
 Forests
have enough precipitation to support
stands of trees and are found in tropical,
temperate, and polar regions.
Tropical Rain Forest
 Tropical
rain forests
have heavy rainfall
and a rich diversity
of species.


Found near the
equator.
Have year-round
uniformity warm
temperatures and
high humidity.
Figure 5-20
Tropical Rain Forest
 Filling
such niches enables species to avoid
or minimize competition and coexist
Figure 5-21
Emergent
layer
Harpy
eagle
Toco
toucan
Canopy
Understory
Woolly
opossum
Shrub
layer
Brazilian
tapir
Black-crowned
antipitta
Ground
layer
Fig. 5-21, p. 118
Tropical Rain Forest
 Very
high diversity
 Rapid recycling of nutrients: decompose
quickly, nutrients are taken up by plants
 Soil is acidic and nutrient poor
 Slash & burn: land can only support crops or
cattle for a year or two: heavy rains leach out
remaining nutrients
 Rapidly losing remaining acres
Temperate Deciduous Forest
 Most
of the trees
survive winter by
dropping their
leaves, which
decay and
produce a nutrientrich soil.
Figure 5-22
Evergreen Coniferous Forests (Taiga)
 Consist
mostly of
cone-bearing
evergreen trees that
keep their needles
year-round to help
the trees survive
long and cold
winters.
Figure 5-23
Temperate Rain Forests
 Coastal
areas support huge cone-bearing
evergreen trees such as redwoods and
Douglas fir in a cool moist environment.
Figure 5-24
MOUNTAIN BIOMES





High-elevation islands of
biodiversity
Cover ¼ of land surface
Dramatic changes in soil,
climate, plants over short
distances
Help regulate climate: snowcovered peaks reflect solar
radiation
Water cycle: Glacier ice,
gradually release water to
lower-elevation streams and
ecosystems.
Figure 5-25
HUMAN IMPACTS ON
TERRESTRIAL BIOMES
 Human
activities have damaged or disturbed
more than half of the world’s terrestrial
ecosystems.
 Humans have had a number of specific
harmful effects on the world’s deserts,
grasslands, forests, and mountains.
Natural Capital Degradation
Desert
Large desert cities
Soil destruction by off-road
vehicles
Soil salinization from
irrigation
Depletion of groundwater
Land disturbance and
pollution from mineral
extraction
Fig. 5-26, p. 123
Natural Capital Degradation
Grasslands
Conversion to cropland
Release of CO2 to atmosphere
from grassland burning
Overgrazing by livestock
Oil production and off-road
vehicles in arctic tundra
Fig. 5-27, p. 123
Natural Capital Degradation
Forests
Clearing for agriculture, livestock
grazing, timber, and urban
development
Conversion of diverse forests to tree
plantations
Damage from off-road vehicles
Pollution of forest streams
Fig. 5-28, p. 124
Natural Capital Degradation
Mountains
Agriculture
Timber extraction
Mineral extraction
Hydroelectric dams and
reservoirs
Increasing tourism
Urban air pollution
Increased ultraviolet radiation
from ozone depletion
Soil damage from off-road
vehicles
Fig. 5-29, p. 124

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