Perceived SelfEfficacy NCI: Schwarzer & Luszczynska Presented by Erica Howes What is self-efficacy? A “sense of control over one’s environment and behavior” Self efficacy can influence: Initiation of change Effort to make a change Length of change Types of goals set Theories Using Self-Efficacy Self-efficacy appears in some form in: Theory of Planned Behavior Transtheoretical Model Health Action Process Approach Social Cognitive Theory Theory of Triadic Influence Measurement of Self-Efficacy Scales for measuring self-efficacy depending on the specific type of self-efficacy in question. Measuring usually involves a sentence like: “I am certain that I can do xx, even if yy (barrier)” (Luszczynska & Schwarzer, 2005). General Self-Efficacy General self efficacy- “broad and stable sense of personal competence to deal effectively with a variety of stressful situations” (Schwarzer & Luszczynska) General Self-Efficacy (GSE) Scale 10 questions, range 1-4 for each Ex) “I can always manage to solve difficult problems if I try hard enough” (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995). Self-Efficacy for Health Behaviors Health behaviors studied: Nutrition Exercise Alcohol Resistance Smoking Cessation Medication Adherence Condom Use Preventive Behaviors (Breast Self Examination) Nutrition Self-Efficacy Self-efficacy is a strong predictor of nutrition behavior Can relate to: Making good food choices Controlling intake amounts Self-regulatory efforts Overcoming barriers Schwarzer & Renner, 2000 Measuring Self-Efficacy How might you measure self-efficacy for: Exercise Alcohol Consumption Smoking What factors might influence self-efficacy that could be important to address in the measurement? Ex) Social, environmental, other? Exercise Self-Efficacy Can relate to: Specific tasks (ex- ability to complete a given amount of running) Regularity of exercise Overcoming barriers to exercise Self-efficacy associated with: Endurance Competitive performance Alcohol Consumption SelfEfficacy Situational Confidence Questionnaire Annis, 1984, 1987 Alcohol Consumption SelfEfficacy Controlled Drinking Self-Efficacy Measured with Controlled Drinking Self-Efficacy Scale (CDSES) Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (DRSEQ) Abstinence Self-Efficacy Alcohol Abstinence Self-Efficacy Scale (AASE) Smoking Cessation Self-Efficacy Smoking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (SSEQ) Context-specific: self-efficacy varies from situation to situation Relapse Situation Efficacy Questionnaire (RSEQ) Predicts smoking rate: negative affect, positive affect, restrictive situations (to smoking), idle time, social-food situations, low arousal, cravings Medication Adherence SelfEfficacy Used to explain adherence to regimens of: Anti-retroviral medication for HIV Self-injection treatment for MS Epilepsy medications Diabetes- Self-Efficacy for Diabetes scale Insulin injections, blood glucose monitoring, dietary prescriptions, exercise Hypertension Medication adherence self-efficacy scale (Gbenga et al, 2003) Condom Use Self-Efficacy Condom Use Self-Efficacy scale- describes “feelings of confidence about being able to purchase and use condoms” Detective Behaviors Self-Efficacy Breast Cancer Screening- Breast Self Examination BSE Self-Efficacy scale measures intention + maintenance Prostate Cancer Screening Colorectal Cancer Screening (Un)related Constructs Self-concept- “organized knowledge of oneself” Self-esteem- emotional response to self-knowledge Locus of control- attribution of responsibility for outcomes Self-concept of ability- “judgment of competence without reference to action” Dispositional optimism- “generalized outcome expectancies” Hope- agency (similar to self-efficacy) + pathways (similar to outcome expectancies) Locus of Control Internal or external (I/E) Internal control of behavior (individual) External control of behavior (other forces/chance) A greater internal locus of control can promote better health. Similar to self-efficacy, but self-efficacy “is also behavioral and prospective” (Schwarzer & Luszczynska) Thank you!