Power Point Topic #5

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Unit 5: Pollution Management
IB Environmental Systems and Societies SL
5.1 Nature of Pollution
• 5.1.1 - Define the term pollution.
• 5.1.2 - Distinguish between the terms point
source pollution and non-point source
pollution, and outline the challenges they
present for management.
5.1.1 - Define the term pollution.
• “Pollution has been defined as ‘the adverse
effect on the natural environment, including
human, animal or plant life, or a harmful
substance that does not occur naturally, e.g.
Industrial and radioactive waste, or the
concentration to harmful levels of a naturally
occurring substance, e.g. Nitrate’.”
•
Robinson M. ,(1996), Chambers 21st century dictionary in Jarvis P.J., (2000), Ecological Principles
and Environmental Issues, p. 74, Prentice Hall, London.
5.1.2 - Distinguish between the terms point source pollution and non-point
source pollution, and outline the challenges they present for management.
• Point Source Pollution
– “...refers to discrete sources of contaminants that
can be represented by single points on a map and
the source of the pollution can be tracked.” Andrew
Davis and Garrett Nagel, Environmental Systems and Societies, p. 217, Harlow: Pearson Education
Ltd, 2010
• Non-Point Source Pollution
– “...refers to more dispersed sources from which
pollutants originate and enter the natural
environment.” Davis and Garrett Nagel, Environmental Systems and Societies, p.
218, Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd, 2010
5.1.3 - State the major sources of pollutants.
Construct a Pie chart using the following
information.
Source
Percentage
Demolition and Construction
8
Sewage Sludge
8
Mining and quarrying
27
Agriculture organic wastes
from intensively farmed
livestock
20
Industry
17
Dredging sand and mud
11
Domestic and Commercial
9
5.2 Detection and Monitoring of
Pollution
• 5.2.1 - Describe two direct methods of monitoring pollution.
Students should describe one method for air and one for soil or water.
• 5.2.2 - Define the term biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and explain
how this indirect method is used to assess pollution levels in water.
• 5.2.3 -Describe and explain an indirect method of measuring pollution
levels using a biotic index.
This will involve levels of tolerance, diversity and abundance of organisms.
The concept of indicator species should be understood. A polluted and an
unpolluted site (for example, upstream and downstream of a point source)
should be compared.
5.2.1 - Describe two direct methods of monitoring pollution.
Students should describe one method for air and one for
soil or water.
• Air
– Monitoring many pollutants such as Sulfur dioxide, oxides
of nitrogen, ozone and volatile organic compounds.
– Particulate matter
• Soil
– pH levels
• Water
–
–
–
–
–
Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
Turbidity
Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
Ammonia
Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
Measuring Particulate Matter
• This is the amount of particles that we can
collect and analyse.
• To do this;
– Use petroleum jelly in the base of a petri dish.
– Place petri in different locations
– Look at the particulate matter under a hand lens
or microscope.
– Identify particulate matter as pollutants or nonpollutants.
Measuring Soil Characteristics
• pH levels
• Determine the levels of Ph, K, Ca.
• Identify any contaminants such as higher
levels of Mg, Pb for example.
Turbidity
• Used to determine the amount of bacteria, silt
and mud or chemicals the water contains.
• Many methods can be used;
– Secchi Disk
– Turbidity meter
– Turbidity tube
5.2.2 - Define the term biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and
explain how this indirect method is used to assess pollution
levels in water.
• Biochemical Oxygen Demand is determined
by:
– The number of aerobic organisms in a river at any
given point.
– Their rate of respiration.
Measuring the BOD
1. Take a sample of water of a measured
volume.
2. Measure the oxygen levels (using a
datalogger)
3. Place the sample in a dark place at 20°C for 5
days.
4. Re-measure the oxygen level.
5. BOD is the difference between the two
levels.
Why is the BOD important?
Some species have a higher tolerance level of
organic pollution and the low levels of oxygen
which coincide with organic pollution.
Therefore the population density of such species
will be higher in polluted areas as there is less
competition from other species.
Time of Year
The date when organic pollutants is recorded is
important. They are more dangerous in
summer as solubility of oxygen decreases as
water temperature increases. Therefore, less
available oxygen.
Also, if pollutants are heated before being
released or already warm, this can have
massive effects on the local river ecosystem.
5.2.3 -Describe and explain an indirect method of measuring
pollution levels using a biotic index.
• Another method to measure pollutants is to
use a biotic index, such as the Trent Biotic
Index.
• This does not measure the pollutant directly,
but the impact it may have on the diversity of
the ecosystem.
• Biotic Indices use BOD to estimate the impact
as the levels of oxygen are detrimental to the
abundance of living organisms.
Using indicator species to estimate
river pollution
Level of
contaminants
Oxygen
BOD
Distance from effluence
Number of
Individuals
Mayfly
nymphs
Tubifex
Distance from effluence
5.3 Approaches to pollution
management
• 5.3.1 Outline the approaches to pollution
management with respect to the process of
pollution and strategies for reducing impacts.
• 5.3.2 Discuss the human factors that affect the
approaches to pollution management.
• 5.3.3 Evaluate the costs and benefits to
society of the World Health Organisation’s ban
on the use of the pesticide DDT.
5.3.3 Evaluate the costs and benefits to society of the
World Health Organisation’s ban on the use of the
pesticide DDT.
DDT
(Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane)
DDD
DDE
(Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethlyane)
(Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane)
Thinning of Birds Eggs
Purpose
• To control lice and anopheles mosquito to
reduce the spread of Thyphus and Malaria.
• Malaria accounts for 1 million deaths per year
and 250 million diagnosed per year.
• Thyphus – leads to influenza like symptoms
and muscular pain. Not fatal.
History of Use
• Introduced to eradicate Malaria by WHO in 1955.
• 1950-1980 extensively used in farming as a
pesticide. Although it killed many insects which
were beneficial to farming as a whole.
• 1970-1980 Progressive banning of DDT in MEDCs.
• Internationally banned as a pesticide in many
countries through the Stockholm Convention
(1972) and restricted to disease control.
Impact of DDT
• Loss of DDT to the environment through
runoff, evaporation and biodegradation.
• Half life of between 22 days and 30 years in
some cases.
• Bioaccumulation
• Biomagnification
0.000003
ppm
0.04 x 104
ppm
0.2 x 105
ppm
2.0 x 106
ppm
20 x 107
ppm
• Some studies suggest an:
– Increased rate of asthma, diabetes, liver-, breastand/or pancreatic cancer.
– Increase risk of early pregnancy loss or premature
births.
– Increased rate of male infertility (2007 South
Africa)
But...
• In countries where DDT has been used more
the reduction of Malaria death rates have
been reduced.
– E.g. Ecuador 1993-1995 61% reduction in Malaria
due to increased use of DDT.
• Should DDT use continue to be used as an
anti-malaria weapon?
5.4 Eutrophication
• 5.4.1 Outline the process of eutrophication.
• 5.4.2 Evaluate the impacts of eutrophication.
• 5.4.3 Describe and evaluate the pollution
management strategies with respect to
eutrophication.
5.5 Solid Domestic Waste
• 5.5.1 Outline the types of solid domestic
waste
• 5.5.2 Describe and evaluate pollution
management strategies for solid domestic
(municipal) waste.
5.5.1 Outline the types of solid
domestic waste
• Municipal solid waste
“Municipal solid waste consists of household waste,
construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue,
and waste from streets. This garbage is generated
mainly from residential and commercial complexes.”
Domestic Waste, Assam Science Technology &
Environment Council,
http://www.envisassam.nic.in/domestic-waste.asp
accessed 14.03.2012
Country
Organics Paper/
Board
Glass
Metals
Plastics
Textiles
Others
Belgium
43
28
9
4
7
9
0
Denmark
37
30
6
3
7
18
0
Germany
32
24
8
5
9
0
22
France
21
27
7
4
11
2
28
Greece
49
20
5
4
9
13
0
Ireland
42
15
6
4
11
8
14
Italy
32
27
8
4
7
3
19
Luxembourg
41
16
4
3
8
3
25
Netherlands
39
25
8
5
8
15
0
Portugal
39
20
4
2
9
5
21
Spain
44
21
7
4
11
5
8
Pollution Management; Solid Domestic Waste, Environmental Systems and Societies, Andrew
Davis and Garrett Nagle, p.239, 2010
5.5.2 Describe and evaluate pollution
management strategies for solid domestic
(municipal) waste.
Reduction
Reuse
Recover
Dispose

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