Chapter 7 overview

Chapter 7
Developmental Crises
Developmental Crisis
Normal, expected, and often occur as we transition
from one psychosocial stage of development to another.
Erikson proposes psychosocial tasks which can
precipitate a crisis.
Infancy: Trust vs. mistrust
Toddlerhood: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Preschool Years: Initiative vs. Guilt
Middle School Years: Industry vs. Inferiority
Adolescence: Identity vs. Role Confusion
Young Adulthood: Intimacy vs. Isolation
Middle Adulthood: Productivity vs. Stagnation
Maturity: Integrity vs. Despair
Evolutional Crisis
1. Often occur as family structures change and adjustment in
role functions are required.
2. Minuchin offers the idea of subsystems and the need to meet
evolving needs of family members as possible stages where
crisis occurs.
Subsystem Adjustment
A. Marital
B. Parental
C. Grandparent
D. Siblings
Families of Origin
Adult Child and
With Parents.
Adolescent Crises
Needs for individuation and identity
may lead to risky behaviors.
Need both autonomy and nurturance
Failing family structures may lead to
self-destructive behaviors
Either too controlling or to lax may lead
to some of the following issues
Teen Pregnancy
About 433,000 teens gave birth in the U. S. in
Highest rate in the industrialized world,
California has the highest rate in the country.
Often linked to dropping out of high school,
dependence on welfare, substance abuse,
child abuse, domestic violence, and
Clinics and residential facilities have
been created to meet the needs of this
Can go to school
Learn parenting skills
Parents may be available to help
May provide information about adoption
and abortion agencies
Gangs exist in most cities in the U. S.
84% of larger cities have gang
640% increase in reported gang
problems in the past 30 years.
Factors associated with gang
Family dynamics, self-concept, &
societal stresses
Parental neglect, abandonment, family
Low self-esteem, absence of personal
safety and adult guidance, social
alienation and boredom, lack of job
Prevention is key: it’s harder to
intervene once child is in a gang
Education at elementary school level
Educate community and encourage
Educate parents
Create programs in community that
expose at risk kids to social activities
About 1,682,900 youths run away a
Some are thrown away.
Ages 15-17 make up the majority of
Why? Achieve autonomy, unable to
establish a mature identity, sexual and
physical abuse, substance abuse
Teen shelters: provide crisis intervention to
teen and the family
Teach effective communication skills, and
address the need for autonomy
Cultural differences must be recognized and
compromise sought
Family therapy is the model rather than
blaming the teen
Deparentifying the teen may be helpful
Eating Disorders
Teenage girls make up 90-95% of those
with eating disorders
7 million females and 1 million males
86% of girls develop before age of 20,
10% before age of 10!, 33% between
the ages of 11 and 15.
Usually white and middle or upper
Types of eating disorders
Anorexia Nervosa: intense fear of
gaining weight, refusal to maintain
adequate nutrition, erroneous
complaints of being fat, loss of original
body weight at least to a level 85% of
that expected based on norms,
disturbance of body image and absence
of at least 3 menstrual periods.
Bulimia Nervosa: binges on high-calorie
food then engage in self-induced
vomiting, taking laxatives and
overexercising. Take great efforts to
conceal behaviors.
Emotionally reserved and cognitively inhibited
Prefer routine and order
Conforming and show deference to others
Avoid risk, react to stress with strong feelings
of distress
Focus on perfectionism, negative self
evaluation and fears of becoming an adult
If life-threatening, need physician
involvement and perhaps hospitalization
Assess for suicide
Family involvement: must face the
seriousness of the condition
Explore her role in the family, her
identity as a growing woman and needs
for individuation
Crises of Old Age
Nearly 36 million elderly people in the
U. S., over 12% of the population.
It is expected to almost double in 25
Alzheimer’s Disease and general
4 million afflicted
Progressive degeneration of the brain
Impaired memory, thinking and
Personality changes and inability to care
for oneself require caretakers
Caretakers often seek crisis intervention
because of the emotional drain.
Feel guilty to put parents in a facility,
but may have to.
Respite care is available through the
Alzheimer’s Association
Knowledge of resources is vital

similar documents