P2030.1 TF2 Draft Report Review - Home

Report
IEVC Conference, Greenville, SC
March 8, 2012
ML Chan, PhD, ML Consulting Group (TF2 Lead)
Jim Hall, AKF Group (Subgroup Lead)
Laura Manning , OPPD (Subgroup Lead)
Mike Henderson, ISO-NE (Subgroup Lead)
Spyros Skarvelis-Kazakos, Cardiff University (Subgroup Lead)
1
ML Chan, PhD
Sr. Vice President
ML Consulting Group
[email protected]
2
Objectives of TF2 Report
• IEEE Standard Association activities; to provide guidelines
for development standards for integrating EVs into electric
grid
• TF1 – EV Technology; TF3 - Cybersecurity & IT
Infrastructure; TF4 – Communications & Cybersecurity;
TF5 – Battery Technology; TF6 – Chargers & Charging;
• TF2: Impacts on Energy Supply, Transmission, Distribution
and Customer Sectors; part of P2030.1 report
• EVs include
–
–
–
–
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs,)
Extended Range Electric Vehicles ( EREVs)
Battery-powered Electric Vehicles ( BEVs)
Fleet Electric Vehicles
3
Impacts Considered
• Long term system resource planning case
– Capacity issues
– System reliability
• Power system operations case
• Each case with 2 scenarios
– EVs acting as a load
– EVs acting a source (V2H or V2G)
• Each scenario with 2 vehicle charging cases
– Uncontrolled charging
– Controlled charging (e.g., electricity TOD rates)
4
EV Charging Load Shapes
• The most critical driver to understand and predict EV
impacts on grids that vary by
– Electrical subsystem (substation/distribution
–
–
–
–
transformers)
Weather region (lifestyles)
Urban/suburb/rural areas
Income level
Roaming pattern
• Further complicated by EVs serving as source, in
addition to serving as load
5
Detailed Grid Impacts
 Customer grid impacts (Jim Hall, AKF Group)
 Distribution system impacts (Laura Manning,
OPPD)
 Transmission system impacts (Mike
Henderson, ISO-NE)
 Generation system impacts (Spyros SkarvelisKazakos, Cardiff University)
 Format of discussion on each sector’s impacts
 Presentation by each Subgroup Lead
 Comments/Inputs at the end of each presentation
6
IEEE P2030.1 TF2 Contributors
 Henry Chao, New York ISO
 Liana Cipcigan, Cardiff University, UK
 Thomas Domitrovich, Eaton Corporation, PA,
USA
 Dr Fainan Hassan, Alstom T&D
 Aoife Foley, University College Cork & Queen's
College, Belfast
 Iñaki Grau, Cardiff University, UK
 Rao Konidena, MISO
 Jeremy Landt ,Transcore
 Don Marabell, GE Energy
7
IEEE P2030.1 TF2 Contributors
 Tony McGrail, US National Grid
 Brian McMillan, Greater Sudbury Hydro Inc., ON,
Canada
 Patti Metro, NRECA
 Dale Osborn, MISO
 Panagiotis Papadopoulos, Cardiff University, UK
 Bob Saint, NRECA, VA, USA
 Jose Salazar, Southern California Edison, CA, USA
 Steve Widergren, PNL
 Mulu T. Woldeyohannes, Baker Hughes, TX, USA
8
IEEE P2030.1 TF2 Contributors
 John Bzura, ISO-NE
 Robert Leavy, Gannett Fleming Transit & Rail Systems
Slide #9
By
James Hall, AKF Group
[email protected]
9
Impacts on Customer’s Service
Overview
• Modes of Operation
– Charging Only – EVs acting purely as a load
– Source V2H – No Net-Metering
– Source V2G – With Net-Metering
• Impact of Smart Meter Integration
– Information will have to be conveyed between customer’s
charging equipment, meter, and grid operations.
– May have a significant impact on today’s IT grid.
11
Impacts on Customer’s Service
Overview
Specific Impacts
 Residential
• Characterized by single phase services consisting of equipment and
capacities largely dictated by building codes.
• Many customers served by a single distribution transformer and
feeder.
• Currently utility rates are flat with little use of time-of-use rates.
 Commercial
• Larger generally 3-phase distribution systems.
• Rates are generally complex time-of-use with seasonal ratcheting.
• Impacts are minimal for other than large fleet operations.
 Work
• Using this term to define the special situation where employees plugin and charge their EVs on their employer’s property.
 Mass Transit
• EVs as busses plugged in and charging during evening hours.
12
Impacts on Customer’s Service
Overview
 Unique Characteristics of Customer’s Impacts.
― Impacts are building code driven.
― Infrastructure upgrades may be required to satisfy codes while actual
impact to the grid is minimal.
― Impacts are a function of the level of charging. Faster charging rate equates
to a larger connected load.
― In the case of a bi-directional charger the size of the connection to a main
panel is limited by code to 20% of the size of the existing main (Assuming
the size of the main is matched to the bus).
―Consideration should be given to minimize the impact on
existing facility’s service and equipment.
13
EVs acting as a Load
• Load Issues
– Additional load – entire charger load impacts
equipment – No Diversity
• Available Fault Currents
– On-Vehicle chargers will be subject to varying range of
available fault currents.
• Power Quality Issues
– Non-Linear Loads
– Chargers will have to be single phase resulting in voltage
balance issues.
14
EVs acting as a Load
Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS)
 HEMS may be used to coordinate household electric appliance loads with
vehicle charging.
― The EV charger may be added to the HEMS as another appliance to be
controlled.
― The HEMS may control the starting, stopping, and rate of charging to
coordinate with the cycling of air conditioning compressors and hot water
heaters.
― Cycling these loads to maintain an existing domestic load profile may
delay the loading of distribution system components.
 Without Time-of-Use rates the customer will not have the incentive to
coordinate his demand.
15
EVs Acting as a Load
Specific Issues
 Residential Customers
― Very easy to provide an on-board charger that will require infrastructure
upgrades
 Commercial Customers
― Small impact except in the case of large fleet operations
 Work
― Impact on existing facilities service may be large – May require a dedicated
service for vehicle charging stations.
 Mass Transportation
― Charging load may be significant relative to transit hub facility load.
16
EVs Acting as a Source V2H
 Connection Issues
― Parallel sources connected to a common bus. Sum of sources cannot
exceed bus rating.
― Source of additional fault current
 Coordination and Protection Issues
― Islanding
― Synchronization – assurances required to prevent closing an
intermediate switch while discharging.
 Power Quality Issues
― DC Injection
― Harmonics
17
EVs Acting as a Source V2H
Specific Issues
 Residential Issues
― Chargers should be limited in size to preclude the requirement for service
upgrades.
― Typical residential panel (100A or 200A) will be limited to a 20A or 40A (4.8
or 9.8 kVA) inverter connection.
 Commercial Issues
― May have connection point issues as utilities require parallel sources to be
connected at the PCC.
― May only be practical when operating schedules coordinate with utility
time-of-use rates.
 Work
― May only be practical by installing dedicated single phase services directly
to charging stations equipped with smart metering technology.
18
EVs Acting as a Source V2G
 Special Net-Meters are Required
 Metering Configurations
― Single meter location – Not good for V2G. No special rates can be applied
for ancillary services.
― Series Meter – meter downstream of service main in dedicated charger
circuit. Measures only chargers imported/exported power.
― Parallel Metering – A second service to a facility dedicated to charging
equipment.
19
EVs Acting as a Source V2G
Specific Issues

Residential Customers
―
Will require serial or parallel metering
―
Of little benefit without AMI
 Commercial Customers
―


Again, only practical for special situations where coordinate well with
utility rates.
Work
―
Will require a dedicated charging service from the utility since single
phase sources cannot be connected to three phase systems.
―
May impact commercial facilities IT infrastructure.
Mass Transportation
―
The large batteries will provide a large centralized source to the grid.
―
This source will only be available during off-peak hours.
20
21
By
Laura Manning, OPPD
[email protected]
22
Distribution System Section
 Impacts Covered
 From Distribution Substation
 To Distribution Transformer
 Secondary
 Step Down to Customer Voltage
 Existing &Future Distributed Generation
 Micro-grid
 Individual DG
23
Distribution System Impacts
Overview
 Long-term Planning Effects
 Loads or Sources:
Thermal Loading, Reactive losses and/or Inductive
additions, Phase Imbalance, Asset Upgrade & Optimization, Advanced Metering
 Loads: Greater magnitude than traditional incremental additions
 Sources: Resemble Distributed Generation, Vehicle sourcing considerations and
limitations
 System Operations Effects
 Loads or Sources:
System Protection, Power Quality, Power Conditioning,
Grid Stability/Reliability, Frequency Regulation/Synchronism, Phasing, Interactive
Voltage Control/Phased Switching, Reactive Power Management, Demand Side
Management, Controlled Import/Export from/to Grid, Cyber Security
 Loads:
Greater magnitude than traditional incremental additions, Grid
Stability/Reliability
 Sources: Resemble Distributed Generation, System Protection, Power
Conditioning, Grid Stability/Reliability, Utility Personnel and Public Safety
24
Long-term / Planning Effects
 Uncontrolled Charging
 Higher Peaks
 Lower Valleys
 Higher Costs
 Controlled Charging/Discharging
 Voltage Support
 Charging Stations Voltage Source Converters (VSCs)
 Voltage Support & Control
 Rapid Real Power Transfer
 Frequency Regulation
 Load Following
25
Long-term Planning Effects
EVs Acting as Loads and/or Sources
 Thermal Loading (United States)
 Plug-in vehicle type and range (100 - 120 V for 60 Hz freq.)
Charging
Levels
Charger
Type
Voltage
Amps
Demand
Full
Charge
AC Level 1 on-board
120 VAC
16 A
1.92 kW
hours
AC Level
2
on-board
208 – 240 V
AC
12 – 80 A
2.5 – 19.2 kW
fewer
hours
DC Level
3
off-board
300 – 600 V
DC
250, 350 & 400 A
75 – 240 kW
minute
s
SAE Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice J1772, SAE Electric Vehicle
Conductive Charge Coupler
Distribution System Impacts
Slide #26
Long-term Planning Effects
EVs Acting as Loads and/or Sources
 Thermal Loading (Europe)
 Plug-in vehicle type and range (220 - 240 V for 50 Hz freq.)
Chargin
g
Modes
Mode 1
Mode 2
Mode 3
Mode 4
Voltage
max. 250 V AC
or 480 V AC, 3-phase
max. 250 V AC
or 480 V AC, 3-phase
max. 690 V AC, 3phase
max. 600 V DC
Amps
max. 16 A
max. 32 A
max. 250
A
max. 400
A
IEC 61851-1 Electric vehicle conductive charging system - Part 1:
General requirements
Distribution System Impacts
Slide #27
Long-term Planning Effects
EVs Acting as Loads and/or Sources
 Thermal Loading
 PEV market share and distribution
Penetratio
n
Possible
Definition
Small
Individual
residence
adds an EV
or V2G EV
Medium
2nd EV is
added to a
secondary
that serves
the 1st EV or
V2G EV
Possible Modifications
• Add proper receptacle to vehicle parking area.
• Older homes in older areas may require service,
secondary or transformer upgrade.
• Many locations may not require any changes.
• Might require larger conductors, additional
conductors or a new pedestal.
• May need to replace transformers to meet peak
load and design for lower overload capacity due to
extended loading time.
• Services fed directly from transformers may
require replacement of secondary and pedestals.
• Consider design changes for new installations in
anticipation of further market penetration.
Distribution System Impacts
System
Impact
Localized
and
diverse
Localized
and
diverse
Slide #28
Long-term Planning Effects
EVs Acting as Loads and/or Sources
 Thermal Loading
 PEV market share and distribution
Penetration
Large
Widely
Established
Possible
Definition
Possible Modifications
System
Impact
Due to added transformer KVA, the ability to close a
Continued
normal open point on a residential loop or overhead
clustered
tap may be impaired.
Subdivision
increase of
Above will require adding a parallel conductor or
focused
EVs and V2G phases to increase conductor capacity.
EVs in an area Above will also require installing additional ties to
handle the contingency operation.
Continued
Backbone circuit modifications required:
increase of
oAdd line capacitors and line voltage regulators to
EV load
maintain voltage levels.
Substation
and/or V2G
oUltimately, larger conductors or additional ties
focused
EV source on
will be required to handle contingency operation.
distribution
Addition of more circuits into an area as the above
circuits
mitigation is overcome by continual EV penetration.
Distribution System Impacts
Slide #29
Long-term Planning Effects
EVs Acting as Loads and/or Sources
 Thermal Loading
 Typical charging/discharging profiles and peak
demand/reverse power levels
 Spatial vs. roaming load distribution
 Mass electric transit systems
 Reactive losses and/or Inductive additions
 Phase Imbalance
Distribution System Impacts
Slide #30
Long-term Planning Effects
EVs Acting as Loads and/or Sources
 Asset Upgrade & Optimization




Distribution Transformer
Primary Lateral
Three Phase Feeder
Substation Equipment
 Advanced Metering
 Transmit Demand & Supply Management
 Receive VIN, Demand & Supply Management
Distribution System Impacts
Slide #31
Long-term Planning Effects
EVs Acting as Loads vs. EVs Acting as Sources
 EVs Acting as Loads
 Forward power flow perspective
 Magnitude > Traditional Incremental Load
 Challenging to model
 EVs Acting as Sources




Reverse power flow on unidirectional assets
Resemble distributed generation during discharge
Equipment capable of bi-directional operation
Vehicle sourcing considerations and limitations
Distribution System Impacts
Slide #32
System Operations Effects
EVs Acting as Loads or Sources
 System Protection – Relay Adaptability
 Operation caused by poor power quality
 Operation due to variations in AC frequency
 Misoperation due to Harmonic distortion/heating
 Power Quality
 Harmonics impact to connected components
 Flicker
 EMC/EMI
 Power Conditioning
 Voltage Regulators
 Capacitor Banks
Distribution System Impacts
Slide #33
System Operations Effects
EVs Acting as Loads and/or Sources
 Grid Stability / Reliability
 Service Interruption & Restoration
 Frequency Regulation / Synchronism
 Phasing
 Interactive Voltage Control / Phased Switching
 Reactive Power Management
 Demand Side Management (DSM)
 Controlled Charge/Import & Discharge/Export
 Cyber Security
Distribution System Impacts
Slide #34
System Operations Effects
EVs Acting as Loads vs. EVs Acting as Sources
 EVs Acting as Loads
 Forward power flow perspective
 Magnitude > Traditional incremental additions
 Challenging to model for grid stability/reliability
 EVs Acting as Sources




Reverse power flow on unidirectional assets
Resemble distributed generation during discharge
Equipment capable of bi-directional operation
System Protection


Islanding Detection
Bi-directional Power Flow
Distribution System Impacts
Slide #35
System Operations Effects
EVs Acting as Sources
 EVs Acting as Sources
 Power Conditioning
 Voltage Regulators
 Mitigate Intermittency
 Additional Reactive Power
 Grid Stability / Reliability
 Service Interruption and Restoration
 Potential Hunting
 Subtransient voltage and current dynamics
 Utility Personnel and Public Safety
 Anti-Islanding (IEEE 1547)
Distribution System Impacts
Slide #36
Summary
 Design power charge/discharge to high standards
 Uncontrolled operation:
 Lower load factors & higher peaks
 Required distribution infrastructure upgrades
 Planning and Operations challenge to model the system
 Controlled operation:
 Load leveling = peak shaving + valley filling
 Delay distribution infrastructure upgrades
 Planning and Operations less challenging to model
 Intermittent/renewable/local Distribution support
Distribution System Impacts
37
IEEE 2030.1 TF2 Draft Webinar
Distribution System Impacts
38
Michael I. Henderson, ISO-NE
Director, Regional Planning and Coordination
[email protected]
39
Disclaimer
 Properly Presented Information
 Accurately represents the positions of ISO New England
 Inaccurate Information or Opinions that May Not
Fully Agree with ISO New England
 My private views and are not meant to represent any
organization with which I am affiliated
40
About ISO New England
 Not-for-profit corporation created in
1997 to oversee New England’s
restructured electric power system
 Regulated by the Federal Energy Regulatory
Commission (FERC)
 Regional Transmission Organization
 Independent of companies doing business in
the market
 No financial interest in companies
participating in the market
 Major responsibilities:
 Reliable operation of the electric grid
 Administer wholesale electricity markets
 Plan for future system needs
41
New England’s Electric Power Grid



New York
New Brunswick
Hydro Quebec
 32,000 MW of installed generating
capacity
 Peak load:


Summer: 28,130 MW (8/06)
Winter: 22,818 MW (1/04)
 More than 450 participants in the
marketplace
 Over $9 billion total market value
ISO and Local Control Centers
 6.5 million customer meters
 350+ generators
 8,000+ miles of high voltage
transmission lines
 6 local control centers
 13 interconnections with
approximately 5,000 MW capability
to three neighboring systems:
400 mi.
650 km
320 mi.
520 km
42
Reliability Guides Regional Planning
•
North American Electric Reliability
Corporation
NPCC
– Reliability Standards for the Bulk
Power System in North America
•
Northeast Power Coordinating Council
– Basic Criteria for the Design and
Operation of Interconnected
Power Systems
•
ISO New England
– Reliability requirements for the
regional power system
Standards are used to
ensure that the regional
transmission system can
reliably deliver power to
consumers under a wide
range of future system
conditions.
43
System Expansion Planning and
Operations
• System adequacy and security
– Resources develop/operate in amounts, location, and types
when needed
– Transmission expansion/maintenance needed for reliability
and economic performance
• Drivers are the amounts, locations, and characteristics of
system loads and resources, transmission system
configuration, and control system interactions
• Major considerations include:
– Future and current operability of the system
– Economic performance
44
Planning Is Complex
 Markets and bid strategies increase variability
Unit dispatch
Ancillary services
Unit commitment
Network flows
 Market power issues
Load pockets
Dependency on generating units affect
transfer limits
 Independent owners make decisions for capital investment
Resources
Load serving entities
Transmission owners
 Technology and physical changes
Wind and solar
Environmental constraints
Distributed resources
Transmission
45
Technical Studies Needed
 Transmission Planning studies identify system needs and
show how a proposed project meets those needs
 Studies must address power flow and stability covering:
 Power flow performance, control and line utilization
 Reactive supply and voltage control requirements
 Dynamic and transient stability concerns and control system
responses
 Reliable system performance must be demonstrated
during normal and contingency conditions
 Short circuit availability and transient and harmonic
performance must be satisfied
46
Growth of Smart Grid Technologies
 Smart grid technologies can affect energy use
 Examples: Load management and Flexible Alternating
Current Transmission Systems
 Energy storage is getting increased focus as a benefit to
system operations and to mitigate impact of variable
resources
 Plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) can act as loads, sources, or
dynamic voltage sources
 The large scale integration of EVs will affect the planning and
operation of the electric power system grid
47
Effects of EV on the Transmission
System
 Economics of EVs dependent on many factors which affect
their penetration and use
 Capital and operating costs
 Performance and range
 Availability of charging stations
 Price of electricity and competing transportation fuels
 EVs can
 Mitigate or defer transmission system needs
 Advance transmission system improvements
48
EVs Change Load Shapes &
Performance
• EV uses vary:
– Community type - urban/suburb/rural areas
– Trip purpose- commute/errands/pleasure
– Day –weekdays/weekend/holiday
– Weather region – driving patterns vary with hot and cold
weather
– Roaming pattern – charging station operation at different
locations
• Understanding and predicting EV impacts on the grid
depends on their use
– Further complicated by EVs acting as a load, real power
source, and/or reactive power source
49
Summer vs. Winter Peak Demand
50
EVs Affect Transmission System
Planning
 Load patterns and implementation of demand response
 Large EV penetration and use patterns affect markets,
planning, and operations
 Load shapes
 Demand response


Load aggregators
Price signals
 Economic and environmental system performance
 EVs can provide ancillary services
 Balancing and regulation
 Operating reserves
 Voltage regulation and support
51
EVs Impacts on System Planning &
Operations
 Variability of load amounts, locations, and characteristics
affect transmission planning
 Thermal studies
 Voltage studies
 Stability studies
 Harmonics, transients and system protection
 Could facilitate integration of variable resources
 Observability and controllability are required
 Requires accurate projections of load
 Smart chips can provide frequency and voltage control
52
Demand-Resource Dispatch Zones
53
Need for New Tools and Modeling
• EVs introduce additional uncertainties to load levels,
characteristics, and demand response
• EV modeling needs to be reflected in transmission need
and solution studies of
– Resource adequacy
– Economic performance
– Environmental emissions
– Transmission system performance
• Forecasts of EVs and new study tools will be required
– EV locations and use patterns depend on consumer behavior
•
•
•
End use models
Stochastic models
Charging and discharging
54
Summary
 EVs can act as a load, source, or dynamic voltage source
 Affect the system in different ways
 EVs introduce additional opportunities and uncertainties
into system planning
 Resource planning
 Economic and environmental performance
 Transmission Planning
 Tools may be needed to forecast future EV penetration and
use patterns
55
IEEE 2030.1 TF2 Draft Webinar
Distribution System Impacts
56
By
Dr. Spyros Skarvelis-Kazakos
[email protected]
57
Generation System Impacts
Overview
 Long-term planning effects






Generation Capacity
Energy Storage
Regional Aspects
Unit Dispatch
Electricity Markets
Mass Transit
 Operational effects
 Generator Efficiency
 Intermittent Stochastic Generation (Renewable)
 Micro-Generation
Generation System Impacts
Slide #58
Long-Term Planning Effects
 More Generation Capacity
 Base load plants: for demand increase
 Peaking plants: for unpredictable EV charging
 Energy Storage
 Large and small scale
 More energy storage needs for load balancing
 Regional Aspects
 EV regional distribution (urban/rural)
 Existing installations variability
Generation System Impacts
59
Long-Term Planning Effects
 Unit Dispatch (depends on EV operation)
 Uncontrolled:


Wider difference between demand valleys and
peaks
Inefficient operation at low loading for spinning
reserve
 Controlled/V2G:
 More efficient dispatch
 Valley filling
Generation System Impacts
Slide #60
Long-Term Planning Effects
 Electricity Markets
 Impact depends on tariff incentives
 Flat rate: peak increase
 Dynamic tariff: valley filling
 Mass Transit
 Two contrasting effects: overnight depot charging
– mid-day fast charging
 Impact depends on the level of adoption
Generation System Impacts
61
Operational Effects
 Generator Efficiency
 Uncontrolled:


More balancing services –> higher fuel consumption –> more
emissions
Ramping of units, reducing efficiency and increasing fatigue
 Controlled/V2G:


Load leveling –> avoid part-loaded, inefficient operation
Base-load generation more cost-effective
Generation System Impacts
Slide #62
Operational Effects
 Intermittent Stochastic Generation (Renewable)
 Controlled: avoid curtailment
 V2G: complement intermittent, non-controllable
sources (e.g. wind)
 Micro-Generation
 Local micro-generator support
 Local load peak shaving
Generation System Impacts
63
Generation: All-time Peak
Generation: 8/2/2006
30000
25000
Dist Oil
MW
20000
Res Oil
Refuse
15000
Nat Gas
Hydro
10000
Coal
5000
Other
Nuclear
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Hour
Generation System Impacts
67
Emissions: All-time Peak
NOx (Tons/hr)
NOx Emissions: 8/2/2006
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Dist Oil
Res Oil
Refuse
Nat Gas
Hydro
Coal
Other
Nuclear
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Hour
Generation System Impacts
68
Summary
 Need for more generation capacity
(base & peak plants)
 Uncontrolled operation: reduced plant efficiency,
increased cost and emissions
 Controlled/V2G operation: load leveling,
intermittent/renewable/local generation support
 Total emissions due to generators may increase or
decrease depending on the amount and pattern of
EV use and mode of operation
Generation System Impacts
66
IEEE 2030.1 TF2 Draft Webinar
Generation System Impacts
67

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