High Voltage Batteries

Report
NFPA ELECTRIC VEHICLE SAFETY FOR EMERGENCY RESPONDERS
Module III:
Vehicle Systems and Safety
Features
3-1
NFPA ELECTRIC VEHICLE SAFETY FOR EMERGENCY RESPONDERS
Module III: Vehicle Systems and SafetyFeatures
Module III Objectives
Terminal Objective
Describe the operation of P/HEV and EV systems.
Enabling Objectives
●
●
●
●
Define terms related to P/HEV and EV systems.
Compare and contrast P/HEV’s and EV’s.
List major components of P/HEV systems.
List major components of EV systems.
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Definitions
HEV Hybrid Electric Vehicle
A vehicle that has both an internal combustion
engine (ICE) and electric motor(s).
PHEV
Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle
A vehicle that has both an ICE and electric
motors, and can recharge its batteries to full
charge from an external electric power source.
EV
Electric Vehicle
A vehicle which uses only electric motor(s)
for propulsion.
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Video
Vehicle Types
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Hybrid Electric (HEV)
All hybrids use batteries and
electric motors to reduce demand
on the internal combustion
engine (ICE).
● Allows better fuel economy.
Toyota Prius
● ICE can shut down when not
needed.
● Full Hybrids can drive short
distances on electric power only
(silent movement hazard).
● For response purposes, treat
all hybrids the same.
Honda Civic Hybrid
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Plug-In Hybrid
Electric
(PHEV)
A hybrid vehicle
that allows the
battery to be
charged via an
external power
source.
• Increases battery charge
2012 Ford Escape
• Increases range
• Reduces dependence
on the gasoline engine.
2012 Toyota Prius
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Electric Vehicle
•
•
Electric motors are the only means
of propulsion.
Vehicle must be charged by an external
power source.
Nissan Leaf
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Extended
Range
Electric
Vehicle
•
Electric motors provide the propulsion.
•
When battery is low, gasoline generator
provides the electricity for the motor.
•
Chevrolet Volt
For emergency
response, treat as a
PHEV with…
•
•
•
•
a gasoline engine
high voltage battery
electric propulsion
possible external power.
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HEV / PHEV / EV
VEHICLE COMPONENTS
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Standard Components
Internal Combustion
Engine
12 Volt DC Battery
12 VDC battery can be located in various
locations around vehicle.
Common Locations:
· Trunk / Cargo compartment
· Under hood
Less Common Locations:
· Front wheel well
· Under 2nd Row seats
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Video
12 VDC and High
Voltage Batteries
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High Voltage Batteries
Battery Types
NiMH
Nickel Metal
Hydride
Lithium
Ion
Various
Materials
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High Voltage Batteries
Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH)
Battery
● Most common
battery in existing
hybrids.
● Less common in
newer vehicles.
● Electrolyte is
alkaline.
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High Voltage Batteries
Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) Battery
● Most common in
electric vehicles.
● Will be used more in
future hybrids.
● Many different
chemical variations.
● Different from Li-Ion
batteries in home
electronics.
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Video
High Voltage
Battery
Construction
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High Voltage Batteries
Small Cells in Series
● High voltage
batteries are made
of many small, lowvoltage cells.
● Small cells wired in
series to multiply
voltage.
● Ex: Four 1.5 VDC
batteries in
series equals
6 VDC.
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High Voltage Batteries
Location of Batteries in HEVs, PHEVs
Generally
located in rear
of vehicle.
Under 2nd row
seating in most
SUVs and trucks,
in trunk/ cargo area
in most sedans.
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High Voltage Batteries
Location of Batteries in EVs
● EV Batteries are larger and of higher
voltage than P/HEV batteries.
● Usually located on the underside of
the vehicle.
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High Voltage Batteries
Service Disconnects
● Recommendations for
use and required
safety equipment vary
by manufacturer.
Consult appropriate
ERG before using
service disconnect.
● Located on the
battery.
● Cuts off the battery
from the high voltage
system.
Service disconnect will be
addressed later in course.
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Inverter/
Converter
Located
under hood
● Found in vehicles using AC drive motors.
● Converts DC from HV Battery to AC to run motor.
● Converts AC from regenerative braking back to
DC to charge HV Battery.
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Inverter/
Converter
Located
under hood
Dangerous to penetrate
cover with tools.
●
Capacitors inside unit can store voltage
for a period of time.
●
If damaged, capable of rapid energy
discharge that can cause severe injuries.
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DC/DC
Converter
DC-DC Converter (APM)
for Chevrolet Volt
● Takes the place of the alternator.
● Converts DC from high voltage battery to 12 VDC
to run vehicle’s low voltage systems.
● In some models the DC/DC converter is housed
in the inverter/converter module.
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Video
High Voltage
Battery Relay
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EV/ HEV Cabling
Color coded to SAE
voltage levels
● Low Voltage: <30 Volts
Often Red or Black
● Intermediate: 30-60 Volts
Usually Yellow or Blue
● High Voltage: >60 Volts
Orange
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Medium/High
Voltage Cabling
Medium and high
voltage should both
be considered highly
dangerous.
For the purposes
of this program,
treat blue cables
the same as high
voltage orange.
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High Voltage Cabling
Location
● Between the HV
battery, HV
components, and
the electric motor.
● Typically routed
along the underside
of the vehicle and
under hood.
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High Voltage Cabling
Construction/Fault Protection
If a cable is compromised or damaged, the
system is designed to detect the damage
and shut down.
For safety, ALL
high voltage
cable should
be considered
energized
during
response
operations.
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Electric Motors
P/HEVs
•
Provide propulsion in
some models.
•
Start and stop the
ICE when not needed.
•
Recharge HV battery
through regenerative
braking and ICE.
EVs
•
Provide propulsion
and recharge HV
battery through
regenerative braking.
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Regenerative Braking
A process used to capture energy from
braking and help recharge the high voltage
battery.
● During braking,
wheels turn the
electric motor,
making it act as a
generator and
produce electricity.
● Electricity routed to
HV battery to
increase charge.
Can damage HV system
if towed in overhaul.
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Safety Systems
P/HEVs and EVs have safety systems
designed to automatically shut down
the high voltage systems in the event
of:
● Crash Impact
● Airbag Deployment
● Cabling damage
● Short Circuits
Always treat HV systems as
energized for maximum safety.
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Charging Ports
•
Used to connect a
charging cord to
the vehicle.
•
The charging
components
reside on the
vehicle.
•
The charging unit
is an interface
between the
power supply and
the vehicle.
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Charging
Stations
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Charging Stations
Level I
Level II
120 VAC
8-16 hours
240 VAC
3-8 hours
DC Quick
Charge
480 VDC
20-30 min.
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Level 1 Charging Station
Level I
120 VAC
8-16 hours
● Utilizes 120VAC power.
● Uses standard household
plug.
● Slowest rate of the three
levels.
● Can accompany vehicle
to charge it anywhere.
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Level II Charging Station
Level II
240 VAC
3-8 hours
● Utilizes 240VAC power.
● Can be a fixed
installation or portable
unit.
● Faster than Level I
systems. Typically 3-8
hours depending on
the size of the battery.
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J1772 Plug and Receptacle
● SAE standardized for Level
I and II charging.
● Multi-pin charging/
communication link between
charger and vehicle.
● Conducts current.
● Relays charge status.
● Shuts down charging
when battery “full.”
● Prevents vehicle from
moving when pluggedin.
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DC Quick Charge Station
DC Quick
Charge
480 VDC
20-30 min.
● Currently provides 480VDC
directly to the battery.
● New standards being
developed, so this may
change.
● Fastest charging system.
● Due to wiring requirements,
availability, and expense, will
likely be in commercial sites
only.
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Activity 3.1
P/HEV, EV Components
You will be shown a series of slides, each
with a picture of a component of a P/HEV
or EV.
You will be given a few moments to
discuss and decide on the name of the
component and its function.
Be prepared to share your answer with
the class.
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?
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Component
High Voltage Battery
Function
The electrical storage system that
provides power for vehicle systems.
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?
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Component
High Voltage Cabling
Function
Wiring used to carry electric current
from the high voltage battery to the
electrical motor.
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?
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Component
Inverter / Converter
Function
Devices which convert DC from the
high voltage battery to AC to drive
the motor. May also house DC-DC
converter to step down high voltage
DC to 12VDC to run standard vehicle
systems.
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?
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Component
Charging Ports
Function
Electrical connections on a vehicle
for connecting the high voltage
battery to a charging source.
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?
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Component
Manual Service Disconnect
Function
Cuts off the battery from the high
voltage system.
Refer to Manufacturer ERG
before use!
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?
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Component
J1772 Connector
Function
Multi-pin communication link
between charger and vehicle.
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Activity 3.1
End of Activity
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Module Summary
3-
•
There are several different
types of P/HEVs and EVs.
•
Each one has specific
components related to its
electrical identify.
•
Familiarity with the types,
components and differences
will facilitate emergency
operations.
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