Supporting Language and Early Literacy: at Home and in Early Childhood and Community Settings Session 5: Providing Effective “Read Alouds”: Evidence-based Approaches Your … • (insert your name/title here) • Insert your co-presenter’s name/title here) for this Session … Participants will: • Develop skills needed to implement shared reading strategies • Demonstrate how shared reading can support components of early literacy learning • Use a systematic process to select, teach, and reinforce vocabulary words • Demonstrate dialogic reading strategies using the “PEER” process and “CROWD” prompts • Identify strategies for engaging families in shared reading to promote language and literacy development for today’s Session Check-in activity Discussion in pairs or small groups: • What do you hope to achieve by participating in this session? • What’s your expectation of the facilitator(s) in this session? Guidance from the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction: • deliver content-rich curriculum with challenging but achievable goals in ways that honor and respect the unique learning needs of young children • Use a play-based curriculum to develop self regulation, language, cognition, and social competence • Core universal curriculum should include support for all developmental domains and content areas as described in the WMELS The Wisconsin Model for Response to Intervention: Applications in Early Childhood Settings. WI Dept. of Public instruction, June 2012 http://www.collaboratingpartners.com/curriculum-assessment-rtl-forpreschool.php Dual Language Learners (DLLs) “Children, birth to 5, who are learning 2 or more languages at the same time, as well as those learning a second language (English) while continuing to develop their home or first language.” Reinl, R. Language in Play: Introduction to the Early English Language Development (E-ELD) Standards, Webinar 2013 www.wida.us/EarlyYears • Universal practices, the foundation for meeting the needs of all children, includes differentiated instruction • Adaptations and modifications to meet the needs of individual children essential – it’s Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP)! Dual Language Learners (DLLs) For guidance and support for serving DLLs, refer to the following resources: • WIDA Early Years www.wida.us/EarlyYears • Wisconsin Early Childhood Collaborating Partners Serving Dual Language Learners Facts and Tips: http://www.collaboratingpartners.com/dual-languagelearners-facts-and-tips.php • Office of Head Start Early Childhood Learning and Knowledge Center https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/culturallinguistic Exposure to print, books, and read alouds are important, but not enough to prepare children to become readers and writers. Intentional teaching - using shared (dialogic) reading, shared writing, and multiple opportunities to interact with writing, letters, sounds, and spoken words - is necessary. Children might also need some explicit developmentally appropriate instruction to learn vocabulary, phonological awareness, the alphabet, and print concepts. WISCONSIN MODEL EARLY LEARNING STANDARDS Teaching Cycle Assessment Gathering information to determine what the child can do and what the child is ready to learn • Data Collection • Data Analysis Implementation Providing meaningful, experiential activities that support individual and group goals guided by supportive interaction and relationships Planning and Curriculum Goals Deciding what should be done to promote development and what we want children to learn • Needs Identification & Prioritization • Planning (Strategy/Indicators) Research-based Early Literacy Content Areas • Oral Language (WMELS A. Listening & Understanding & B. Speaking & Communicating) • Vocabulary (WMELS A. Listening & Understanding & B. Speaking & Communicating) • Phonological Awareness (WMELS C. Early Literacy) • Alphabet Knowledge (WMELS C. Early Literacy) • Concepts about Print (WMELS C. Early Literacy) • Writing (WMELS C. Early Literacy) National guidance Children need 3 sets of interrelated skills and knowledge, taught and cultivated over time, to reach reading proficiency: • language and communication skills • content knowledge • “mechanics” of reading A Governor’s Guide to Early Literacy: Getting All Students Reading by Third Grade, National Governors Association, Washington, DC., 2013 http://www.nga.org/files/live/sites/NGA/files/pdf/2013/1310NGAEarlyLiteracyRep ortWeb.pdf Shared or Interactive Reading … a strategy where “the adult involves a child or small group of children in reading a book that may (or may not) introduce conventions of print and new vocabulary, or encourage predictions, rhyming, discussion of pictures, and other interactive experiences” National Center for Family Literacy, 2009 Shared Reading Strategies • Know child’s interests. Follow the child’s lead when looking at a book together • Ask questions. What/how/why questions; open ended questions that require more than a one-word answer. “Can you tell me about …?” • Answer if the child does not know the answer, but WAIT/Give the child time to respond (count to 10 in your head or 5 seconds) • Repeat child’s answer and add more words. (Child: “Horse.” Adult: “Yes, horse. It’s a big brown horse.”) • Ask another question • Show your enthusiasm – offer encouragement Dale, P., Crain-Thoreson, C., Notari-Syverson, A., & Cole, K. (1996). Parent-child storybook reading as an intervention technique for young children with language delays. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 16, 213-235 Language is the Key, 2010 http://www.walearning.com/products/language-is-the-key/research-and-references/ Step 1: Select the Text For high quality, developmentally appropriate books, consider: • • • • • • Age and developmental levels of your children Children’s interests/variety of topics Number and size of words (text) on page Illustrations – Interesting? Attractive? Format – board books, over-sized, interactive, etc. Genre -nonfiction/informational; fairy tales, narratives (stories), predictable text, concept books, poetry, nursery rhymes, wordless books, etc. Bennett-Armistead, VS., Duke, N.K., & Moses, A.M. Literacy and the Youngest Learner: Best Practices for Educators of Children from Birth to 5, Scholastic, New York, NY, 2005 Types of Texts Balance: Literature & Informational Text Literature Informational Text Grade 4 50% 50% Grade 8 45% 55% Grade 12 30% 70% http://www.corestandards.org/assets/CCSSI_ELA%20Standards.pdf CCSS for ELA, p. 5 Step 2. Select a Purpose • Consider children’s interests and developmental levels • Your goals and curriculum • Applicable early learning standards • What can I teach/reinforce by sharing this book? Shared Reading Supports Early Literacy Purposes Techniques Develop a love of reading Be positive, keep it fun! Ensure child’s success and enjoyment Oral Language Ask questions/listen to child’s responses; provide more information; expand on what the child says Vocabulary Phonological Awareness Intentionally select words to teach Plan for opportunities to learn these words and use them in conversations and routines; check for understanding (assessment) Select books with rhyming words; nursery rhymes; that blend/stretch/substitute/match sounds Embed clapping, marching, other rhythm activities Alphabet Knowledge Point out letters found in children’s names (i.e. - “my letter”) Stress letters and their corresponding sounds Concepts of Print Point to words as you read them Note punctuation and spaces between words Point out how size and other changes in text have meaning Writing Drawing; shared writing opportunities after reading AN EXAMPLE: VOCABULARY AND SHARED READING Evidence-based principles for vocabulary instruction Effective vocabulary instruction … … is explicit … requires careful selection of vocabulary targets … is intentionally designed … is delivered with repeated exposure and practice … is linked to assessment Spencer, E.J., Goldstein, H., & Kaminski, R. Teaching Vocabulary in Storybooks: Embedding Explicit Vocabulary Instruction for Young Children, Young Exceptional Children, DEC, vol. 15, No. 1, March 2012 Embedded vocabulary instruction #1 – select words to teach • Review story book • Consider “tiered” words • Choose Tier 2 words for universal instruction, based on frequency/ease of definition/ significance to story/illustrations • Can choose Tier 1 words for some children (with delays/disabilities or learning English) (Spencer, Goldstein, & Kaminski, 2012) Embedded vocabulary instruction #2 Design explicit instructional activities • Generate list of new words • Develop consistent language to use in instructional process: =>Say the word =>Define the word / connect the new word to a word the child already knows (i.e. - “Enormous – it means really big. Say ‘enormous’ with me.”) =>Have children repeat the word; respond to prompt, “what does ____ mean?” Call attention to new words =>Point to the picture in the book that illustrates the word (if available) • Embed use of word(s) in child’s daily experiences • Share words with families (Spencer, Goldstein, & Kaminski, 2012) Summary: Shared Reading Vocabulary Support • Prior to reading, review the book • Consider words that would be ‘next step’ vocabulary; useful in conversation • Generate list of new words • Call attention to new words; say the word • Tell what the word means • Point to the picture in the book that illustrates the word (if available) • Connect the new word to a word the child already knows (i.e. - “Enormous – it means really big. Say ‘enormous’ with me.”) • Use the new word in conversation during the day; encourage children to use it, too AN EXAMPLE: VOCABULARY AND SHARED READING Activity time! Shared Reading Supports Early Literacy Purposes Techniques Develop a love of reading Be positive, keep it fun! Ensure child’s success and enjoyment Oral Language Ask questions/listen to child’s responses; provide more information; expand on what the child says Vocabulary Phonological Awareness Intentionally select words to teach Plan for opportunities to learn these words and use them in conversations and routines; check for understanding (assessment) Select books with rhyming words; nursery rhymes; that blend/stretch/substitute/match sounds Embed clapping, marching, other rhythm activities Alphabet Knowledge Point out letters found in children’s names (i.e. - “my letter”) Stress letters and their corresponding sounds Concepts of Print Point to words as you read them Note punctuation and spaces between words Point out how size and other changes in text have meaning Writing Drawing; shared writing opportunities after reading Thoughts on Shared Reading Sometimes it’s OKAY to JUST ENJOY a good book! • Don’t over teach. Keep it fun! • Good to re-read the same book multiple times • Can focus on different purposes during different readings Dialogic Reading • A form of shared reading where the adult and child switch roles so the child becomes the storyteller while the adult assists as an active listener • Requires multiple readings of the same book • Adult uses higher-level prompts to encourage the child to go beyond naming objects/actions to higher level thinking • http://community.fpg.unc.edu/connectmodules/resources/videos/video-6-2 (Dr. Lonigan) PEER: the dialogic process REPEAT the question to check for comprehension or to see if the child has more to add (“What kind of animal is this story about?”) PROMPT the child with a question about the story (“What kind of animal is this story about?”) EVALUATE & EXPAND on the child’s response to your question (“Yes, it is a dog. He is a very big, red dog.”) CROWD questions/prompts C • Completion questions – child says a word or phrase to complete the sentence R O • Recall questions – tells the reader about the child’s comprehension of the story • Open-ended questions – can’t be answered with one word or yes/no; requires more words W • Wh questions who/what/where/when/why D • Distancing questions - guide the child to see connections between the story and their own experiences PEER & CROWD together Dialogic Reading Preparing for dialogic reading using sticky notes: • http://community.fpg.unc.edu/connectmodules/resources/videos/video-6-5 Reading Carrot Soup: • http://community.fpg.unc.edu/connectmodules/resources/videos/video-6-8 Another example: • http://community.fpg.unc.edu/connectmodules/resources/videos/video-6-10 More Dialogic Reading! • OVERVIEW OF DIALOGIC READING PRACTICES • Introducing the book- Carrot Soup • Reading the book- Carrot Soup Activity time! Review/Additional Tips • Prepare your prompts before reading the book to the children • Share the story more than one time; focus on a different aspect of literacy with each reading • “What do I want children to learn from this book experience?” Rhyming? Oral language? New vocabulary? Letter awareness? • Make the book available for children to ‘pretend read’ throughout the day • Intentional questions can provide assessment information or be used as a transition activity Final Thoughts – Grouping for read alouds • Evidence mixed on group size • Large groups of children - less opportunity to engage but more models for language and vocabulary • Small groups of 2-3 children – more opportunity to engage; less role models for literacy behaviors • Offer both formats depending on your purpose Source: Shanahan, T. & Lonigan, C. Early Childhood Literacy: The National Early Literacy Panel and Beyond. Brookes Publishing, Baltimore, MD, 2013 Double Focus! Highly effective teachers and caregivers… provide daily, intentional language and early literacy learning opportunities for the children they serve, and … engage families in providing daily, intentional language and early literacy learning opportunities for their own children! Winton, P.J., McCollum, J.A., & Catlett, C. Practical Approaches to Early Childhood Professional Development: Evidence, Strategies, & Resources. Zero to Three, Washington, DC., 2008 Wrap-up • Share a new concept or specific strategy you learned that you will use. • What questions do you still have about teaching early literacy?