Lecture 5

Report
Lecture 5
Oral Presentations
CSCI – 3350 Software Engineering II
Fall 2014
Bill Pine
Lecture Overview
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Introduction
General Guidelines
Keys to an Effective Presentation
Tips
Presentation Design Considerations
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Introduction
• For many people, public speaking ranks high on a list of fears
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A visit to the dentist
Being pulled over by a police officer
An IRS audit
Dying
• The ability to communicate effectively is rarely inherited
• This lecture will attempt to provide you with
– A sense of the importance of making a good oral presentations
– A methodology to approach any presentation
– Tips for reducing your apprehension
• Our concentration will be on formal presentations
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Formal Presentations
• When you are asked to appear before one or
more people for the purpose of
– Educating
– Persuading / selling
– Entertaining
you are involved in a formal presentation
• Most presentations will be a mixture of
these purposes
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Basic Elements of a Presentation
• A presentation consists of the following
elements
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A subject
A presenter (you)
An audience
Presentation tools
• An effective presentation is one that gives
due consideration to all of these elements
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General Guidelines
• What is the purpose or goal of any presentation?
– Communications
• People have different learning styles, people are best able
learn by
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Hearing
Reading
Visual images
Doing
• The effectiveness of each of these methods varies from
individual to individual
• Many people learn most effectively by a combination
• In any case, if you want to reach as many people in your
audience as possible, you must …
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General Guidelines (cont.)
• Presentation aids are audio or visual elements that
help your audience
– See relationship between concepts and elements
– Remember the material
– Examine critically key ideas
• By the effective integration of presentation aids,
you can
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Inform
Entertain
Excite
Shock
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General Guidelines (cont.)
• However, the inappropriate use of
presentation aids can also
– Distract
– Annoy
– Alienate
• Research has shown that, in general
– We remember only 10% of what we hear
– But over 50% of what we see and hear
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General Guidelines (cont.)
• Presentation aids work by allowing the
audience to engage the right side of their
brain
– Right side = creative side
• Visualization
• Music
• Drawing
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General Guidelines (cont.)
• In summary, recall the old saw
– I hear and I forget
– I see and I remember
– I do and I understand
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Keys to an Effective Presentation
1. Know your subject matter
2. Know your audience
3. Develop a theme
4. Prepare a script
5. Select appropriate presentation aids
6. Prepare a storyboard
7. Produce the aids
8. Rehearse
9. Make the presentation
10. Follow up
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Know Your Subject
• Research your subject
– You don’t want waste your audience’s time
– It will boost your confidence
– This confidence will be obvious to the audience
and they will be more attentive
– One of the reasons for presentation anxiety is a
fear that you will be asked a question that you
cannot answer
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Know Your Subject (cont)
• Know your subject consists of the following
steps
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Obtain several references sources
Study the sources
Synthesize the ideas
Compare and contrast the information
Form your opinions
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Know your Audience
• Given a basic topic
– Your approach will be different
– The amount of detail in the script
– The visual aids will be much different
depending upon your audience
• An inappropriate level of content is deadly
– Too high a level is as bad as too low
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Know your Audience (cont)
• Suppose you are giving a 12 minute talk on
networking
– How is your presentation different for the
following audiences?
• A Boy Scout Troop
• The Tri-Cities Computer Club
• A prospective client for your consulting business
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Develop a Theme
• Every effective presentation is designed
toward a main purpose
– Clearly state that purpose - thesis
– Commit it to writing
• Single sheet of paper
• Large font
• Place on a bulletin board or wall facing your
working area
• Eye level when seated
– I try keep that area on my bulletin board open
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Develop a Theme (cont.)
• To arrive at the thesis, you may need (will
most likely need) to iterate to refine the
theme
• The purpose of the theme is to help you
“stay on track”
• In the words of Mister Miyagi,
– “Focus Daniel-san!”
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Prepare the Script
• Many “authorities” will say that the script does not have to
be a polished work
• I disagree
• The purpose of the script is to provide a means for you to
converge on a good presentation
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To find the right organization
To polish the language to ensure precise communications
To ensure smooth effective transitions between topics
To achieve the correct length
To record “good ideas” to prevent their loss
To provide a source for your presentation aids
To provide a place to anchor the presentation aids
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Prepare the Script (cont.)
• Sloppy work reflects and promotes sloppy thinking
• Your completed script should be in a form that reads well
to an uninvolved observer
• It can be written in bulleted form,
• It does not have to have complete sentences; concise
phrases okay; more detail than will appear in visual aids
• Your script should consist of
– An introduction
– The body
– Summary / Conclusion
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The Introduction
• “Tell ‘em what you’re gonna to tell ‘em”
• Write this last
• A very brief, concise preview of your talk,
possibly with an outline of the main points, and
the main conclusion
• A “hook” to capture the interest of the audience
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The Body
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“Tell ‘em”
Write this first
The “guts” of your presentation
Begin with an outline to provide structure
Depending upon the length, may need to prepare a
series of mini-presentations,
– Each with its own introduction, body and summary
• Clearly identify any assumptions
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Summary / Conclusion
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“Tell ‘em what you told ‘em”
Write this second
Should be concise (simple and brief)
Emphasize the main points and clearly state how
they lead to a conclusion and/or point to future work
• Identify any limitations or constraints
• Provide an opportunity for questions after your
summary
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Closing
• Can’t write this in the script
• Purpose is to provide a summary of questions
raised during the question and answer period
• How the question enforces your presentation
• Or shows the need for further work
• Provide handouts as appropriate
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Script Production
• You should now be prepared to
– Plan the script
– Write the script
• Try to achieve a flow,
• Don’t worry about style,
• Just get your ideas down
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Script Production (cont.)
– Perform 1 review pass for obvious problems
– Let it set for a minimum of 24 hours, then
review the script for
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Adherence to the theme
Good organization
Smooth transitions
Is your conclusion justified by the script
Appropriate length
– This is time consuming
• Cannot be accomplished within a single session
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Presentation Aids
• Short informal talk to a small audience
– Less than 5 minutes
– Flip chart
– Use simple handouts
• Intermediate length talks to larger groups
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5 to 20 minutes
Overhead transparencies
PowerPoint Presentation
Refined handouts
• Longer talks or training sessions
– PowerPoint Presentation
– 35 mm slides sometimes required for formal technical
presentations
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Prepare a Storyboard
• A storyboard is a graphic, sequential depiction of
your presentation
• The idea is to transform your script into a visual
form
• Create “guide slides” that will serve to guide you
during the presentation
– Should contain just main points and conclusion
• Decide at which point in your script your message
will be strengthened by a enhancement
– Image, Chart, Video, Audio clip
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Adding Enhancements
• Provide a “sketch” of the enhancement on
an 8½ X 11 sheet of paper
• Place the sketches in order on storyboard
• Do a rehearsal of your presentation to insure
that the enhancement really enhances your
presentation
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Produce the Visuals
• Create the finished versions of your
enhancements
• Details depend upon the media you have
chosen
• If outsourcing the production, be sure to
allow ample time for at least 1 iteration of
modifications
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Rehearse
• Give a full presentation using the script
– Either to blank wall or a sympathetic audience
– Identify any “rough” spots
• Repeat a few times
• Put away the script
• Give one or two more “dry runs” to ensure
that your “guide slides” keep you on track
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Make the Presentation
• Have a backup for your presentation aids
– Spare bulb for projector
– Transparencies
– Copies of any handouts
• Arrive early
• Check out the room
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Size
Is there a podium?
Is there a lectern?
Layout
Location and operation of any presenter controls
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Make the Presentation (cont.)
• Use humor judiciously
• Relax
• Don’t rush
– Pause at topic shifts in your talk
• Make sure that all questions are answered
– If you don’t know the answer
• Don’t try to fake it
• Refer the question to a colleague
• Say you don’t know the answer, get the questioner’s name and
contact information
• Deliver the answer to the questioner
• Have a good time
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Follow Up
• Check with the organizers and participants
to assure that your goals were met
– Can use an informal questionnaire as part of the
handouts
– Encourage follow up questions be sent to you
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Miscellaneous Tips
• Begin by introducing yourself
– The first slide of your presentation aids (title
slide) should have
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The title of your presentation
The names of all presenters
The date
Your organization
Team members
– The title slide should be displayed as you are
introduced (or introduce yourself)
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Miscellaneous Tips (cont.)
• Use no more than 3 slides per minute of
presentation, 2 is probably better
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Stand with screen to your right (right-handed)
Avoid turning your back to the audience
Maintain eye-contact with the audience
Don’t fidget
– Twirl the pointer
– Bounce around
– Shuffle notes if you must use notes
• Speak slowly and clearly
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Miscellaneous Tips (cont.)
• Never read a technical presentation
– Speak extemporaneously
– Add interest by using anecdotes and personal examples
to expand or clarify your point
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Designing The Presentation Aids
• Presentation aids should supplement your message, not
detract from the message
• Types of presentation aids
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Pictures
Diagrams
Maps
Graphs
• Line graphs – one quantity is a function of another
• Bar graphs – compare the magnitudes of several quantities
• Pie graph – show the relationship of parts to the whole
– Flow diagram – show the step by step progression of a process
– Tables – Systematic grouping of data by rows
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Designing (cont.)
• Keep the presentation aids simple, neat and
uncluttered
• Concentrate on 1 main idea, as indicated in the
slide title
• Usually fewer than 45 words per slide
– 6 - 8 words per line
– 5 - 7 lines per slide
• Do not overuse special effects
– Slide transition effects
– Animation
– Sound effect
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Designing (cont.)
• Rule of three
– A single slide should contain at most 3 elements
• Title
• Body Text
• Graphic
• A slide should have lots of ‘white space”
• Text should not extend from one side to the other
– Keep generous margins
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Designing (cont.)
• 8H Rule
– If an aid is visible when viewed from a distance
of 8 times its height, the aid will probably be
easily visible when projected
– Heuristic for 8 ½ X 11 transparency
• Should be easily readable when placed on the floor,
with the viewer standing
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Designing (cont.)
• Have a consistent general slide layout
– Titles should be in the same location
– Consistent font type and size
– If you must use a transition effect, use the same
one throughout
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Designing (cont.)
• Colors
– Limit the number of colors you use
– Limit to three colors per slide
• Color psychology
– Color interpretation is culture dependent
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Color Connotation
• Western civilization has the following color
connotations
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Red = alert, passion, life
Orange = optimism, wisdom, warmth
White = hopeful, truth, new
Black = importance, gravity
Green = growth, progress
Purple = regal, spirituality, nostalgia
Gray = integrity, maturity
Blue = trust, stability
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Designing (cont.)
• Carefully proofread your slides
– Eliminate errors and design flaws
• Use spell checker, but don’t rely on it
– Ruthless eliminate words – strive for vital
concise statements
– Be consistent in capitalization and punctuation
• Don’t use periods on bulleted lines
– Typos and error destroy your credibility as an
authority on any subject
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Designing (cont.)
• Write slide titles in the style of newspaper
headlines
• Fonts
– When projected, san-serif fonts (Arial) are easier to
read than serif fonts (Times Roman)
– Do not use font sizes smaller than 18 pt
• Possible exception text on figures
• Be consistent in font effects
– Use bold, italics and underlines judiciously only for
carefully chosen emphasis
• Avoid “goofy” fonts
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Final Thoughts
• You are the message
– Maintain a true smile
– Use gestures as appropriate, but don’t fidget
– Relax
• If you want to discourage questions,
– Pause, slowly scan the audience, cross your
arms over your chest, then ask if there are
questions
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