Food for Thought: Algae as Fuel

Report
Part 1
Lisa Sanzenbacher
Illinois Institute
of Technology
[email protected]
Please look at the notes sections in the presentation in “Normal View” if
there are technical difficulties with the audio.
Outline
•
Interest in Algae
•
Converting Sunlight to Chemical Energy
•
•
Resulting impacts of manufacturing algal fuel
Comparing the impacts to other fuel sources
•
Using Algae to Help Coal
•
Algae as a Transportation Fuel
•
Legal Considerations
•
Part 2…
Interest in Algae
For over 50 years, algae was known to be a renewable
source of energy
Reliance on
Fossil Energy for
Transportation
Fuel
•
95% of the united State’s transportation fuel comes from petroleum
•
United States relies on foreign oil: imports 3 billion gallons per year
Fuel from algae first
discovered in the 1950’s
First oil shock facilitated
Aquatic Species Program
Department of Energy
funded ASP in 1970’s
and 1980’s
Funding died in 1990’s
because of cheap
price of petroleum
Climate change and energy
security Issues revitalized
algal research
EPA notes:
Transportation sector
2nd largest contributor
to GHG emissions
Energy
Independence
and Security
Act of 2007
•
Renewable Portfolio Standards mandate an
increase in non-corn based fuels
•
Algae to provide “biomass based diesel” “other
advanced fuels”
•
“21 billion gallons by 2022”
Research is booming
Harnessing the
Sun’s Energy
Moving away form petroleum allows us to use
a renewable source of energy, but it comes
with it’s price
•
•
•
what is
algae?
•
Multi-cellular plant
Cholorphyll
Occurs naturally in lake and streams
with high amounts phosphorus and
nitrogen
2nd Generation Renewable Biofuel characterized by
•
•
•
•
Higher solar energy yield
Year-round cultivation
Ability to utilize gray waters and non-arable lands
Produces biodegradable biofuels
•
converting
sunlight
into a fuel
Growth
•
•
•
Photobioreactor


Open ponds
Photosynthesis
Nutrient Restriction
Less nutrient  less
growth, more lipids

De-water
•
10%solar energy
conversion efficiency

Extraction
•
Carbohydrate, Oxygen

Transesterification
Algal Impacts
•
Life Cycle Impact Assessment reveals high energy
requirements for biodiesel production
• Electricity for pumping, sparging, dewatering
• Natural Gas for heating
Energy, Economic & Environmental
Comparison
Energy Output, Price & GHG
Contribution
Net Energy
Ratio*
Diesel
Soybean
Algae
0.19
1.64
0.93
“strain to
pump”
GHG#
17
Price per
gallon
$3.19
-71
$4.20
* MJ consumed/MJ produced
# gCO2e/MJ
-75
$2.50$25
Fuel Combustion Emissions
Diesel
Soybean
Algae
mpg
1
0.93
0.93
CO
1
0.57
0.57
PAH
1
0.20
0.20
pm
1
0.45
0.45
SO2
1
0
0
NOx
1
1.13
1.13
* B100 blend
Energy & Environmental
Comparison
Environmental Impacts of Making Fuels
1
Soybean
Algae
Requirements:
Diesel
Algae
0.5
Sunlight
CO2
Water
(some) land
Nutrients like
Nitrogen
0
&
Phosphorus
Using Algae to Help
Coal
One industry’s trash is another industry’s treasure
From Waste to Resource
Algal Requirements
Coal Plant Waste
 Ash & Slag

CO2

Land

CO2

Water

Nutrients


Waste Water/
effluent
Sunlight

Sulfur

NOx
•
If algae promises to be the next source of transportation fuel
•
Requires a lot of clean CO2- more than what atmosphere can provide
• 40 billion gallons algae fuel requires CO2 from 32% of all US coal
power plant
IGCC as Source of CO2
•
•
•
•
GE's IGCC with CO2 capture process
© The General Electric Company. This material may not be copied or distributed
in whole or in part, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner
•
•
Integrated Gas Combined Cycle
gasifies coal to H2 and CO
(“syngas”)
Removes impurities like sulfur
• Ability to use Illinois
bituminous coal
H2 and CO fires first gas turbine
to produce electricity
Exhaust heat fires second
steam turbine generator to
produce electricity again
CO combusted with controlled
O2 to produce CO2
CO2 can be sequestered
IGCC as Source of Additional
Algal Inputs
Eni Project, Monterotondo, Italy
•
Future Gen’s IGCC Plant
• 1 – 2.5 MMT CO2
•
50,000 – 120,000 gallons
biodiesel annual
•
Sequestered carbon directed to
nearby algae plant
•
Convert NOx into ammonia, a
fertilizer for algae
•
React CO with H2 to create
methanol
• CO + 2H2  CH3-OH
• Methanol is a necessary and
expensive reactant to create
biodiesel
Algae as a Source of
Biomass
•
Algae can make
• 30% oil
• 70% dry biomass
•
Midwest Generation Biomass
Cofiring Test with 10%
biomass blending
• Lower fuel costs
• 3.5 – 5% SO2 reduction
• No reduction in pm, NOx
Siting Algae Plant adjacent to
IGCC Plant
•
•
•
Siting Algae plant near
existing IGCC plants
Legal Benefits
•
No extensive energy to
pump thousands of feet
underground
•
Potential SDWA issues
averted, possibly CERCLA?
Economic benefits
•
$400,000 per MW to
sequester Carbon
•
Typical 500MW plant 
$200 million
Global Energy Wabash River LP ASU and Steam Injection
•
Algae + IGCC still not a “cure all”
• Mining coal causes Acid Mine
Drainage
Algae as a
Transportation Fuel
Biodiesel
+
Hybrid
Vehicles
Increased Fuel Efficnci es of Varous Fuels Full Hybrid, Biodiesel (60 mpg) Full Hybrid, Gasoline (50 mpg) Petro Diesel (30 mpg) B100 Biodiesel (27 mpg) 150% 113% 122% 89% 25% 13% over gasoline 11% over biodiesel 100% 70% 18% e
over petro‐diesel over gasoline hybrid •
Algae + Hybrid
Vehicles still not a
“cure all”
•
NOx emissions
contribute to
upper respiratory
tract infections
First Car to run on algae
biodiesel
2005
Algaeus
2009
Peugeot 3008 HYbrid 4
Spring 2011
Legal Implications
Considerations for Algae Biodiesel
Regulatory Questions
Helping the Electricity Generation Sector

CAA

NSR?
Helping the Transportation Sector

CAFE standards

EPA + NHTSA joint ruling


SDWA

CWA

§202 CAA

CERCLA

RPS
34.1 mpg
Conclusions
Algae is a good start…
“algal biodiesel
will almost
completely replace
conventional
biodiesel”
Conclusions
But algae is not the answer
But…
“analytical results
show that
algal biodiesel will
not be the major
energy source
in 2040”

similar documents