Presentation - International Conference on Technology

Report
International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
Viable Charring Technology to Meet the Industrial
Demand of Brick Kilns
Presented By: Sushim Man Amatya
Venue: Technology and Innovation Management Conference
Date: Oct 12, 2012
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
Overview of Brick Industries
• 436 brick kilns registered with total production capacity of
872 million, Census of manufacturing establishments, Nepal
2006-2007
• About 700 brick kilns in Nepal (Source: All Nepal Brick Kiln
Entrepreneurs Association, 2011)
• Estimated total annual production capacity of about 1,423
million bricks
• Coal is the major fuel .
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
Brick Kiln Technology Composition
S. No.
1
2
3
4
Type of Kiln
Clamp
MCBTK
FCBTK
VSBK
No. of Kilns
42
399
233
26
%
6.0
57.0
33.0
4.0
Remarks
Kiln composition
Clamp
6%
FCBTK
33%
VSBK
4%
MCBTK
57%
International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
Major Brick Kiln Technologies
Clamp
Moving Chimney BTK (MCBTK)
Fixed Chimney BTK (FCBTK)
VSBK
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
Case of Brick Industries in
Kathmandu Valley
• 80,000 tones of coal is consumed annually
by 120 brick kilns within Kathmandu
valley out of 700 in Nepal.
• 1.12 billion Rupees are spent in India. Yet
the quality and supply of coal is
unreliable.
• Emission of 200,000 tones CO2 annually by
brick kilns in the valley. (1kg. Coal = 2.465
kg. CO2 )
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
Kathmandu Valley & FCBTKs
Total No of Kilns:
108
Source: 103 FCBTKs - All Nepal Brick Kiln Entrepreneurs Association, 2011. 3 VSBK units and 2 Hoffman Kilns.
No of FCBTKs:
Average brick production per year:
103
720 million
Average brick production per kiln is estimated to be 7 million per kiln
Annual coal consumption in FCBTKs(Tons): 68,500
Average coal consumption per brick in FCBTK in Kathmandu Valley is estimated to be 95gm per brick
Annual expenditure in coal (NRs):
1.23 billion
Price of coal – Nrs 21,000 per ton, March 2012, Brick Entrepreneurs
Annual CO2 emission (Tons):
169,000
2.465 Kg of CO2 is emitted per Kg of coal fired, Project Design Document for VSBK
Annual emission of dust particles (Tons):
1800
2.51 Kg of SPM per 1000 fired bricks in FCBTKs, Stack and Energy Monitoring of Brick Kilns in Kathmandu Valley, IEM
2005
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
Energy
• Coal is major fuel used in the brick production.
• Other non coal fuel such as agricultural residue, firewood,
rice husk, saw dust etc
• Coal consumption per lakh bricks in the FCBTK is 15.45
tons and MCBTK 14.18 tons (CEN Baseline report, 2009).
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
Energy
Dependency on imported coal
• In 2008/09, Nepal imported about 293,000 tons of coal
from India. KTM alone consumed about 40% of imported
coal. It is mainly used in the industrial sector mainly in the
brick kilns and cement factory
• Rising coal price is 200%
increment in 6 years without
considering inflation,
(NRs 7.3 in 2006 and NRS 22 in 2012 per
kg of coal ).
Price in NRs
Annual increment in coal price
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Year
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
In-depth into the issues
Environmental issues
Prime source of air pollution
2nd largest air polluter in the
valley
2.5kg dust emission per 1000
fired bricks (Average dry wt of bricks
Serious occupational health
hazards
Emission of RPM-PM higher
than prescribed limit, in some
cases 7 times more than limit
= 2.2 Kg)
1,600 die of air pollution every year in Kathmandu Valley, People’s Daily Online, Feb 2008
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
Energy consumption in Brick
Specific Energy Consumption
3
MJ/Kg of fired brick
3
2.5
2
1.25
1.5
1.16
0.83
1
0.5
0
MCBTK
FCBTK
VSBK
Clamp
Kiln Type
Rice husk
4%
Agriculture
residue
1%
Sawdust
7%
Non coal fuel consumption
Others
21%
Firewood
67%
Source: Baseline Study of Brick Kilns in Nepal, Minergy,
International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
In-depth into the issues
Climate change issues
One of the prime source of CO2 and Black Carbon emission
Burning a Kg of coal emits about 2.5 Kg CO2 – major GHG
Brick kilns have also been identified as one of the prime cause for
BC emission – primary cause of melting Himalayan glaciers
(ICCT 2009)
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
More than 15300 CFUGs, 40% of total
households of Nepal, own and manage
community forests in 1,22,000 hectare
of land.
The potentials of economic return
from the community forests are
under-utilized mainly due to lack of
knowledge, efficient technology and
market linkage for forest-based
products.
The current demand for char is low and
the income generated does not even cover
the minimum wage or opportunity cost.
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
Our experiences with internal
fuel in VSBK
Environmental performance
Emission of Suspended Particulate Matters
(SPM)
Emission of Sulphur-Di-Oxide (SO2)
1.45
350
300
1.4
1.4
258.28
250
200
162.85
150
mg/Nm3
SPM (mg/Nm3)
400
1.35
1.3
1.25
1.25
100
1.2
50
1.15
0
External Fuel
Internal Fuel
External Fuel
Internal Fuel
37 % less
18% less
The results are based on the applied research carried out in a VSBK plant The research was
carried out by firing 75,000 bricks with three different fuel composition in a VSBK shaft. Results
are derived by scientific monitoring of stack emission and energy performance.
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
Our experience with internal
fuel in VSBK
Energy performance & brick quality
Specific Energy Consumption (SEC)
Compressive Strength
0.78
0.76
0.74
0.72
0.7
0.68
0.66
0.64
0.62
0.6
0.58
0.76
200
Kg/cm2
MJ/Kg ofr fired brick
250
0.64
228
185
150
100
50
0
External Fuel
Internal Fuel
16% less energy consumption
External Fuel
Internal Fuel
22% improvement in strength
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
Potentials
10% improvement in energy efficiency can result into
• Reduction of 6900 tons of coal
• Annual saving of NRs 125 million in coal cost
• Reduction of 17000 tons of CO2
20% improvement in environmental performance can
result into
• Reduction of 275 tons of mass emission load
• Improvements in occupational health and safety status
• Reduction in black carbon emission
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
Potentials/Scope
Kathmandu Valley & FCBTKs
15% savings
25% savings
Annual coal consumption in FCBTK 68,500
(Tons)
10,274 tons
reductions
17,124 tons
reduction
Annual expenditure in coal (NRs)
1.23 billion
185 million
saving
308 million
saving
Annual CO2 emission (Tons)
169,000
25,326 tons
saving
42,210 tons
saving
Annual emission of dust particles
(Tons)
1800
271 tons
452 tons
Annual average brick production
720 million
• Improvements in occupational health and safety status
• Reduction in black carbon emission
• Viable for small-scale CDM
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
Missing Links
According to action research
conducted , biomass based
carbonized fuel (char)
generated from non timber
woody plants and forest waste
can be used for brick firing
instead of coal in brick
industries
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
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Field & laboratory International
works
Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
Summary of CV tests
Average Top layer
CV (Pit System)
Average Middle
layer CV (Pit
System)
Average Bottom
layer CV (Pit
System)
Average Random
CV
kcal/kg
4096.665
17.12406
MJ/kg
26.4697
MJ/kg
23.06667
MJ/kg
22.79546
MJ/kg
kcal/kg
6332.464
kcal/kg
5518.343
5453.458
kcal/kg
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
Green Brick Making with
Internal Fuel
Collection of Char and CV test (Coal and Char)
(About 5 tons of char has been collected)
Baseline study to calculate the Specific Energy Consumption (SEC)
SEC = 0.48 MJ/ kg of fired brick
Calculation of char quantity in terms of energy value
40% coal substitution = 0.011 kg/brick
50% coal substitution = 0.014 kg/brick
60% coal substitution = 0.017 kg/brick
70% coal substitution = 0.020 kg/brick
Green brick making with internal fuel as
• Char mixing
• Soil ageing
• Green Brick Making (on process)`
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
Charring Retorts: Portable Type
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
Fixed Type Charring Retort
Fig: Schematics of the fixed type charring retort
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
Construction Phase of the Retort
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
Other Potentials
• Establishment of market links for industrial
demand
• Efficiency of char production technology
increased by at least 20%
• Increment of income from the increased efficiency
is at least 40%
• Improved occupational health safety for char
producers
• Increased income opportunity for disadvantaged
members of CFUGs
• Potentials using char in other SMEs
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International Conference on TIM, 2012, Nepal
Thank You!!
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