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Report
Using the SIB-R to Assess Housing and
Independent Living Skills Outcomes for
Postsecondary Students
with Intellectual Disabilities
November 2013
Jugnu Agrawal, Ph.D.
Catherine Creighton Thompson, Ph.D. Candidate
David A. Lojkovic, Ph.D. Candidate
Michael Frye, Ph.D. Candidate
Heidi J. Graff, Ph.D.
Definition
Four-year transition
and post secondary,
non-degreed program,
educating students
with Intellectual and
developmental
disabilities
and
Supportive apprenticeship
for students who are
majoring in human service
studies which provides
practical experience
learning from, and working
with, individuals with
disabilities
Components
Academic
Residential
Employment
Exploration
Research
Program Organization
George Mason University
College of Education and Human Development
Kellar Institute for Human disAbilities
Mason LIFE Program
Director
Research Program
Academic
Program
Exploration
Program
Academic
Coordinator
University
Coordinator
Residential
Program
Employment
Program
Residential
Coordinator
Employment
Coordinator
Office Manager
Support Staff = 42
Students (N = 42),




First Years-15
Second Years-9
Third Years- 11
Fourth Years-7
2012-2013
The residential
component
continues to build
upon the
foundation
fostered in the
independent living
and community
access classes
taught in the
academic program.
Residential Housing, 2012-2013
 Number of units: 7
 On campus and off
campus townhouses
 Number of students: 23
 Support Staff:7
Overnight and 13 Day
Characteristics
 “Impairments in adaptive functioning such as
communication and social skills are prevalent across the
population of ASD and ID.”
-Matson, Rivet, Fodstad, Dempsey, & Boisjoli (2009)
 "intellectual disability (ID) is a disability characterized by
significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and
in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social
and practical skills.”
-AAIDD (2010)
 Individuals with ID and DD exhibit deficits across multiple
domains.
-Belva & Matson (2013)
Daily Living Skills
 “The improvement in daily living skills
for individuals with ASD into the late 20s
likewise suggests that it may be possible
for daily living skills to be gained at later
points in development, even as skills in
other areas plateau.”
-Smith, Maenner, & Seltzer (2012)
 “Daily Living scores were lowest.”
-Howlin, Elison, Udwin, & Stinton
(2010)
Independent Living
 Greater levels of independence correlate to higher
levels of life satisfaction.
-Gooden-Ledbetter, Cole, Maher, &
Condeluci (2007)
 Supports maybe necessary for persons with
disabilites to live as independently as possible.
-Deguara, Jelassi, Micallef, & Callus (2012)
 “The goal of adults with ID is the same as it is with
any adult - to lead as independent and productive a
life as possible.”
-Bowman, & Plourde (2012)
Task Completion
 For adults, a greater emphasis on
activities that they can do/complete
acknowledges what they can do
versus completing tasks ‘normally.’
-Maenner, Smith, Hong, Makuch,
Greenberg, & Mailick (2012)
Employment
 Social skills and communication
deficits have negative impacts on
transition and future employment.
-Chiang, Cheung, Li, & Tsai (2013)
 Adaptive behavior skills correlate to
higher level of employment.
-Carter, Austin, & Trainor (2012)
SIB-R
 Scales of Independent
Behavior-Revised (SIB-R)
was used to assess
student independent
living skills.
 The scale includes 14
subscales and 8 behavior
questions. There are a
total of 63 subscale
questions and 8 behavior
questions.
Norming Sample of SIB-R
 2,182 individuals in 15 states and 60
communities
 Three age groups
–Early childhood (N=670)
–Childhood (N=758)
–Adolescent-Adult (N=754)
 Up to age 90
Survey Implementation
 Residential Overnight Support staff
independently complete the scale




Fall of 2011
Spring of 2012
Fall of 2012
Spring of 2013
Reliability Check
 Data input: 30% of the data were
randomly selected. Data entered in
SPSS were checked against the
original scale score sheets.
 Data analysis: 100% of the data were
independently analyzed by two of the
researchers. Their analyses were in
100% agreement.
Data Analysis
 Ordinary Least Squares (OLS)
regression analyses were run to look
at the difference between students
living on campus and commuting
students.
 OLS regression equation:
Y = ß0 + ß1X1 + ß2X2 + ß3D + ê
Results for students with data from Fall 2012 and Spring 2013 (n=38)
Scale
Mean for
Mean for Residential
Commuting Students
students
Social*
44.3
49.7
Meals*
38.9
50.1
Grooming*
46.5
50.4
Dressing*
41.1
46.0
Personal Care*
33.9
40.5
Domestic*
25.9
34.2
Time*
44.0
49.4
Money
31.5
33.0
Home
33.4
36.9
*NOTE: All means are adjusted according to OLS regression results. Scales with significant
differences (at α = .05) are indicated by (*)
Difference in Commuting and
Residential Students
Results for students over two years
Video
Conclusion
 Continue to see growth over time
 Residential students outperforming
commuter students




Social; Meals
Grooming; Dressing
Personal Care; Domestic
Time
Implications for Practice
 More progress being made for
Residential Housing students versus
commuter students
 Intensify Independent Living
 Additional section for commuter
students
Future Research
 Comparison with on and off
campus Residential Housing
 Comparison based upon gender
 Comparison based upon disability
area
References
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American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (2010).
Definition of intellectual disability. Retrieved from http://www.aaidd.org.
Belva, B., & Matson, J. (2013). An examination of specific daily living skills
deficits in adults with profound intellectual disabilities. Research In
Developmental Disabilities, 34(1), 596-604.
Bowman, S., & Plourde, L. (2012). Andragogy for teen and young adult
learners with intellectual disabilities: Learning, independence, and best
practices. Education, 132(4), 789-798.
Bruininks, R., Woodcock, R. W., Weatherman, R. F., & Hill, B. K. (1996).
Scales of Independent Behavior–Revised (SIB-R). Chicago: Riverside.
Carter, E., Austin, D., & Trainor, A. (2012). Predictors of Postschool
Employment Outcomes for Young Adults With Severe Disabilities. Journal Of
Disability Policy Studies, 23(1), 50-63.
Chiang, H., Cheung, Y., Li, H., & Tsai, L. (2013). Factors Associated with
Participation in Employment for High School Leavers with Autism. Journal Of
Autism & Developmental Disorders, 43(8), 1832-1842.
Deguara, M., Jelassi, O., Micallef, B., & Callus, A. (2012). How we like to live
when we have the chance. British Journal Of Learning Disabilities, 40(2), 123127. doi:10.1111/j.1468-3156.2012.00743.x
References, continued
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Gooden-Ledbetter, M. J., Cole, M. T., Maher, J. K., & Condeluci, A. (2007). Selfefficacy and interdependence as predictors of life satisfaction for people with
disabilities: Implications for independent living programs. Journal Of Vocational
Rehabilitation, 27(3), 153-161.
Howlin, P., Elison, S., Udwin, O., & Stinton, C. (2010). Cognitive, Linguistic and
Adaptive Functioning in Williams Syndrome: Trajectories from Early to Middle
Adulthood. Journal Of Applied Research In Intellectual Disabilities, 23(4), 322-336.
Maenner, M. J., Smith, L. E., Hong, J., Makuch, R., Greenberg, J. S., & Mailick, M.
R. (2012). Evaluation of an activities of daily living scale for adolescents and adults
with developmental disabilities. Disability and health journal.
Matson, J. L., Rivet, T. T., Fodstad, J. C., Dempsey, T., & Boisjoli, J. A. (2009).
Examination of adaptive behavior differences in adults with autism spectrum
disorders and intellectual disability. Research In Developmental Disabilities, 30(6),
1317-1325.
Smith, L.E., Maenner, M.J., & Seltzer, M. (2012). Developmental trajectories in
adolescents and adults with autism: The case of daily living skills. Journal Of The
American Academy Of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(6), 622-631.
Walton, K., & Ingersoll, B. (2013). Improving Social Skills in Adolescents and
Adults with Autism and Severe to Profound Intellectual Disability: A Review of the
Literature. Journal Of Autism & De

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